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SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL COASTS 

OF AUSTRALIA. 



• •* • • • 

• ••••• 

•• , • • • 

• • . ••• ", 

- • • 

• • • • . . 



NARRATIVE OF A SURVEY 

INTBBTROPICAL AND WESTERN 

COASTS OF AUSTRALIA. 



THE YEARS 1818 AND 1822. 



Captain PHILLIP P. KING, b.n., f.h.s., f.l.s., 



AN APPENDIX, 



IN TWO VOLUMES, 

illustrated by plates, csarts. and tfood-ccts. 
Vol. II. . ... 



LONDON: 
JOHN HURRAY, AL BBH ARL E-S TR E E T. 






LONDON: 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES, 



■ • • • • . ; 



ft 
« . * 



^ 



CONTENTS. 



VOL. IL 



CHAPTER I. 

Pap 

Sorrey upon the Mennaid:— Porchase another veaiel :— New et- 

tabliahment : — ^Departure on the fonrth voyage, accompanied 
by a meichant-ihip bound through Torrea Strait: — Discovery 
of an addition to the crew: — Paaa round Breakaea Spit/ and 
ateer up the Eaat Coaat : — ^Tranaactiona at Percy laland . — ^Enor- 
moua ating-raya r— Pine-treea aerviceable for maata : — Joined by 
a merchant brig : — Anchor under Cape Grafton, Hope lalanda, 
and Loard laland : — ^Nativea at Lizard laland : — Cape Flindera : 
— Viait the Frederick*a wreck: — Surpriaed by nativea: — Mr. 
Cunningham'a deacription of the drawinga of the nativea in a 
cavern on Clack'a bland i — ^Anchor in Margaret Bay, and under 
Caimcroaa laland : — ^Accident, and loaa of anchora : — Paaa 
through Torrea Strait, and viait Goulbum laland :— AiEair with 
the nativea : — ^The Dick parta company. • I 

CHAPTER II. 

Pasaage from Cape Van Diemen to Caieeniqg Bay :— Not finding 
water, viait Prince Regent'a River, ai^ procure it from the Caa- 
cade : — ^Farther examination of the river : — ^Amphibioua mud- 
fiah: — Anchor in Half-way Bay, and explore Mnnater Water 
and Hanover Bay in a boat: — Viait Hanover Bay, and procure 
water and flah : — Interview with nativea : — ^The aurgeon apeared : 
— Retaliate upon them, and capture their nfta and weapona : — 
Deacription of their implementa : — Port George the Fourth : — 
lalanda to the weatward : — Red laland of Captain Heywood : — 



301506 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

Strong tides : — Camden Bay : — Buccaneer's Archipelago : — Cyg- 
net Bay : — ^Dangerous situation of the brig : — High and rapid 
tides : — Cape L6v6que : — Examination of the coast to Cape La* 
louche Treville : — Renuirkable effect of mirtige : — ^Lea?e the 
coast for Mauritius : — Voyage thither : — Arrival at Port Louis : 
— Reflt : — Some account of the island. .39 

CHAPTER in. 

Departure from Port Louis: — Voyage to the South-west Coast 
of New Holland : — Anchor in King Geoige the Third's Sound : 
— Occurrences there : — Visited by the Natives : — Our inter- 
course with them: — Descriptions of their weapons and other 
implements : — Vocabulary of their language : — Meteorological 
and other observations: — Edible plants: — ^Testaceous produc- 
tions . .118 

CHAPTER IV. * 

Leave King George the Third*s Sound, and commence the survey 
of the West Coast at Rottnest Island: — Another remarkable 
effect of mtroffe: — ^Anchor under, and land upon Rottnest 
Island : — ^Break an anchor : — ^Examine the coast to the north- 
ward: — Cape» Leschenault: — ^Lancelin Island:— Jurien Bay: — 
Houtman's Abrolhos: — Moresby's Flat-topped Range: — Red 
Point: — ^Anchor in Dirk Hartog's Road, at the entrance of 
Shark's Bay: — Occurrences there: — Examination of the coast to 
the North-west Cape: — Barrow Island: — Heavy gale off the 
Montebello Isles: — Rowley's Shoals. — Cape L^vdque : — Dan- 
gerous situation of the brig among the islands of Buccaneer's 
Archipelago : — Examination and description of Cygnet Bay : — 
Lose an anchor, and leave the coast :~-Adele Island :~-Retum 
to Port Jackson. ..... 158 

CHAPTER V. 

The Bathurst sails for England :— ^Remarks upon some errors in 
the hydrograpy of the south coast of Van Diemen's Land : — King 
Geoige the Third's Sound : — Passage to the Cape of Good Hope : 
— Cross the Atlantic, and arrive at Plymouth Sound: — Obser- 
vations upon the voyages, and conclusion .281 



CONTENTS. vil 



APPENDIX. 
A. 

« Page 

Section I. — Of the winds and cunents^ and description of the 
porta, islandfl, and coast between Port Jackson and Breaksea 
Spit. ....... 848 

Sbcteon II. — ^Description of the winds and weather, and of the 
ports, islands, and coast between Breaksea Spit and Cape York. 858 

Section III. — Description of the winds and weather, and, of the 
ports and coast between Wessel's Islands and Clarence Strait. 807 

Section IV.— Of the nature of the winds and the description 
of the coast between Clarence Strait and the North-west Cape. 888 

Section V. — Of the winds and weather, and description of the 
Western Coast between the North-west Cape and Cape Leeuwin. 866 

Section VI.— Of the winds and weather upon the South Coast. 
Directions for King George the Third's Sound, and hydrogra- 
phical remarks relating to Bass' Strait. . • . 377 

.Section VII. — ^Description of the shoals and reefs in the neigh- 
bourhood of the coasts of Australia. .... 884 

Section VIlI.-»Diiections'for the passage within the reefs through 
Tones' Strait. .898 

Section IX. — ^Dip of the magnetic needle . 400 

Section X.— ^pon the geographical positions of the Axed points 
of the surrey. . 404 

B. 

Containing a list and description of the subjects of natural history 
collected during Captain King's survey of the Intertropical and 
Western Coasts of Australia. .... 408 

C. 
Geol<^ ......••.. 566 

D. 

Language of the Natives 68 1 



LIST OF PLATES, 



VOL. U. 



EntrangIb of Oystec Harbour, King George the 

Third^B Sound ^ - FrontUpiece. 

View of the Cascade in Prince Regents River - • page 46 
Weapons, ^c„ of the Natives of Hanover Bay - - - 68 
Chart of Port Cockbum at Melville Island ... - 237 

Wood Cuti. 

Natives of Hanover Bay on a Rafk ... Title Page. 
Raft ofthe Natives of Hanover Bay - - - page 69 
Weapons and implements of the Natives of King George the 
Third's Sound 138 

PiaUs at the end of the voiume, referred to in the Appendis. 

Chlamydosaums Kingii ..... Tab. A. 

Carpophagus Banksiae 

B. 



Megamerus Kingii - 

Phasma tiaratum 

Kingia Australis C. 



• • • • 

• • • 



i 



■ • • ■ • 



• •"••• . • .- . .- 



VOYAGES FOR THE SURVEY 

OF TBB 

INTERTROPICAL COASTS 

OP 

AUSTRALIA. 



CHAPTER I. 

SuavxT upon the Memuudi-^Purchaae another vetgel:»New 
establifthment:— Departure on the fourth voyage, accompanied 
by a merchant-ship bound through Torres Strait: — ^Discovery 
oC an addition to the crewr-Pais round Breakaea Spit, and 
steer up the east coast : — ^Transactions at Percy Island : — Enor- 
mous sting*Tays: — Pine-trees serviceable for masts :— Jcnned by a 
merchant brig : — ^Anchor under Cape Giaffcon, Hope Isbmdsy and 
Lizard Iskind: — ^Natives at Lizard Island: — Cape Flinders: — 
Visit the Frederick's wreck : — Surprised by natives :«-Mr. Cun- 
ningham's description of the drawings of the natives in a cavern 
on Clack's Island: — ^Anchor in Margaret Bay, and under Cairn- 
cross Island: — Accident, and loss of anchors: — Pass through 
Torres Strait, and visit Goulbum Island."— Affair with the na- 
tives : — The Dick parts company* 

As soon as an opportunity offered after our ig^^^ 
arrival, tbe cutter was laid on shore upon the ji^e. 
beach of Sydney Cove, and surveyed by the 
master and the carpenter of H. M. Store-Ship 
Dromedary, which ship was preparing for her 
return to England with a cargo of New Zealand 

Vol, II. B 



• • • • « • 
• • • • . , , '.* I ! • •-» , 



^ SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1880. spars. Upon stripping the copper off the bottom, 
Dec. 6. the tide flowed into her, and proved that to the 
copper sheathing alone we were indebted for 
our safe return. The iron spikes that fastened 
her were entirely decayed, and a considerable 
repair was recommended by the surveying offi- 
cers. Upon my communicating the result of their 
report to His Excellency, Governor Macquarie, 
he agreed with me in thinking that, as her re- 
pairs would take up so much time, it would be 
better to purchase another vessel, and as a brig 
was then in the harbour, that appeared to be 
every way suited for my purpose, she was ex- 
amined by my order by Mr. Mart, the Drome- 
dary's carpenter, who reported so favourably of 
her, that, by the governor's permission, she was 
purchased and fitted for the voyage. She was 
built of teak, of one hundred and seventy tons 
burden, and had lately received a very consi- 
derable repair at Calcutta ; so that, excepting a 
few trifling defects and alterations, she was quite 
fit for sea. Her name was altered at the sug- 
gestion of Governor Macquarie to that of the 
" Bathurst" 

By this change we gained a great addition to 
our comforts ; and, besides increasing the num- 
ber of our crew, were much better off in regard 
to boats; for we now possessed a long-boat. 



r 



coAarrs of auvtbaua. 6 

laige enough to carry out and weigh an andior, 
<x save the crew if any accident should happen 
1o the vessel ; a resource which we did not pos- 
sess in the Mermaid* 

A further addition was made to our party by 
the ^poinbnent of Mr. Perceval Baskerville, 
one of the Dromedary's midshipmen ; but Mr. 
Hunter the surgeon^ who had volunteered his 
services in the Mermaid during the last voyage, 
was superseded by Mn A. Montgomery, who 
had lately arrived in charge of a convict ship. 

Our establishment now consisted of the fol* 
lowing officers and men: 



1880L 

_ __ » 

Dec S. 



lieutenaiit and Commander, 1 


FhUUp Pkrker King. 


Bwrgeojif • « • • 1 


Andrew Montgomaiy. 


MMter*. Mates, (A«imnt » 
Sarveyorii) • 3 


Frederick BedwelL 


John S. Roe. 


Midahipmanv . • • 1 


Perceval Baskerville. 


Botanical Collector, • 1 


Allan Cunningham. 


Steward, • . • 1 




Boatswain's Mate, 1 




Carpenter'i Mate, • • 1 




SiilMakar, ... 1 




Cook, .... 1 




Seamen, , ... 16 




Soys, • • • 6 




Total 32 





B9 



4 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL '. 

•1821. After experiencing many tedious and unex- 
pected delays in equipping the Bathurst, not- 
withstanding our wants were few, and the greater 
part of our repairs were effected by our own 
people, we were not completed for sea until the 

May 86. .26th of May, when we sailed from Port Jackson 
upon our fourth and last voyage to the north 
coast, accompanied by the merchant-ship Dick 
(the same vessel . in which we had originally 
embarked from England) : she was bound to Ba- 
tavia, and being ready for saiUng at the time 
of our departure, requested permission tQ accom- 
pany us through Torres Strait, which, since it 
would rather prove an assistance to us than 
cause any delay in our proceedings, . was ac- 
ceded to on my part with much satisfaction. In 
the mean time the Mermaid, our late vessel, 
had been thoroughly repaired, fresh fastened 
with copper spikes, and fitted out; and, before 
we sailed, had been sent to sea to carry the 
first establishment to Port Macquarie, on which 
service she had been wrecked. She was, how- 
ever, afterwards got off the rocks and repaired, 
and is now a very serviceable vessel in the 
colony. 

Boongaree, the native who had formerly ac- 
companied us, volunteered his services whilst 



C0AOT8 OF AUGTFRAUA. O 

the vessel was preparing for the voyage, which i<^. 
I gladly accepted; but when the day of de- May 98. 
parture drew nigh, he kept aloof; and the morn- 
ing that we sailed, his place was filled by another 
vdunteer, Bundell ; who proved not only to be 
a more active seaman, but was of much greater 
service to us, than his countryman Boongaree 
had been. This addition made our number 
thirty-three. 

Three days after we left the port, a discovery so. 
was made of another addition to the number 
of' the crew. Upon opening the hold, which 
had been locked ever since the day before we 
sailed, a young girl, not more than fourteen 
years of age, was found concealed among the 
casks, where she had secreted herself in order 
to acccmpany the boatswain to sea: upon being 
brought on deck, she was in a most pitiable 
plight, for her dress and appearance were so 
filthy, from four days' close confinement in a 
dark hold, and firom having been dreadfully sea- 
sick the whole time^ that her acquaintances, of 
which she had many on board, could scarcely 
recognise her. Upon being interrogated, she 
declared she had, unknown to all on board, con- 
cealed herself in the hold the day before the 
vessel sailed ; and that her swain knew nothing 



6 



SURVBT dF THE INTERTROPICAL 



iMi. tjf the Mlbep she had taken. As it was now in^ 
Hay 80. convenient to return to put her on shore, said 
as the man consented to share hia ration vitb 
her, she was allowed to remain ; but in a very 
short time heartily repented of her imprudence^ 
and would gladly have been re-landed, had it 
hem. possible. 
June 4. Between the 30th and the 4th of June we had 
a series of gales of wind, which enabled us to 
prove the capabilities of our new ship ; and it was 
very satis&ctory to find that she was weafherly, 
tight, and dry, thr^ very essential qualities for a 
survejfing vessel. 
& On the afternoon of the 5th we passed round 
the north end of Breaksea Spit, and crossed 
Hervey 's Bay ; in the night, when the brig ought 
to have beein many miles from the shore, we 
found ourselves unexpectedly dose to some land; 
but it was not until the day broke that we 
knew the fiill extent of the danger we had en- 
countered : the land we had seen proved to be 
the round head of Bustard Bay, which, as the 
wind was blowing directly upon it, we were 
fortunate in having room to clear. The Didc 
was apprized by us of the d&nger in time, and 
succeeded in clearing the land by tacking to the 
6. southward. At noon we were passing the small 



COASTS OP AU8TRAUA. 7 

woody iflle that was seen by Captain Flinders, issi. 
and farther on we discovered two other isles of a June $. 
similar character: they were seen from the mast- 
bead to the north-east; and a fourth was seen by 
the Didc. Afier diis we had a few days of fine 
weather, whicfa> as dysentery had already made 
its appearance amongst us, was most welcome, 
and tended materially to check the progress of 
80 alamiiiiig a complaint.. On the 8th we entered s. 
among the Northumberland Islands; but, from 
li^t northerly winds, did not reach an an- 
diorage under Percy Island, No. 2, until the 
morning of the lOth. Our situation was between lo. 
the Pine Islets and the basin, in ten fathoms* 
near a run of water, which fell from the rodca 
into the sea at about a quarter of a mile to the 
Btfthward of the sandy beach: from this stream 
we filled our casks. Water was also found in 
many other parts, but all the runs appeared to 
be of temporary duration. 

This island, like No. 1, which we visited in 
1819, appears to be principally of quartzose 
formation. The soil is sandy, and alfords but 
little nourishment to the stunted trees with which 
it is furnished. In the more barren and rocky 
parts the pine was abundant, but not growing :to 
any great size; the Dick's people cut down and lu 
embarked several logs; on ei^amination they 



8 SURVEY OF THE INTERTRQBICAL 

1^. were thought to be useless ; but, from subse- 
JmeiL quent experience, they proved to be far .from 
deserving such contempt, for during the voyage 
we made tv^o pole-top gallant-masts of it; which, 
although very full of knots, were as tough as 
any spar Z ever saw; and carried a press of 
sail longer than would be trusted on many 
masts. These trees are very abundant on the 
Cumberland and Northumberland . Islands, but 
do not attain any large size; being seldom higher 
than fifty or sixty feet, or of a greater diameter 
than from twelve to eighteen inches. 

Among a variety of birds,, several black cock« 
atoos and the pheasant cuckoo were seen. The 
beaches were frequented by gulls, terns, and 
oyster-catchers ; and an ^ret was noticed of a 
slate-coloured plumage, with a small ruff upon 
its head. 

The seine was hauled upon the beach ; but the 
only fish caught were two very large sting-rays ; 
one of which measured twelve feet across: as it 
was too unwieldy to take on board, we had no 
means of weighing it ; but the liver nearly filled 
a small pork barrel*. It is very probable that 

* Captain Cook deBcribes some fish, probably of the same species, 
found at Botany Bay, weighing each three hundred and thirty-six 
pounds (Hatokeswofih, vol. 3, p. 100) ; from which circumstance, 
as is. not generally known, the name of Sting-ray Bay was given 



ccMsrrs of auotraua. ^ 

our bad success may be attributed to the pre- igj- 
sence of these fish, for on board the Dick several June ii. 
snappers were caught with the hook and line. 

Li the evening the wind set in from S.b.E., 
with rain, and cloudy, thick weather : in striking 
the royal masts, a serious defect was discovered 
in oiu: fore-top-mast ; the upper part being found 
rotten for twelve feet below the head ; and the 
tc^gallant-mast was also found to be sprung in 
the wake of the cap ; so that we were compelled !*• 
to remain all the next day at the anchorage to 
shift them. This detention was very vexatious, 
for we were not only losing a &ir wind, but lying 
in a very exposed situation. 

During the preceding night a brig anchored 
half a mile to the southward of us : she proved 
to be the San Antonio; she left Port Jackson 
four days after us^ and was bound on a trading 
speculation to the Moluccas and Sincapore. In 
the forenoon I visited the master, Mr. Hemmans, 
and ofiered him my guidance up the coast, if he 
would wait until we had shifted our defective 

to that harbour ; it is so called in the charts of the Endeavour's 
▼oya^ in the Hydro§^phicaI Office at the Admiralty, as well as 
in Sir Joseph Banks's copy of the Endeavour's journal, and in 
Dr. Solander's MS. journal, both of which are in the possession of 
my friend Robert Brown, Esq. The name by which it is now 
known spears to have been given subsequently, on account of the 
variety and beauty of its botanical productions. 



10 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^1. masts ; but he declined it as he was anxious to> 
Jiine 19. get oa without delay ; and, having Captain Flin- 
ders's charts, intended to run '' <% and night 
through the reefs;" he told me that he had an- 
chored here with the intention of watering and 
cutting some pine spars, but that not finding 
the latter worth the trouble, he was then getting 
underweigh to proceed. When I went away, he 
accompanied me to look over my plan of the 
passage ; after which he returned to his vessel, 
which soon afterwards steered past us on her 
way to the northward. Mr. Hemmans told me 
that he bad anchored under Keppel Islands, 
where he had a friendly communication with the 
natives, who used nets, which he thought were 
of European construction ; but frcxn his descrip^ 
lion, they are similar to what have been before 
seen on the coast, and are ccmstruGted by the 
natives themselves. 

13. At eight o'dodL the next morning we got un-* 
derweigh; but the Dick in weighing her an* 
chor found both flukes broken off The next 

14. day, we rounded the north extremity of the 
Cumberland Islands; and at four o'clock a.m. 

15. the 15th, were abreast of Cape Gloucester. 

Thick cloudy weather with rain and a fresh 
breeze from the southward, variable between 
S.S.E. and S.S.W., now set iui and was un&- 



COAfiTS OF AU8TRAU A. 1 1 

TDomble for our seeing the coast as we passed u»i«' 
it : Cape Bowling Green was not seen» but the ^^^^ i^*' 
gradual decrease of soundings from eighteen to 
fiwrteen &thoms, and the subsequent increase 
of depth, indicated our having passed this low 
and dangerous projection. At daylight of the 
16th, we passed outside the Palm Islands at the i^* 
distance of five miles. 

The weather continued so thick and rainy, 
that Mount Hinchinbrooke was quite concealed 
from our view ; but a partial glimpse of the land 
enabled me to distinguish Point Hillock, and af- 
terwards to see Cape Sandwich, Goold Island, 
and the group of the Family Isles. 

In passing the largest Frankland Island, the ir. 
San Antonio was seen lying at anchor near it, 
with her fore topsail loose, firing guns : seeing 
this, we hauled to the wind, and made sail to 
beat up towards her, under the idea of her being 
in distress ; but as we approached, we observed 
^ a boat alongside, and her top-gailant yards across, 
which were proofs that she was not in such im- 
mediate danger, as to require our beating up, 
with the risk of losing some of our spars, for 
the Dick had already sprung her jib-boom ; we, 
therefore, hove the vessels to, and soon after- 
wards the San Antonio joined and passed under 
our st«m> when Mr. Hemmans informed me that 



12 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^/ the guns he had fired were intended as signals to 
June 17. his boat, and that they were not meant for us. 
He had been aground, he said, on a reef near 
the Fakn Islands, but had received no damage: 
light, however, as he pretended to make of this 
accident, it was a sufficient lesson for him, and 
we soon found he had profited by it, for instead 
of preceding us, he quietly fell into our " wake," a 
station which he never afterwards left, until all 
danger was over, and we had passed through 
Torres Strait. 

I had now determined upon taking up an an- 
chorage round Cape Grafton during the conti- 
nuance of the bad weather, and for that purpose 
steered through the strait that separates the 
cape from Fitzroy Island ; and anchored in six 
fathoms mud, at about half a mile from its 
northern extremity. 

It is a little remarkable that the day on which 
we anchored should be the anniversary of the 
discovery of the bay ; for Captain Cook anchored , 
here on the eve of Trinity Sunday, fifty-one 
years before, and named the bay between Capes 
Grafton and Tribulation, in reverence of the fol- 
lowing day. In passing between Cape Grafton 
and Fitzroy Island, eight or ten natives were 
observed seated on the rocks at the south end of 
the beach : one of them waved his spear to us 



. COASTS OP AUSTRAUA. 13 

as we passed, but the distance was too great is2i. 
to take any notice of him. Jm* *''• 

In the afternoon we landed upon the small 
island in the bay, and found it to be separated 
from the main land by a very shoal channel, 
through which our boat had some difficulty in 
passii^ ; the island is small, and formed of loose 
fragments of granite, over which the decomposed 
v^etable matter had formed a soU, which, al- 
though shallow, was sufficient to nourish some 
luxuriant grass (panicum), and a robust species 
oi eucah/ptm : among these large flights of cock- 
atoos and parroquets were hovering, but they 
were very shy, and did not allow us to approach 
them : a small dove, common to other parts of 
the coast, was killed. A native was seen walking 
along a sandy beach behind the island, but pro- 
ceeded without noticing our boat, which was at 
that time passing. 

The following day the weather was so clear is. 
that, in the early part of the morning, we dis- 
tincdy saw the summit of the land at the back of 
Cape Tribulation, bearing N. 43'' W. (mag.) ; it 
must have been fifty-five or sixty miles off; the fall 
of the land, towards the extremity of the cape was 
also seen, bearing N. 35° 50' W. fifty-six miles. 

In the afternoon I went on shore near the 



14 SURVEY OP THE I^P^ERTROPICAL 

iMi. north extremity of the Cape, to procure some 
Joiuis. bearings; after which we strolled about» and 
found a temporary stream of water falling into 
the sea. lu walking past a grove of pandanus 
trees, which grew near the water, we disturbed 
a prodigious quantity of bronze-winged butter- 
flies, reminding us, in point of number, of the 
euplwa hamata, at Cape Cleveland in 1819. It 
proved to be a variety of the castma orontcs (La- 
treille, ) of Amboyna and the other Indian Islands. 
Mr. Cunningham took advantage of the Dick's 
boat going to the bottom of the bay, to cut 
gr&ss : near their landing-place he found some 
natives' huts; some of which were of more 
substantial construction than usual^ and were 
thatched with palm leaves: inside of one he 
found a fishing rod, and a line, five or six &* 
thoms long, furnished with a hook made from a 
shell, like the hooks of the South Sea Islanders : 
he also found a small basket, made firom the leaf 
of a palm-tree, lying near the remains of their 
fire-plaoes, which were strewed with broken 
exuviae of their shell-fish repasts. 

A canoe twelve feet long, similar to the one 
described at Blomfield's Rivulet, (vol. i. p. 209,) 
was also seen ; and, like it, was not more than 
nine inches wide at the bilge. A small kan- 



COASTS OF AUarTRAUA. 15 

garoo was seen by Mr. Cunningham feeding ini. 
upon the grass, but fled the moment that it saw June i& 
him approaching. 

Nothing more was seen of the natives, nor 
woe any heard, or suspected of being near us ; 
had there been any number the party would have 
been placed in an awkward situation, for upon 
landing, they all incautiously, and very impru- 
dently, separated, to amuse themselves as they 
were indined, without regarding the situation of 
the boat, which was soon left dry by the ebbing 
tide; and it was eight o'clock at night before 
they succeeded in launching her. Immediately 
after its return, for which we had been waiting 
four hours, we got imderweigh, and were only just 
in time to save the breeze, which carried us out 
into the offing : after a short cakn, the wind gra- 
dually freshened from S.S.W., and we steered 
on under easy sail towards Cape Tribulation. 
On passing the cape two reefs were seen to sea- 19. 
ward, which had previously escaped our notice. 

In the afternoon we anchored in ten fathoms, 
at about half a mile from the north-west end of 
the reef that stretches for two miles to the north- 
ward of the south westernmost Hope Island ; 
and, as it was low water and the reef uncovered, 
we walked across it. It is formed principally 
of coral, on the surface of which we found the 



16 SURVEY' OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

\m. gray trepang ; a small chama gigasy a cyprtsa, 
June 19. a pretty azure-ooloured species of asteria; and a 
few bivalve shells. The few birds that fre- 
quented the reef were very shy, and flew away 
at our approach : they were principally pelicans 
and terns. 
^« After weighing the next morning, we steered 
N.JW., a course &rther to seaward than we 
had previously taken, in order to see the reefs 
more distinctly, and to prove tlie width and ex- 
tent of this part of the channel ; but the sun was 
shining in the direction of our course, and the 
shadows of the clouds upon the water were at 
times so deceptions that, whilst they often 
caused appearances of reefs where none existed, 
they concealed others that, for the same reason, 
were not seen until we were close to them. 
Having now the charge of two merchant-vessels, 
it was necessary to proceed with caution, and 
therefore we steered nearly over our last year's 
track, but notwithstanding, we now discovered 
several new reefs, and informed ourselves of the 
extent and shape of others which had escaped 
our previous observation. 

As we were rounding the two islands that 
lie dose to the south side of Lizard Island, a 
native was seen in a canoe, paddling towards 
another who was sitting on the rocks watching 



€0A9rS OF AUSTRAUA 17 

our movements ; and, as we hauled round the issi. 
south point of the bay » two others were observed Jane so. 
walking towards the beach ; upon seeing us they 
stopped short and retreated up the hill; but, 
afier we anchored and sent a boat on shore, 
which was accompanied by one from the Dick, 
they advanced, and without much hesitation, came 
fisrward and communicated with our party* They 
carried spears with them, and each of our gen- 
ttemen had their fowling-pieces : the appearance 
of Bundell, who on these occasions always took 
his clothes off, perhaps gave them greater con- 
fidence. After some vociferous and unintelli- 
gible parley, one of our gentlemen, in order to 
give them further cause for the surprise which 
they 'had already manifested to a great extent, 
unadvisedly fired his fowling-piece ; upon which, 
as might be expected, they became distrustful 
and fiightenedy and, fixing their spears in their 
throwing sticks, walked backwards at a quick 
pace, and withdrew altogether towards the lulls. 
Lizard Island, and the Direction Isles to the 
south-westward, are of very diflferent character 
to the other islands which front this coast, being 
high, rising to peaks, and of granitic formation. 
Captain Cook, in his description of Lizard Island, 
mentions it as being a good place to refresh at» 
on account of its supplying both wood and water ; 

Vol. II. C 



18 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

im. \}\xt, at the time we were there, the latter was 
Jimeflo. not found, although the rain had been lately 
Ming in great quantity ; with the former, how« 
ever, it is well supplied. This island, from its 
conneidon with Captain Cook's misfortmieB during 
his perilous navigation within the ree&» will al^ 
ways be an interesting feature in the history of 
the discovery and examination of this ooast^ and 
deserves a more appropriate appellation. 

SL Leaving Lizard Inland the foUowing mornings 
we directed our course for Cape Flinders, over 
our last year's track. Upon passing Port Ninian^ 
the sea was observed to break heavily upon the 
Barrier Ree&, which in this part approach nearer 
to the main land than at any oUier. As we 
doubled Cape Melville, tfaie wind, as usual, fiesh^ 
ened up to a strong breeze, and carried us rapidly 
across Bathurst Bay: to the westward of the cape 
several natives were observed walking upon the 
beach. 

In passing round Cape Flinders, there ap- 
peared to be a considerable diminution in the 
remains of the Frederick's wreck. No vestige 
was left of her stem or forecastle, both of which 
were before so very conspicuous. At half-past 
five o'dock we anchored with our companions 
near the usual place. 

22. The following morniiig, at daybreak, a party of 






coAarrs OP AuaTRAUA. 19 

men went td the Wreck to collect the spars and i^i- 
planks that had escaped the mischievous fires of <'«um St. 
the natives ; and at five o'clock I joined them with 
the master of the Dick and Mr. Roe^ ordering 
Mr. Bedwell to lelieve the shore party with some 
firesh hands at eight o'clock. When the time 
arrived^ supposing that the relief-party had nearly 
reached the shore^ I sent the people over the 
hiU, in order to be ready when the boat arrived 
to go on boaid; and in the meantime amused 
myself in wandering about the reef near the 
wreck, where Mr. Roe was also employed. Mr. 
Harrison (the master of the Dick) was at the 
further end of the beach with his fowling-piece, 
with two of his boat's crew picking up shells : — 
when suddenly they were surprised by hearing a 
kud shout, and seeing several spears strike the' 
rocks about them : upon looking round, Mr. Har- 
rison found that a party of natives were ad- 
vancing npcxi him with their spears poised ; upon 
vrbkh he presented his gun at the foremost, but, 
bom his having waded about in the water, the 
powder had got damp and would not go off. Im- 
mediately that I heard the shout of the natives, 
and saw Mr. Harrison retreating froai the In- 
dians, who were in close pursuit, I hastened to 
his assistance, and came up in time to prevent 
them firom doing any mischief; and, by occa- 

c 2 



20 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1881. sionally levelling my gun, kept them at bay 
June 28, whilst We retreated towards the wreck, from 
which we were about half a mile distant. By 
this time Mr, Roe, who had also heard the noise, 
joined; but, as he had not a gun, the only 
assistance he brought was an addition to our 
number. Among the four foremost of the na- 
tives was a mischievous boy, who, being em- 
boldened by our not firing, and shewing an 
anxiety to get away from them, fixed his spear 
and aimed it at me ; upon which I fired my gun, 
but, as it was only loaded with small shot, it 
had no efiect at the distance he was from me ; 
the noise, however, arrested their pursuit for a 
moment; and by the time they recovered their 
surprise, I had reloaded with ball, but to my 
great mortification, upon presenting the gun to 
deter the boy from throwing his spear again, it 
missed fire: the weapon, which at first was 
aimed at me, was then thrown at one of the 
Dick's men, and, piercing his hat, which he 
was carrying at his breast, fortunately, fiill of 
shells, only slightly wounded one of his fingers. 
The man, who to all appearance was danger- 
ously wounded, for the spear stuck in the hat 
and hung suspended in the air, drew it out, 
and, throwing it on the ground with the greatest 
composure, continued to retreat. The natives 



COASTS OP AUSTRAUA. 21 

then finding we were not intimidated or hurt issi. 
by the spears, began to make friendly gestures, JtmTsf. 
which we, of course, returned, but still con- 
tinued to walk away with our faces turned to- 
wards them. 

We were now only four in number, (for I had 
despatched one of the Dick's people to recal 
our boat, and to order the crew over to our 
assistance,) and being without any means, or 
shew of defence, it required much caution and 
management on our part to prevent their throw* 
ing any more spears ; f6r they were now within 
a few yards of us : their ferocity, however, began 
to diminish, as their attention was taken by our 
clothes and a silk handkerchief which Mr. Roe 
held out to them : they were about ten in num- 
ber, of whom five or six were armed with spears. 
Our only safety now was in letting them ap- 
proach, and amusing them by a display of our 
silk handkerchiefs and other parts of our dress, 
and making all the grimaces and monkey Jike 
gestures we could think of. 

Among the natives was a young woman, whom . 
they repeatedly offered to us by using the most 
significant signs ; which she also endeavoured to 
strengthen by appropriate gestures on her part ; 
but our inclinations were not consonant with the 
opportunity so pressmgly, but so suspiciously. 



22 gURV£Y OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

mi. offlsrecL After our declimng this honour, they 
JttnTal. occasionally laid their hands upon our clothes to 
detain us, but it did not require mudi force to 
make them quit their hold* One of the men 
having seized my gun, I drew it out. of his hand 
rather rou^y ; but, acoompuiied at the same 
moment with the friendly gesture of patting his 
breast^ the recovery was happily effected without 
exciting his anger. 

In this manner, and with great fatigue, we con- 
tinued our retreat across the reef, and reached 
the wreck without any signs of our people coming 
to our assistance ; when the natives found we in* 
t^ided to walk round the point, they divided, and 
^ve their spears to a party that. went over the 
hills, as it were, to cut us off; but in thid intention, 
if they entertained it, they were disappointed, for 
our boat was there, and the crew all embarked, 
ready to shove off, litde ei^)ecting ever to see us 
again. The idea of being thus easily deserted 
by our people was for a moment mortifying, but 
I ordered some of the. crew on shore, and by our 
numbers kept the natives amused on the beadi, 
while Mr. Harrison shoved off in his gig to give 
the alarm, and to order some muskets to be sent 
for our protection: by the time, however, that 
Mr. Bedwell arrived, we had succeeded in mak- 
ing Mends with the natives; who, upon per- 



COA8T8 OF AUSTRALIA. 23 

• 

^ving that we had now ia our turn the Biipe- JW- 
riority, began to draw away« and appeared to be Juv^at 
V anxious to get rid of U8 38 we had been, half an 
hour before, to escape from than ; but we aocxuxi- 
panied them half way across the reef, watching an 
oppc^rtunity to seize the boy wbo had wounded 
the Dick*8 man, whom I intended to keep a 
prisoner while we were here, and then to dismiss 
him with presents, to shew that we were not 
inimical to them,, although angry at being so 
treacherously attacked. My intention, however, . ;: 
was probably suspected^ for they avoided our 
approaching suffidendy near them to effect my 
purpose with the certainty of. success, I therefore 
called our people away to resume their work at 
the wreck, and, after leaving orders with Mr. 
Bedwell not to fire but in self-defence, and if an 
opportunity o&red, to seize the boy, went on 
board with the party to break&st. I had not, 
however, left the shore long before hostilities* 
again commenced, and several shots were mis* 
<iiievously fired at the natives by some of the 
Didc^s and San Antonio's people, who, being 
advanced, had very improperly endeavoured to 
cut off three of them, upon which one of the 
natives poised his spear with a threat of throw- 
ing it, when several muskets were fired at these 
miserable wretches, who, fortunately for them. 



24 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

18SL got dear off; although one of them by his limp- 
June «. ing appeared to have been struck in the leg. 

After this we saw nothing more of them for 
the day. Mr. Bedwell was employed with his 
party at the wreck, whilst Mr. Cunningham 
traversed the hills in the vicinity, for it was 
not safe to trust himself at any distance from 
our people, since the natives would not have 
failed, had they met with an opportunity, to 
punish us for our broken faith. 
S3. The following day, on the return of our people 
from the wreck, they reported that the natives 
had shewn themselves on the opposite side of the 
bay; I therefore went to the shore with Mr. 
Harrison, to endeavour to make peace, but saw 
no signs of them, excepting a smoke on the next 
island, to which they had probably retired. On 
the following day they were again seen, and fired 
upon by the bcfet's crew of the Dick. 

All these events gave me much concern, not 
only because the natives may be induced to attack 
and take revenge upon strangers who may sub- 
sequently pass this way, but also because they 
must have imbibed a very poor idea of the effect 
of our arms, when so many muskets were fired 
without doing them any mischief: and, but for 
the sake of humanity, I could almost have wished 
that one had been killed. . 



COASTS OF AUSTTRALIA. ^ 

The day after we arrived beie, a boat fir(»ii the }^' 
San Antonio conveyed Mr. Montgomery and Jnness. 
Mr. Cunningham to Clack's Island. The reef 
abounded with shells, of which they brought 
back a large collection, but not in any great 
variety ; an indifferent a/prasa was the most com- 
mon ; but there were also some wlutas and other 
shells, besides trepang and asterias, in abundance. 
Mr. Cumun^am observed a singularly curious 
cavern upon the rock, of which he gave me a de- 
scription in the following account of the island : — 

'* The south and south-eastern extremes of 
Clack's Island presented a steep, rocky bluff, 
thinly covered with small trees. I ascended the 
steep head, which rose to an elevation of a hun- 
dred and eighty feet above the sea. I found 
simply the plants of the main, vii.y mimusops par- 
vifolia^ Br. ; hoya idoea, Cunn. MS. ; acacia jdeC" 
iocarpa, Cunn. MS. ; ckiananthM axillaris, Br. ; 
notelaa punctata^ Br. ; some afyocia, and the small 
orange-fruited feus, which grew in the thickets, 
and, by insinuating its roots in the interstices of 
the rodcs, clothed a great portion of the inacces- 
sible front of the island. 

^' The remarkable structure of the geobgical 
feature of this islet led me to examine the south- 
east part, which was the most exposed to the wea- 
ther, and where the disposition of the strata was 



36 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

ifiji. of course more plainly developed. The base is 
innt 28. a coafse, granular^ siliceous sand-stone, in which 
large pebbles of quartz and jasper are imbedded: 
this stratum continues for sixteen to twenty feet 
^bove the water : for the next ten feet there is a 
horizontal stratum of black schistose rock, which 
was of so soft a consistence, that the weather had 
excavated several tiers of galleries ; upon the roof 
and sides of which some curious drawings were 
observed, whidi deserve to be particularly de- 
scribed: they were executed upon a ground of 
red odire, (rubbed on the black schistus), and 
were delineated by dots of a white argillaceous 
earth, whidi had been worked up into a paste. 
They represented tolerable figures of sharks, 
porpoiseS) turtles, lizards (of which I saw se- 
veral small ones among the rodcs,) trepang, star- 
fish, dubs, canoes, water-gourds, and some qua- 
drupeds, which were probably intended to repre- 
sent kangaroos and dogs. The figures, besides 
being outlined by the dots, were decorated all 
over with the same pigment in dotted transverse 
belts. Tracing a gallery round to windward, it 
brought me to a commodious cave, or recess, 
overhung by a portion of the schistus, sufficiently 
large to shelter twenty natives, whose recent 
fire-places appeared on the projecting area of 
the cave. 



COAfim OP AUSTRAUA. B7 

. ' '' Many turtles' heads were placed on Um itii. 
shelfe or niches of the excavation, amply demon* i«M ^^ 
strative of the luxurious and profuse mode of life 
these outcasts of society had, at a period rather 
recently, foUowed. The roof and sides of this 
snug retreat were also entirely covered with the 
uncouth figures I have already described. 
^ '' As this is the first specimen of Australian 
taste in the fine arts that we have detected in 
these voyages, it became me to make a parti- 
cular observation thereon : Captain Flinders had 
discovered figures on Chasm Island, in the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, formed with a burnt stick ; but 
this performance, exceeding a hundred and fifty 
figures, which must have occupied much time, 
appears at least to be one step nearer refine- 
ment than those simply executed with a piece of 
charred wood. Immediately above this schistose 
stratum is a superincumbent mass of sand-stone* 
which appeared to form the upper stratum of the 
island." {Cunningham MS) ^ 

Having procured all the spars and planks fit)m 
the wreck that could be usefiil to us, we made 
preparations to sail, and at daylight, the 25th» ^• 
got underweigh with my two companions, and 

^ Similar representations were foond bj Mr. White, carved on 
stone in the neighbourhood of Port Jack8on.~WHiT£*s Journal^ 
4to. p. I4L 



28 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

i^- resumed our course to the northward, over that 
June «5. of last year, excepting that we steered inside of 
Pelican Island, and to leeward of Island 4. We 
passed several large sting-rays asleep on the 
surface of the sea, which our people ineffectually 
endeavoured to harpoon. On the former island 
large flights of pelicans were seen, and upon the 
sand-bank, to the southward of it, there was a 
flock of two or three hundred young birds. 

The breeze not being sufficient to carry us to 
Night Island before dark, the anchor was dropped 
in eleven fathoms muddy bottom, two miles to 
the eastward of Island 8. The Dick and San 
Antonio anchored close to us. During the night 
we had a fresh breeze from S.E.b.E., and, not 
having any island or reef to shelter us from the 
swell, we were obliged to drop a second anchor 
to retain our position. The San Antonio drove 
for some distance, but the Dick rode through 
the night without driving, although she had but 
forty fathoms of cable out. 
26. On weighing the next morning, we made saU 
to the N.b.W., but, from the compass-box not 
being quite straight in the binnacle, we made 
a N.b.W. I W. course, which was not discovered 
until we had nearly paid dear for our neglect ; 
for we passed close to a rock which I intended to 
have gone at least a mile to windward of. It 



COASTS OP AUSTRALIA. 29 

was seen just in time to put the helm a-lee, or ifi«i- 
•we should have run upon it. Jtt°« ^• 

The weather was now so thick, that we could 
not see a mile around us ; we were therefore 
obliged to follow our former courses, to avoid 
the risk of running over a strange track in such 
unfavourable weather. At sunset we anchored 
under the lee of Piper's Islets. The next day ar. 
we anchored imder Sunday Island in Margaret 
Bay, at about half a mile from the sandy beach^ 
on its north-west side. 

Here we were detained by bad weather untU 
the 30th; when, with some slight appearance so. 
of improvement, and tired of losing so much 
time, we weighed and proceeded on our course. 
After passing the Bird Isles, thick weather again 
set in, with constant rain, and a strong breeze 
from S.E. Upon reaching Caimcross Island, 
under which it was my intention to anchor, the 
sails were reduced ; and, as we were in the 
act of letting go the anchor, Mr. Roe, who 
was at the mast-head holding thoughtlessly by 
the fore-topmast staysail-halliards, whilst the 
sail was being hauled down, was precipitated 
from a height of fifty feet, and fell senseless on 
the deck. We were now close to the reef; and, 
in the hurry and confusion attending the acci- 
dent, and the Dick at the same time luffing-up 



•30 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^1. under our stem, the anchor was dropped, with- 
Jimc 80. out my ascertaining the quality of the bottom, 
which was afterwards found to be of a very 
questionable nature. 

The Dick, having dropped her anchor within 
forty yards of us, was lying so close as to pre* 
vent our ve^ng more cable than sixty fathoms, 
but as we appeared to ride tolerably easy with 
a sheer to starboard, while the Didc rode on the 
opposite sheer, we remained as we were: to 
prevent accident, the yards were braced so 
that we should cast dear of the Dick if we 
parted, a precaution which was most happily 
taken. 

As soon as the distressing accident that had 
occurred was known on board the Dick, Dr. Arm- 
strong, a surgeon of the navy and a passenger 
in that ship, hastened on board to assist Mr. 
Montgomery in dressing Mr. Roe's hurt, which 
I found, to my inexpressible satisfaction, was not 
so grievous as might have been expected: his 
Ml was, most providentially, broken twice ; first 
by the spritsail brace, and secondly by some 
planks from the Frederick's wreck, which had 
fortunately been placed across the forecastle bul- 
wark over the cat-heads: his head struck the 
edge of the plank and broke his faU, but it cut a 
very deep wound over the right temple. This 



COASTS OF AUSTRALIA. 31* 

unfortunate event threatened to deprive me of 1^4 
his very valuable assistance for some time, a ^'^^ ^^ 
loss I could but very ill spare, particularly when 
upon the point of returning to the ezaminatioa 
of so intricate a coast as that part where we last 
left off* 

At six o'clock in the evening the flood^tidet, 
began to set to leeward^ and as night approadied^ 
the appearance of the weather became very 
threat^ng, accompanied by a descent of the 
mercury ; this gave me a very imfavourable idea. 
of our situation : the mad was blowing dear of 
the reef, and raised a heavy sea ; and the Dick 
was so dose to us that we dared not veer cable, 
for fear of getting on board of her, whidi must 
have happened if either ship should break her 
sheer. 

At half past ten o'dock, during a very heavy 
squall, the cable parted, but from the precaution 
above-mentioned, the brig happily drifted with 
her head to starboard, and passed dear both 
of the Dick and San Antonio ; the chain-cabled 
andior was then dropped, and veered to ninety ^ 
fathcsns, which brought her up in fifteen fa- 
thoms, mud; in which birth she appeared to 
ride much easier than before. I was now very 
anxious about the lost anchor ; and, having ex- 
pressed a wish to inform Mr. Harrison of our 



32 SCmVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

iM. situation, and to request him to recover our 
June 30. anchor in the morning if the weather would 
permit, Mr. Bedwell volunteered to go on board 
her ; which, although a service of danger, was, if 
possible to be effected, absolutely necessary. 
The boat was lowered, and they shoved off, but 
as the crew were unable to pull it a-head, I 
called her on board again, which was most for- 
tunate; for shortly afterwards the chain-cable 
parted also, and the brig drove with her head 
towards the shore. 
July I. We had now the prospect of being obliged to 
keep under sail during the remainder of the 
night. An attempt was made to veer, in order 
that, by laying to with her head off shore, we 
might have time to recover the cable, without 
endangering the security of the vessel ; but, from 
the weight of the chain at the bow, this ma- 
noeuvre could not be effected ; fearing, therefore, 
to drift any more to the westward, in which di- 
rection we were making rapid way, I was imder 
the necessity of slipping the chain, by which we 
lost one hundred fathoms of cable, which we 
could but badly spare: being now freed from 
the impediment, the brig's head was placed off 
shore; and after making sail, we fired several 
musquets and shewed lights, as signals to the 
Dick, who, it afterwards appeared, kept a light 



COASTS OP AUSTRALIA. 33 

up for our guidance ; but the weather was so issi. 
squally and thick, with ahnost constant rain, Jaiy'i. 
that it was not seen by us. It was half, past 
twelve o-dod: whoi we made sail to the 
N.EJi>.E^, deepening from fourtera to sixteen 
tatiuxoa, and when the hillocky summit of Cairn- 
cross Island bore S.b. W., beyond which bearing 
we did not know how far we could proceed with 
safety; we tacked to the S.S.W., and proceeded 
in . that < direction until the island bore South, 
-wbesa we were in fourteen fathoms. Having thus 
ascertained the depth of this space, which was 
about three miles in extent, it was occupied 
during the remainder of the night ; which, being 
very dark and squally, was pa^tsedby us in the 
greatest anxiety. At day-dawn we were joined 
by our companions, and, as it was not possible 
from the state of the weather to regain the 
anchors we had lost, made sail towards Turtle 
Island, on our way to which we passed Escape 
River : both of these places reminded us of for- 
mer perils, 'but the recollection of our provi- 
dential preservation on those occasions^ ^ as well 
as on many others during our former voyages, 
increased tide grateful feelings which we now 
fidt for our safety and protection during the last 
ni^t, the anxieties and circumstances of which 
can never be 4>bliterated from* our minds. 

Vol. IL D 



34* SURVEY OP TtSE, INTERTROPICAL 

U8i; Our course was directed entirely by the chart 
Jiiiy 1. I had previously formed ; for the weather was so 
thick, that for the greater part of the way no 
land could be seen to guide us : by noon we had 
passed between Cape Yoik and Mount Add- 
phus, and in a short time rounded the north* 
end of Wednesday Island^ and were steering 
between it and the North-West Ree£ 

After passing the rock off Hammcoid's Island^ 
we steered W.b.S.|S., but were obliged to haul 
up S.W.b.W. to pass to the southward of a small 
shoal, some part of which was uncovered (the 
time of tide being nearly low water, spring 
tide) : this shoal lies in a N. 50^ W. direction^ 
from the low rocky ledge off the north end of 
Good's Island, and is distant from it about a^ 
mile and a half. The Dick being a little U> 
leeward of our track, had four fathoms ; but the 
least we had was five and three-quarters. This 
reef is not noticed in Captain Flinders's ^art : 
at high water, or even at half ebb, it is very 
dangerous, from its lying in the direct 4xack ; but, 
by haulii\g over to the south shore, may be easily 
avoided 

At four o'clock we passed Booby Island, and 
steered W.b.S. across the Gulf of Caipentaria* 
' Between Booby Island and Cape Wesselr 
which we passed in sight of on the 3d, we had 



coAfrs or AUvnuUA. 35 

l)iick gloomy weatito, with the wind belweea itti. 
South and E.S.E. ; and, after rounding the Cape JomA 
Imd some heavy rain, in whidi the meiroury, 
having previoudy fidlen to S9.91, rbee to 29*95 
indbee. Lightning from the east and wait ac^ 
companied the rain, but the wind was steady» 
and did not freshen or lull during the showers. 

On the 5th, at daylight, Goulbum Islands were s. 
seen, and at nine o'clock we passed through the 
strait that divides them ; our trade being half a 
mile more to the northward than that of last 
year, we had more regular soundings. 

As soon as we anchored in Soutii-West Bay, 
I sent on shore to examine our farmer watering- 
place, but found that the stream had fidled. 
The parched up appearance of the island shewed 
that the last had been an unusually dry seascm; 
every place that, even in the month of August, 
six weeks later, had before yielded large quan- 
tities» as ^well as the lagoon behind the beach, 
which, from the nature of the plants growing in 
it, was conjectured to be a never*fidling supply, 
was now dried up. 

The next nioming the brig's boat went over 
to Sims Island with Mr. Cunningham, and there 
fi)und a small quantity of water,, sufficient, ac- 
cording to Mr. Hemmans's report, for all our 
wants. The next morning (7th), he moved the 



6-^« 



36 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

188k San Antonio over to. the. island, and anchoring 
June her off the sandy . beach, landed his people 
to dig holes. In the afternoon he sent v me a 
specimen of what had been collected; but it 
was : so brackish, that I gave up all idea . of 
shipping . any : he had improvidently dug large 
holes, into -whidi all the water good and bad 
had drained, and thereby the good was spoiled. 
The following morning he sent another speci- 
men, which, notwithstanding it was considerably 
better, was still too bad to tempt me to embark 
any. During the San Antonio's stay at Sim3 
Island, our gentlemen paid it a visit: its vege- 
tation appeared to have suffered as much from 
want of rain as Goulbum Island. " The vene- 
rable toumefortia (U argentea, Lin.), however, 
appeared as an exception: this tree, which 
grows on the centre of the beach, where it is 
remarkably conspicuous, appeared to have re^ 
sisted the dry state of the season ; it was in full 
leaf, and covered with a profusion of flowers, 
which attracted a variety of insects, particularly 
of the genera apis, vespa, and sphex; and among 
them a beautiful green-coloured cA^yw. "-^(Cun- 
ningham MSS.) 

During the two last days^ our people were 
employed cutting wood; no natives had made 
their appearanoe, although recent tracks on the 



COASTS OF AUSTRAUA. 37 

sand shewed they were not &r off; but on the issi. 
evening of the 7A, the surgeon, axxx)mpanied by j^e 
Dr. Annstrong of the Dick, landed in that ves- *^"^ 
sel's gig, and, whilst amusing themselves amcxig 
the trees, and the boat's crew incautiously wan- 
dering away from the boat, the natives came 
down, and would have carried off all the boat's 
furniture, and every thing in her, had they not 
been disturbed by the return of one of the sailors 
with a musquet. They succeeded, however, in 
making a prize of a new boat-doak, and the 
boat'hook, and one of them had nearly succeeded 
in carrying off an oar, but upon being fired at, 
dropp^ his booty and scampered off This 
trifling loss was deservedly sustained by our 
gentlemen, for they were well aware how sud- 
denly the natives have always appeared, and 
how mischievously they had on those occasions 
conducted themselves: they were also cautioned, 
when they went on shore to be upon their guard, 
and it was fortunate for them that nothing more 
serious occurred. 

At daylight, the Sth, the San Antonio rejoined s, 
us fi'om Sims Island, and at eleven o'clock we 
left the bay, and passed to the eastward of New 
Year's Island: the Dick and ourselves then 
steered to the westwiard along the coast, while 
the San Antonio steered a north-west course, and 



38 SURVEY or THE INTERTROPICAL 

• " . *. • - 

ifW. j^arted company. The foflowing day, being iii 
JiBdB. Mght of the land rf Cape Van Diemen, and 
having sent our letters on board the Dick for 
conveyance to England, we parted company by 
an interdbiange of three cheers ; and it was not 
without a considerable degree of regret that we 
took this leave of our friends ; for it is but due 
to Mr. Harrison to say that we redeived very 
great assktapce from him on several occasions : 
heofiered us his stream anchor to replace in 
some degree our loss, although he had himself 
only one left ; it was, however, much too small 
for our purpose. 

By this opportunity I wrote to the Secretary 
of the Admiralty, and the Under Secretary of 
State for the Colonies, and communicating to 
them a brief account of our voyage up the east 
coast, acquainted them of my intention of em- 
ploying the fine-weather months of July and 
August upon the north-west coast, and then of 
going to Mauritius, to replace our anchors and 
cable, previous to our examination of the west 
coast. 



CttAffra or AUSTRAUA. 99 



CHAPTER n. 



Pasmob from Cape Vaa Diemen to Gareeiujiif Baj^— Notibdinf 
water, Yisit Prince 'RegenVt River, and procure it from the Cai- 
cades— Fartfier eiaminatioD of the river:— Ainphibbiis mod*' 
fiih:—- Anchor in Half-way Bay, and explore Muniter Water 
and Hanover Bay in a boat : — ^Viait Hanover Bay, and procure 
water and fish ^i^Intarview with natives . — ^The torgeoa q)eared : 
— ^Retaliate upon them, and capture their rafti and weapons ^— 
Description of tlieir implements: — Port Georg^e the Fourth >^ 
Islands to the westward :-— Red Island of Ci^taln Heywood:««- 
Strong* tides:— Camden Bay: — Buccaneer's Archipelag^o: — Cyg- 
net Bay:^Dangeroas situation of the brig.- — High and rapid 
tides :-^ape Levdqno: — Examination of the coast to Cape .h^r- 
tooche Treville: — Remarkable effect of mirage: — Leave the 
coast for Mauritius :— Voyage thither :-"Anival at Port Louis :-— 
Refit :-*SoiBe aecoant of the ishind. 



Our course was held to the soutb-west towards issi. 
Cape Londonderry ; on which» with a fresh S.E* jjj^g. 
wind, we proceeded with rapidity. 

On the morning of the 12th, Edipse Hill and is. 
Sir Graham Moore's Islands were seen* and in 
the afternoon we passed Troughton Island; at 
smiset. Point Hillcx^k bore South thirteen miles> 
whence we steered to the W.N,W. and N.W*, 
and rounded the north end of the long reef, 
to the westward of Cape Bougainville. 



40 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

isdi. The next morning* at daylight, Cassini Island 
Jidy 18. was seen bearing S.b.W. ; here we were de- 
tained for two days by light baffling winds and 
calms: during the night of the 14th, the wind 
was light from the westward, and we stood off 
and on to the north of Caissini Island. 
15. At half-past one o'dock a.m., having sounded 
in thirty-three fathoms, we shoaled. suddenly to 
fourteen, when the vQssePs head was put to 
the southward, but the breeze was so very light, 
that she had hardly steerage way : by the light 
of the moon a line of breakers was seen two 
miles off, under our lee: we had now shoaled 
to nine fathoms on a rocky bottom, but its 
great *irr^ularity prevented our dropping the 
anchor until the last minute, since it would have 
been to the certain loss of the only one we had. 
In order, therefore, to save it, if possible, the 
boat was lowered, and sent to sound between the 
vessel and the breakers. Finding we made no 
progress off the reef by standing to the south- 
ward, we tacked ; and, a light breeze springing 
up from the westward, we drew off the bank on 
a north-west course, and, in the space of a* mile 
and a half, deepened the water gradually to 
thirty fathoms. 
16« The next morning, at - a quarter past - eight 
o'dock, the breakers were again seen ; thev 



COAffS OF AUSTRALIA. 41 

were .found to be 24' 44" West of Troughton iMf- 
Island. The wind was too light to allow.of our ^^J i^< 
approaching, we therefore tacked (^ to the west- 
waid^ and soon lost sight of them; at noon we 
were in latitude IS"" 26' 2&\ The breakers from 
the mast-head, bearing south-east; distant . eight 
or nine miles. 

During the ensuing night, having a fresh 
breeze, we stood first to the westward, and after- 
wards to the south-east. At seven o'clock the next I^^* 
morning no land v^as in sight, but breakers were 
seen extending from S.b.W. to S.W.b.S., about 
five miles off; and two miles beyond them was 
another line of breakers, bearing fix)m S.S.W. 
to S.W.b.W. As we steered obliquely towards 
them, they were noticed to extend still farther 
to the eastward, but apparently in detached 
patches ; our soundings, as we stood on, shoaled 
to fifteen fathoms; and we were shortly within 
half a mile of an appearance of shoal- water, in 
thirteen fathoms on a rocky bottom. The wind 
now began to lessen ; and, for fear of being be- 
cahned, I was anxious to get an offing. By our 
observations, we foimd the breakers this morning 
were connected with those passed yesterday, and 
are a part of Baudin's Holothurie Banks. The 
French charts of this part are very vague and 
incpnect; for our situation at noon upon their 



4S2 SURVEY OP THE IKTERTROPICAL 

ittf. pUui (with respect to the positiota of Cassiiii 
July 17. bland) was in the centxe of their reefs. . 

At noon we were in 13^ 38' S.» when a fieahen^ 
ing breeze fix>m S.E. enabled us to mak^ proK 
gross to the southward. At two o'dodc seme of 
the Montalivet Islands were seen; and before 
three o'dock, an island was seen bearing Souths 
which proved, as We stood towards it, to be the 
northernmost of a group lying off the north-west 
end of Bigge's Island ; they were seen last year 
from Cape Pond, and also from the summit of 
the hills over Careening Bay. 
19—21. At daylight, (19th,) having laid to all night, 
this group was about six leagues off, bearing 
from S. 35|^ to 49"^ £.» but a continuation of 
calms and light winds detained us in sight of 
them until the 21st. 

This group consists of eight or nine islands^ 
and appears to be those called by the French, 
the Maret Isles ; they are from one quarts to a 
mile and a half in extent, and are rocky and flat* 
topped ; the shores are composed of steep, rocky 
cliffs. They are fronted on the west side by a 
rocky reef extending in a N.N.E. and S.S.W. 
direction. 

During the cahn weather* in the vicinity of 
this group, we had seen many fish and sea- 
snakes; one of the latter was shot and pre- 



coAsrrs of auotralia. '43 

mav&d; its length wad four feet four inches ; tlie itfl. 
bead very small; it bad neither &is nor gills» ^vij 
mod respired like land-snakes ; on each scale 
was a rough ridge : it did not appear to be Te^ 
noinous. A shark was also taken, eleven feet 
tong ; and many curious specimens of crmtacea 
^md medusa were obtained by the towing-net 
Some of the latter were so diaphanous, as to be 
^rfecdy invisible when immersed in the water. 
Among the former were a species of phylloscmat 
and the alma hyalina of Leach *. 

At daylight we were about four leagues to the 
W.N. W. of Captain Baudin's Colbert Island ; at 
the ba(& of which were seen some patches of 
the Coronation Islands. The night was passed 
at anchor off the northernmost Coronation Island, 
and the following afternoon we anchored at about ss. 
half a mile from the sandy beach of Careening 
Bay. 

As soon as the vessel was secured, we visited 
the shore, and recognised the site of our last 
year's encampment, which had suffered no al- 
teration, except what had been occasioned by 
a rapid vegetation: a stercidia, the stem of which 
had served as one of the props of our mess-tent, 
and to which we had nailed a sheet of copper 

* Cancer vitreiu. Banks and Solander MS S. Lin. Gmel. torn* U 
p* 8991* Astaeus vitretu, Fabr. Sjst. ent pt 417. n. a 



44 SURVEY OP THE mTERTROPICAL 

1^1. urith an inscription, was considerably grown; and 
July as. the gum had oozed out in such profusion, where 
the nails had pierced the bark, that it had forced 
aae corner of the copper off. 

The large gouty*stemmed tree on which the 
Mermaid's name had been carved in deep in* 
dented characters remained without any alter- 
ation, and seemed likely to bear the marks of 
our visit longer than any other memento we had 
left. 

The sensations experienced at revisiting a place 
which had so seasonably afforded us a friendly 
shelter, and such unlooked-for convenience for 
our purposes, can only be estimated by those 
who have experienced them ; and it is only to 
strangers to such feelings that it will appear 
ridiculous to say, that even the nail to which 
our thermometer had been suspended> was the 
subject of pleasurable recognition. 

We then bent our steps to the water-gully, 
but, to our mortification, it was quite dried up, 
and exhibited no vestige of its having contained 
any for some time. From the more luxuriant 
and verdant appearance of the trees and grass, 
than the country hereabout assumed last year, 
when the water was abundant, we had .felt as- 
sured of finding it, and therefore our disappoint* 
ment was the greater. 



coAsrrs op Australia.. 45 

After another unsuccessful search in the bight, iffli. 
to the eastward of Careening Bay, in which we Juiy.^ 
fruitlessly examined a gully that Mr. Cunning- 
ham informed me had last year produced a con- 
siderable stream, we gave up all hopes of success 
here, and directed our attention to the cascade 
of Prince Regent's River ; which we entered the 
next afternoon, with the wind and tide in our 
&your, and at sunset reached an anchorage at 
the bottom of St. George's Basin, a mile and a 
half to the northward of the islet that lies off 
the inner entrance of the river, in seven fathoms 
muddy sand. 

The following morning, at half-past four o'clock, 2$. 
Mr. Montgomery accompanied me in the whale- 
boat to visit the cascade ; we reached it at nine 
o'clock, and found the water, to our inexpressible 
satisfaction, falling abundantly. 

While the boat's crew rested and filled their 
baricas, I ascended the rocks over which the 
water was falling, and was surprised to find its 
height had been so underrated when we passed 
by it last year: it was then thought to be about 
forty feet, but I now found it could not be less 
than one hundred and fifty. The rock, a fine- 
grained siliceous sand-stone, is disposed in hori- 
zontal strata, from six to twelve feet thick, each 
of which projects about three feet from that 



4$ SURVEY or THE INTERTIROMCAL 

Wh «bove it, and fonatia a oontiouity of oteps to the 
Mjno, summit, which we Ibuiid some difficulty ia 
climbing ; but where the distance between the 
ledges was gr^t, we assisted our ascent by ti^ 
of grass firmly rooted in th^ luxuriant mos9»: 
that grew abundantly i^bout the w$tef*0QUi:9e8/ 
On reaching the summit, I found that the faU waj^ 
supplied from a stream winding through rugged 
Qbasms and thiddy-matted clusters of plants and 
trees, among which the pandann$ bore a conspi- 
cuous appearance, and gave a picturesque rich* 
oess to the place. While admiring the wildness. 
of the scene, Mr. Montgomery joined me ; we: 
did not, however, succeed iA following the stream 
hv more than a hundred yards, for at that dis- 
tance its windings were so confused among rodcs. 
and spinifeXy tl^at we could not trace its source,; 
After collecting for Mr. Cunningham, who waa 
confined on board by sickness, a few specimens 
of those plants which, to me? appeared the. 
most novel, we commenced our descent, and 
reached the bottom in safety; by which time 
the tide was ebbing so rapidly, 'that we set off 
immediately on our return, with a view of ar- 
riving OQ board by low- water, in order that no 
time might be lost in sending the boats up with 
our empty water-casks. 
During our absence, Mr. Roe, who was fast 



48 SURVEY OP. THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^ the high round hill near the entrance was seen 
July 28. midway between the hills that form the banks of 
the river. 

Proceeding a little way farther, we were sud- 
denly whirled into a rapid amongst large stones, 
in the midst of which, as the stream was running 
at the rate of five or six knots, the . grapnel 
was instantly dropped, which had the effect of 
reversing the boat's head. After this the grapnel 
was weighed, and by very great exertions • we 
extricated ourselves from the rapid, and then 
landed at a hundred yards. below the M, on 
the east bank, where the mangroves were so 
thick that it was with difficulty we penetrated 
through them: having succeeded, we walked to 
the bank near the rapid, and found that it was 
occasioned by the tide falling over a barrier of 
rocks, which probably at low- water confines the 
fresh-water above this place ; a few minutes af- 
terwards it was high-water, and the tide sud- 
denly ceased to run; when the water became 
quite smooth and motionless. 

A fresh-water rivulet, at that time the mere 
drainings of what occasionally is a torrent, joined 
the main river, just above the rapid, by a trick- 
ling stream ; and made us the more desirous of 
extending our knowledge of this extraordinary 
river: we therefore re^mbarked, and) passing 



'coasts of AUSTRALIA. 49 

flie rapid, pulled up the river against the tide i^* 
for a mile &rther, where it was suddenly ter- Juiyss. 
minated by a beautiful fresh-water rivulet, whose 
dear, transparent stream was so great a con- 
trast to the thick, muddied water we had so lopg 
been pulling through, that it was a most grati- 
fying sight, and amply repaid us for all our 
£itigue and exertions. The fresh water was 
separated fr(xn the salt tide by a gentie M over 
rounded stones; but as the boat was imable to 
pass over them, we had only time to fill our water- 
vessels, in order to be certain of returning over 
the first rapid, before the strength of the stream 
rendered it dangerous to pass. The bed of the 
river, at this second fall, appeared to be about 
two hundred and fifty yards in breadth : its fur- 
ther course was lost sight of by a sharp turn, 
first to the N.E.; and then to the S.E., between 
high and rocky hills. 

Large groves of pandanus and hibiscus, and a 
variety of other plants, were growing in great 
luxuriance upon the banks, but unhappily the 
sterile and rocky appearance of the country 
was some alloy to the satisfaction we felt at 
the first sight of the fresh water ; as we did not, 
however, expect to find a good country, the plea- 
mire was not much diminished, and we set ofi^ on 

Vol. IL E 



50 SURVEY or THE iNreHtRONCAL 

i»i. our return, perfectly satisfied with the suooess of 
Jxdy28. our labours : we were at this time about fifty 
miles from the sea. 

The ebb-tide had fallen for an hour when we 
passed the first fallsi but there was no appear^ 
ande of that violrace which we witnessed in the 
morning ; probably because the stream had not 
reached its strength. 

An alligator was seen on our return, swimming 
within two yards .of the boat* and a musquet, 
charged with a ball and buck-shot, was uselessly 
fired at it. The appearance of these animals in 
the water is very deceptions ; they lie quite mo- 
tionless, and resemble a branch of a tree floating 
with the tide ; the snout, the eye, ' and some of 
the ridges of the back and tail, being the anij 
parts that are seen. The animal that we fired 
at was noticed for some time, but considered to 
be only a dead branch, although we were look* 
ing out for alligators, and approached within 
six yards of it before we found out our mistake : 
the length of this animal was fircmi twelve to 
fifteen feet ; I do not think that we have ever 
seen one more than twenty feet long. 

We reached the cascade by four o'clock, and 
remained there until our boats arrived for a 
second cargo of water, which was at midnight ; 



OOAOTS OF AUffTRALIA. 51 

as soon as the casks were filled^ we set off isti. 
on our return, but did not reach the brig until Mjm 
eight o'clock in the morning. 

The fatigue and exposure which attended our ^^ 
watering at this place were so great, that I was 
obliged to give up the idea of completing it now. 
We had obtained^ by the two trips, enough to 
last until the end of October, which, with the 
chance of finding more upon other parts of the 
ooast, was sufBcient for our intended mode of 
proceeding. The boats were therefore hoisted 
in» and preparations made to leave the an- 
diorage. 

The river appears to abound with fish, particu* 
larly with mullet ; and porpoises were observed 
as high as the first &lls^ a distance of fifty miles 
fiom the sea. A curious species of mud-fish (cAr* 
rtmectes, sp. Cuvier) was noticed, of amphibious 
nature, and something similar to what we have fre- 
quently before seen ; these were, however, much 
larger, being about nine inches long. At low 
water, the mud-banks near the cascade, that were 
exposed by the falling tide, were covered with 
these fish, sporting about, and running at each 
other with open mouths ; but as we approached, 
they so instantaneously buried themselves in the 
soft mud, that their disappearance seemed the 

£2 



SZ SURVEY OF THE INTERTBOPICAL 

16&U effect of magic : upon our retiring and attentiveljt 
J4dy S9.^ watching the spot» these curious animals would 
re-appear as suddenly as they had before va- 
: nish^. We fired at several, but so sudden were 
their motions, that they generally escaped ; twor 
or three only were procured, which appeared from 
their lying on the mud in an inactive state to 
have been asleep ; they are furnished with very 
strong pectoral and ventral fins, with which and 
with the anal fin, when required, they make a 
hole, into which they drop. When sporting on the 
mud, the pectoral fins are used like legs, upon 
which they move very quickly ; but nothing can 
exceed the instantaneous movement by which 
they disappear. Those that were shot were 
taken on board, but on account of the extreme 
heat of the weather, they had become so putri- 
fied as to be totally unfit for preservation. 
30. The next day, the 30th, was spent in exa- 
mining some bights in the narrow part of the 
diannel near Gap Island, so named from a re- 
markable division in its centre, through which 
the? high-tide flows, and gives it the appearance 
of being two islands. It was on this occasion 
that we explored Half-way Bay, where we were 
fortunate in finding good anchorage, and in which 
we also discovered a strait, that on a subsequent 



ooAsra or AUflrntAUA, 53 

examination was found to conununicate with iml 
Muqster Water» and to insulate the land that Mj9X 
forms the north-west shore of the bay: this island 
was called after the late Right Honble. Charles 
Greyille, whose name has also been given to a &- 
mily of plants {greoilla:^) that bears a prominent 
lank in the botany of this country^ The strait^ in 
which the tide was running at the rate of six or 
seven knots, was not more than one hundred and 
fifty yards wide; but in one part it was con- 
tracted to a much narrower compass^ by a bed of 
rocks: that nearly extended across the strait> and 
which must originally have communicated with 
the opposite shore. 

We landed under the flat-topped hill, at the 
south end of Greville Island, among the man- 
grovea which skirt the shore, and. walked a few 
hundred yards round the point, to examine the 
course of the strait ; but the way was so rugged* 
and we had so little time to spare, that we soon 
re-embarked and returned into Half-way Bay. 
The geological, character of the island is a red- 
coloured, coarse-granular, siliceous sand-^tone, 
disposed in. horizontal strata, and intersected by 
veins of crystallized quartz. The sur&ce is co- 
vered by a shallow, reddish-coloured soil,, pro- 
ducing a variety of shrubs and plants. 

After this, we crossed the river, and examined 



S4 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

im. the two bays opposite to Gap Iftland, but Souod 
Mf9ik them 80 fihoal and overrun with mangroves^ that 
DO landing could be effected in any part. In 
both bays there is anchorage between the heada ; 
but all the inner part is very shoal, and perhaps, 
at low water, there is not more than nine feet 
water within the heads. In the mid-stream of the 
river the bottom is deep, and is formed entirely of 
shells, over which, on account of its being very 
narrow, the tide runs with great strength; and 
from the irregularity of the bottom forms nu- 
merous eddies and whirlpools, in which a boat 
is quite unmanageable. 

During our absence, Mr. Bedwell examined 
our former watering-plaoe, at the back of St An-- 
drew's Island, and on his return landed upon the 
sandy beach of a bay on the south*west side of 
the basin, but was unsuocessftd in his seaidi 
for water at both places. 

The sea breeze freshened towards sunset, and 
fanned up the fires that had been burning for the 
last three days in several places upon the low 
land, and on the sides of the hills to the westward 
of Mount Trafalgar ; before night they had all 
joined, and, spreading over the topa of the hills 
for a space of three miles, produced a sin- 
gularly grand and magnificent effect At half 
past five o'clock the next morning, we were 



C0A9T8 OP AUSTRALIA. 55 

under sail, but, the breeze being light, had only im. 
time to reach the anchorage under OreviUe Au^l 
Island in Half«way Bay, before the tide turned 
against us. It was purposed to remain only 
during the flood ; but> on examinatioQ, the place 
was found to be so well adapted for the pur- 
pose of procuring some lunar distances with the 
sun, to correspond with those taken last year 
at Careening Bay, that we determined upon 
seizing the opportunity ; and, as wood was abun- 
dant on the island and growing dose to the 
shores, a party was formed to complete our 
holds with fuels whilst Mr. Roe assisted me in 
taldng observations upon a convenient station on 
the north point of the bay within Tjammas 
Island, a small rodcy islet covered with shrubs, 
and separated from the easternmost point of 
GreviUe Island by a very shoal and rocky 
cfaanneL ^ 

During these occupations we examined Mun** 
ster Water: on our way to it we landed on the 
reef off the east end of the Midway Isles, which 
was found to be more extensive than had been 
suspected, and to embrace the group of small 
rocks, which at high* water only just shew their 
summits above the water ; at high-tide there is 
at least fif)»en feet water over it, but being low- 
water when we landed, the reef was dry. Upon 



56 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1891. it we found several varieties of coral, particularly. 

Ang. 1. eaplanaria mesenterimi, Lam. ; caryaphyllia fasti'^ 
giata. Lam. ; and pontes mbcUgitcUa, Lam. : the 
only shell that we observed upon the reef was a 
ddpMntda lacimata. Lam. (turbo delpkhms^ Linn.). 
After obtaining bearings from its extremity, as also 
from the summit of the outer dry rock, we landed 
upon a small verdantJooking grassy mound, the 
northernmost islet of the group ; but we found the 
verdure of its appearance was caused only by 
the abundance of the spinifex, through which we 
had, as usual, much difficulty in travelling. After 
procuring some bearings from its summit, we 
re-embarked, and pulled up Munster Water, 
supposing that it was connected with the strait 
at the back of Greville Island ; but as the tide, 
then flowing, was running in a contrary direc- 
tion to what was expected from the hypothesis, 
we had formed, we began to suspect some other, 
communication with the sea, and in this we 
were not deceived ; for a narrow, but a very 
deep strait opened suddenly to our view, at the. 
bottom of the Water, through which some of 
the islands in the offing were recognised. In 
pulling through we had kept dose to the south, 
shore, that we might not miss the communi- 
cation with Hanover Bay, but notwithstanding, 
all our care, we passed by without noticing it. 



€X)ASm9 OP AUSTRALIA. 57 

on account of the deceptions appearance of the isti. 
land; indeed the strait which we discovered A^i. 
leading to sea, was not seen until we wei^ 
within two hundred yards of it, and would also 
have escaped our observation, had not the 
channel been so direct, that the sea horizon was 
exposed to our view. At the bottom of this 
arm are two deep bays, which were partially 
but sufficiently examined. In most parts of 
Munster Water there is good anchorage, amongst 
several small rocky islands, on one of which we 
landed, and climbed its summit, but saw nothing 
to repay us for the trouble or the danger of the 
ascent: the sur&ce was composed entirely of 
loose blocks of sand-stone, which, when trod 
upon, would crumble away, or roll down the 
nearly perpendicular face of the rock ;. and it 
was only by grasping the branches of the acacias 
and other trees that were firmly rooted in the 
interstices of the less-decomposed rocks, that we 
were saved from being precipitated with thenu 
On our return we passed through the channel 
on the west side of the Midway Isles, which 
we found to be very deep, and the stream very 

StiODg, 

The next day we pulled through the strait that 
insulates GhreviUe. Island, and found that it com- 
municated with Munster Water» atapartwhere 



58 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

isii. we had yesteiday oooduded it likely to exuA, 
Aa^4. and had in consequence steered towards it; but 
as we proceeded, the probability became less 
and less, and we gave up the aearch when we 
were within three hundred yards of being ac- 
tually in it. 

We then pulled up Munster Water, and after- 
wards through the strait to sea ; and, landing oa 
80106 dry rocks on a reef which projects off the 
west head of the strait, found that we were at the 
entrance of the bight, which was last year named 
Hanover Bay : after taking a set of bearings, 
we re-embarked, and proceeded to the bottom of 
the bay, whidi terminated in a shoal basin. 

On our return we iwtered an opening in the 
rocky diff, which bore the appearance of bi^ng 
the outlet of a torrent stream ; being low-water, 
there was not in many parts sufficient depth to 
float the boat ; but after pulling up fbr half a 
mile, a muddy chaimel was found, which, at the 
end of another half inile» was terminated by a 
bed of rocks, over which the tide flows at high* 
water. The ravine is formed by steqp pred* 
pitous rocks, which are at least two hundred 
and fifty feet high ; it appeared to extend to a 
considerable distance, and as the &rther pro* 
gress of the boat was prevented by the stones 
and want of water, Bundell and two of die boat's 



COAflm OP ADCTRALUL 59 

omr were dispetched to examine a place farther iiiii« 
oa, where, from the green appearance of the Aj«f.4. 
tiees, it was thought not milikely that there 
iDi^t be a fresh stream. In this they wore not 
disappointed, for after much delay and trouble, 
from the difficulty of passing over the rocks, they 
returned with two baricas full of fresh-water, 
which they found in holes of considerable siae. 

In pulling up the river, an alligator was seen 
carawling slowly over the mud banks, but took 
to the water before we came near it, and 
did not afterwards re-appear. Many kangaroo- 
rats and small kangaroos were seen skipping 
about the rocks, but they were very shy, and 
fled the moment they saw us. 

Hanover Bay thus proving to afford good 
anchorage, and an opportunity of increasing our 

■ 

stock of water, as well as presenting a sandy 
beach on which we could haul the seine, it was 
determined that we should visit it as soon as 
the brig oould be moved out of Prince Regent's 



On our return^ which was over the same 
ground as we had passed in the morning, we 
landed near two or three gullies on the inner 
side ci the island, which fonns the eastern boun^ 
dary of Munster Water, but were unsuccess^ 
in all our seaidies after fresh*water. 



60 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^- At daylight, on the 6th^ we got under weigh 
Aug. 6. to a light air of wind from the southward, to 
leave Prince Regent's River; but notwithstand- 
ing the vessel was under all sail, she was very 
nearly thrown upon Lammas Island by the tide» 
which was setting with great strength through 
the shoal passage between it and Sight Point: 
as we past without it, we were not more than 
five yards from the rocks. The wind then 
fell to a dead cahn, and the brig was per- 
fectly immoveable in the water ; but drifted by 
the tide, and whirled round by the eddies, we 
were fast approaching the body of the largest 
Midway Island, with a very great uncertainty on 
which side of it the tide would drift us : when 
we were about three hundred yards from the 
island, the direction of the stream changed, and 
carried us round its south-east side, at about two 
hundred yards from the shore, but dose to the 
low rodcs off its east end, on which we landed 
two days since. We were under great anxiety 
for fear of being driven over the reef, on which 
there could not have been sufficient water to 
have floated us; but our fears of that danger 
were soon over, for the tide swept us rapidly 
round it. At this moment a light air sprang 
up, which lasted only five minutes, but it was 
sufficient to carry us past the junction of thQ 



COASTS OF AUGrrRAUA. 61 

Rothsay and Munster Waters with the main issi; 
stream. The vessel was at times unmanageable, Ax^.9k 
firom the violent whirlpools through which we 
passed, and was more than once whirled com- 
pletely round upon her keel ; but our fonner 
experience of a similar event prepared us to 
expect it, and the yards were as quicUy braced 
round. 

Having passed all the dangers, the 6bb-tide 
very soon carried us out of the river into Hano- 
ver Bay. In passing the easternmost of the 
outer isles, the shrill voices of natives were heard 
calling to us, and Bundell returned their shout, 
but it was some time before we could discern 
them, on account of the very rugged nature of 
the island : at last, three Indians were observed 
standing upon the rocks near the summit of the 
island, but, ^s the tide was running out with 
great strength, we were soon out of hearing. 

Soon after one o'clock the brig was anchored 
at about half a mile off the sandy beach in 
Hanover Bay, in eight fathoms, (half flood,) 
muddy bottom. The boats were immediately 
hoisted out and sent up the river, but the tide 
was ebbing, and the difficulty of filling the casks 
So great that, after great labour, we only pro- 
cured a puncheon of water. The launch was 
moored without the rocky bed of the river, while 



62 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

im. the jolly-boat conveyed the baricas to her as they 
Aosr. e. were filled, but even the latter could not get within 
three hundred yards of the water, so that the 
people had to carry the baricas over the rugged 
bed of the river for that distance, whidi made the 
work laborious and slow; stiU, however, it was 
much less distressing than the fatigue of water- 
ing from the cascade in Prince Regent's Riven 
At night a successful haul of the seine supplied 
our people with abundance of fish, among which 
were mullets, weighing from three to five pounds ; 
cavallos, whitings, silver fish, breams, and two 
species of guard-fish. 
7. While our people were employed the next 

morning in washing the decks, they heard at a 
distance the voices of natives ; at eight o'clock 
they were again heard, and at ten o'clock they 
were dose by ; shortly afi;erwards three, of whom 
one was a woman, were seen standing on the rodca 
waving their aims* Being curious to communicate 
with the inhabitants of this part of the coast, since 
we had not seen any between this and Vansittart 
Bay, a party, consisting of the surgeon, Mr. Bed* 
well, Mr. Baskerville, and myself, went on shore 
to the place where the natives were seated wait- 
ing for us. Bundell, who generally accompanied 
us on these occasions divested of his clothes, 
stood up in the bow of the boat, and, as we 



COAdTS or AU8T1IALIA. ^ 

approadied the shore, made signs of fnendship, isn* 
which the natives returned, and appeared quite ^^ 7. 
ODOonGemed at our approach. On landing, we 
dimbed the ro^ on which the two men were 
funding, when we found that the woman had 
walked away: upon our approach, they re^ 
tired a few paces, and evidently eyed us in 
a distrustful manner ; but, as they had dropped 
their spears, and repeated the sign of peace that 
m had made to them, we did not hesitate to 
walk towards them unarmed, desiring the boat's 
mw to be prepared with the muskets, if called. 
When we joined them they had their spears 
poised ready to throw, but on our presenting 
them with some of the fish that we had caught 
the preceding evening they dropped their spears, 
and immediately returned us something in ex- 
diange ; one gave a belt, made of opossum fiir, 
to Bundell ; and the other, the tallest of the two, 
gave me a club that he carried in his hand, a 
short stick about eighteen inches long, pointed 
at both ends. This exchange of presents ap^- 
peared to establish a mutual confidence between 
ua, and, to strengthen it, I presented my firiend 
with a clasped knife, after shewing him its use, 
the possession Qf which appeared to give him 
great pleasure. 
By this time Mr. Montgomery and Mr. Bed- 



64 SURYBY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

1821; well joined us; the latter gentleman was un- 
Aug; 7. armed, but the former had a pistol concealed 
under his coat, and carried a fish^ which he held 
out for them to take ; but, as they would not ap* 
proach us nearer than two or three yards, he 
threw it towards them, when the shortest natiYe 
picked it up. Upon this accession to our num- 
bers,* they began to talk to each other, and, at 
the same time, picked up their spears ; but, as 
the latter appeared only to be a cautionary moYe- 
ment, we did not anticipate their mischieYous 
intentions. I then, with a Yiew to amuse them, 
made signs to my friend for the knife, which 
he put into my hands without shewing the least 
reluctance, upon which he was again instructed 
how to open and shut it ; but as this, instead of 
pacifying^ only served to increase their anger, 
the knife was thrown at his feet, which he in- 
stantly picked up, and then both retired a few 
paces in a Yery suspicious manner. 

We were at this time about three or four yards 
from the natives, who were talking to each other 
in a most animated way, and evidently intent upon 
some object ; and, as it appeared probable that, 
if we remained any longer, a rupture would en- 
sue, it was proposed that our party should retire 
to the boat, under the idea that they wouW follow 
us down ; no sooner, however, had we waved to 



COASTS OP AUSTRALIA. 65 

them our farewell, and turned our backs to de- iM. 
soend the roekfi, than they unexpectedly, and in Au^^.r. 
the most ti^eacherous manner, threw* their spears ; 
one of which, striking a rodk, broke and fdl 
harmless to the ground, but the other, which was 
thrown by the tallest man, wounded Mr. Mont- 
gomery in the back ; the natives then, without 
waiting to throw their second spears, made off, 
cbsely pursued by-Bundell, who had anned him- 
self with the broken spear; but they were out of 
sight in a moment, and, by the tune that the 
muskets were brought to our assistance, were 
doidstless out of gun-shot. A pursuit was, how- 
ever, commenced, but our progress was so much 
impeded by the rugged and rocky nature of the 
ground, and by the abundance and intricate 
growth of the shrubs and trees, that we very 
soon desisted, and returned to the boat, to which 
Mr. Mcmtgomery had been in the mean time 
carried, complaining of great weakness from loss 
of blood.. 

Upon examining Mr. Montgomery's wound, 
which unfortunately was in such a part of his 
body that he could not himself inspect it, it 
appeared that the spear had penetrated about 
three inches ; and, from the quantity of extra- 
vasated blood, great fears were entertained that 
he had received a very serious ihtemal injuiy^ 

Vol. n. P 



M SURVEY 09 tm lOTBIintOnCAl. 

iMT. The wound, ftom whidi he was suffering very 
Ani(.f, gteat pain« was dressed acoording to his in- 
structkms^ but it was seyeral days before he ocn** 
sidered himself out of danger « 
& The nekt morning, at eleven o^dodc, a natire 
was seen on a float, or catamaran, paddling 
round the west point of the strait, and another 
man, a woman, and a diild, were observed on the 
rodcs, who, in less than a quarter of an hour, 
came down to the spot where we met them 
yesterday, and began to wave and call to us. 
An oppottunity now offered of punishing these 
wretdies for tiieir treacherous conduct, and of 
disappointing them in their present plans, for 
ihey were evidently intent upon some mischief. 
Mr. BedweQ was therefore despatched to secure 
iheir catamaran, which was hauled up on a sandy 
beach near the outer point, whilst another boat 
was sent towards the natives : when the latter 
arrived near the shore, they were sitting on the 
rock, and inviting us to land ; but it was necessary 
to convince them that we were not so defence- 
less as they imagined, and, as soon as we were 
sufficiently near, several muskets were fired oveat 
iheir heads t one of them fell down behind a 
lock, but the other made off. The native who 
had fallen was wounded in the shoukler, and 
was recognised to be the man that speared Mr. 



coxm Of AuyriAUA. 07 

MoDtgoniery; he made serend attempts to get im. 
away, but efvery time his head appeared above A<ii.a# 
the ndi, whidi concealed him frem us, a pii^ or 
a musket was fired to jftwexA his escape; at last^ 
however, he sprang up, and* leaping upmi the 
lock, with a violent efibrt, was instantaneously 
out of sight. 

As soon as he was gone we pulled round to the 
nndy bay, where the natives had landed, and 
overtook Mr. Bedwell, who was passing by the 
l^bee. Upon the beach we found two catama* 
rans, or floats, on each of which a large bundle 
of spears was tied with ligatures of bark; and en 
deardiing about the grass we soon found and 
secured all their riches, consisting of waters 

Sticks, fishing-lines, and thirty-six spears ; some 
of the latter were of large size, and very rough- 
ly made, and one was headed with a piece of 
stone curiously pointed and worked. This last 
iqpear is propdled by a throwing-sti<^, whidi 
was also found lying by it. After launching 
the catamarans, and securing every thing found 
upon th^n, they were towed round by the 
boats to where we had fired upon the natives^ 
whilst a party walked over land to examine 
the place. On the way several spears weie 
discovered |daoed ready for use on Ih^r retreat 

FS 



^ SURVEY OT THE I M T ER T R OPICAL 

^^h to;the beadu where, from the qttantity collected^ 
taig..9. they evidently intended tb^make a standpsup- 
posing* no doubt from our appearance yester- 
day,iliat we were defenceless^ and would there^ 
fore rfall an easy prey. .-On reaching the rode, 
behind vi^ich the natiye fell, it was found ooyered 
with blood ; and Bundell, who probably did the 
deed, said ,the wound was *on . his , Shoulder* We 
tcaeed their retreat by the blood for half a .mile 
to Hhe border of a mangrove inlet, which they 
had evidently crossed, for the marks of their feet 
were perceived imprinted in the mud. We that 
gave up the pursuit, and went outboard. 

Upon examining the baskets, among other 
things a piece of iron hoop was found fixed in 
a wooden handle, which it seemed they had used 
for the purpose of digging up roots. This hoop 
must have been left by us last year at Careen* 
ing Bay. But what chiefly attracted our at* 
tentipn was a small bundle of bark, tied up 
with more than usual care; upon opening it 
we found it contained several spear-heads, mo^ 
ingeniously and curiously made of stone; they 
were about six inches in length, and were termi- 
nated by a very sharp point ; both edges were 
serrated in a most surprising way ; the serratures 
werj^ evidently made by a sharp stroke with 
some instrumient^ but it was efifected -without 



!!?! 



COASTS OF AtUTEAUA: 



69: 



leaTuig.the-least.maik of the-blow:-tbe Stow inr. 
vas cOTered with red pigineQt,.and appeared to Aiif,«>~ 
be a flinty slate. Hiese spear-beads wereready 
ibr fixing, and- the caieM- manner in whidi 
tbey v&ce preserred plainly shewed- their value, - 
for each was separated-by strips - of bark, and 
the sharp edges protected by a covering (^' 
fiir. A- wound with sudi a ^)ear must be mor- 
tal; and it was very fortunate for Mr. Mont- 
gomery that his was not inflicted with one of 
these truly formidable weapons. Their hatchets 
were also made of the same, stone, the edges of 
which ■ are ground so sharp, that - a few blows- 
serve to chop off the branch of a tree. 

The catamarans consisted <^ five • mangrove 
stems laahed together to a frame of smaller wood* 
as in. the subjoined wood-cut: they are-buoyant 
enough to carry two natives, besides their spears 
and baskets. A representation of this mode of 
conveyance is also ^ven in the title page of this 
v(dume. 



70 SURVEY or THE nmnmopicAL 

These nati?ed wete more lobufilrloddtig m^ 

Anr* ^ diaa any we had before seea ; the tallest nmsC 
have been at least six feet two indies high ; 
their bodies were scarred all over; their teedi 
perfect, and they were quite naked. The shorter 
native had his hair collected into a knob at the 
top of his head, wfaidi gave him a ferocious ap* 
pearance. The punishmait they so justly re- 
ceived win make them respect in future the for* 
midable nature c^our arms. 

At night we hauled the seine, and procured 
about four dozen fish, principally mullet. An 
aimed party was stationed above the beadi to 
prevent any attadc fix>m the natives, but they 
9. did not shew themselves. On the following 
day we again heard them shouting and haUooing, 
but it was some time befcnre we could observe 
th^ situation ; at last five were discovwed by 
the aid of a tdescc^, seated on the summit 
of a hill behind the beadi, occupied in making 
spears; at a little distance were two others, 
one of whom was distinguished to be the na- 
tive tiiat had escaped unwounded; the other, a 
stranger, was chopping a btandioff a tree» which 
he was seen to trim and scrape into a rough 
spear. Durii^ the time they w^re thus em- 
ployed^ they frequently haUooed to us; no notice 
was however taken cf their aies, although the 



COAm OF AUOTIAUA. 7t 

teuptntion wtf very great of 6rii^ a ibot over JmiI' 
thair beadi» to $hew tbeia that they WMe tttU AvfTfti 
intbm our reaeb. A« eooii as tbey bad fioiiiMd 
timr wock« and had mada about a doun jspeazs, 
fbay all got up and walked away. 

AQ« tbey diaappeared bdiind the bill, it waa 
thought not imlikdy that they would attack our 
peo^e at the wateriiig^place ; tba party w&» 
)barefi;>re aent away in the afternoon well armedt 
but the oatiYea d^ not make their appearanoe, 
aod the boata letumed at sunaet without ha?<' 
ug been diBturbed. The tide waa §0 trifling; 
aod the difficulty of loading the boat ao greiit# 
that only ninety gallona of water were procured; 
and aa we were not Hkely to make quicker pRK 
giMs, unleM we wailed for the apring4idef » we 
p?e up all idea of completing our waler# and 
made preparations to leaye the bay* 

On the following day, (IDtb,) aa there waa no 10. 
wind ^ the fnoming, J aent for anotb^ turn of 
water, but only obtained enough for one day'a 
ii«ue; for the tide did not riie hmx^ than four 
feet* In the mean tune I visited the extiene 
point on the west aide of the bay, and examined 
ia my way acwe oprainge in the land, that^ 
fioQ their appearance, promised to affoid water: 
as it wBs low tide, I could not enter tbeaa, 
Int they were blocked up by banka ef laiid and 



72 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

188K rocks ; but on my return the tide was higher, 
Aug. 10* and I puUed about one mile up the northenmiost 
inlet, where I was again stopped by the shoalness - 
of the water. All these places must aOford abun* . 
dance of fresh water during the rainy season, 
and perhaps are seldom without; and, as this 
was a year of unusual drought, it is not impro- 
bable Uiat the river in which we watered gene- 
rally afforded a very considerable stream ; if so, 
from its proximity to the anchorage, the bay is of 
great importance, and is an excellent place for 
refreshment: turtle might be procured at the 
islands in its vicinity, and abundance of very 
fine fish at the sandy beach: the anchorage is 
safe in all parts, being protected from, the sea 
by the islands in the ofiBng, which front the bay. 
There is also abundance of wood, that may be 
cut close to the water-side. 

Ships detained during the westerly monsoon, 
as far to leeward as the meridian of 125^ would 
find an advantage in putting into Hanover Bay, 
and remaining there until the wind should veer 
round : by which they would avoid the necessity 
of beating to windward, over such dangerous 
ground as extends between this part to Timor ; 
and, by being to the southward, out of the 
strength of the westerly winds, at the latter 
end of February and b^inning of March, when 



CX>A9r8 OF AUOTRAUA. 73 

southerly and soiith<east winds prevail on the* U«i*. 
opast, they migfat much earlier efiect their pas- Avg.ia 
sage to the westward. 

The beach of Hanover Bay is situated in la- 
titude 15^ 18' 21", and 13' 40" W.of our ob- 
servatc»7 at Careening Bay, which makes its 
longitude 124^ 47 5" East of Greenwich. 

Tlie next morning (11th,) we left Hanover 
Bay, and steered out at the distance of a mile n. 
and a half from the western shore. After passing 
round the western head, we entered a deep open- 
ing, and, running into it for some distance between 
a rocky shore on either side, came into an exten« 
sive basin, in the centre of which was a high island 
which we saw at a distance last year, and then 
called the Lump, from its shape. As a set of 
bearings from this island was desirable, the vessel 
was anchored abreast of it at about a mile and 
a half from the shore ; having landed upon it 
in time to observe the sun's meridional altitude 
in the artificial horizon, we ascended its summit, 
and obtained the desired bearings; we also dis- 
covered Freycinet's Island on the horizon, bear- 
ing N. 13^ 42' W. ; this island was distinguished 
easily by its form, which is that of an inverted 
basin. A large island lies in the centre of the 
eptraqce of the port, by which two channels are 



74 SURVEY OP THE IBfTBftTROflCAL: 

liii. foRoad ; the westermnost has several pttehM of 
A»g* U. rocks in it, but the eattem one, which we used, 
appeared to be clear and ftee from danger, ex«^ 
cepting a rod^y shelf projecting from the eastern 
shore &r not more than threerquarters of a mild* 
In the afternoon we examined the former, and 
from a summit at the south-west end of the islrad 
in the entrance, obtained another set of bear- 
ings. Afterwards we sounded its diannel* nA 
ibund a deep passage, but too narrow and la- 
tricate to be preferred to the eastern <diannel 

Whilst one boat was thus employed, Mr* Bw* 
k^rviUe went to ejcamine an opening at the bot- 
tom of the port, which he reported to be n 
strait, trending round to the S.W. for six miles, 
beyond which his view was intercepted by the 
next projecting point. The strait, which he 
called after Captain R. H. Rogers, R«N.* m 
sprinkled with many islands and dry reefs of 

IS. great ext^^t. On the 13th I was occupied in 
laying down the plan of this place, wbi<^t on 
account of the day, was honoured with the name 
of cur most gracious king, Port Georgs tine 

is. Fourth. The next day we sailed out by the 
east^n diannd, but having to beat against tbe 
wind, made no further progress than an Mr 
dioragB off Point Adieu, whidi was the layit 



coAirsor AUWEdtiA. 79 

Ind seea by us in the BAotnnM ; it ii the n^^ MM. 
•Dd of die land that forms the west side of Port Aiff* u- 
Oeorge the Fourth, which wms afterwaxds catted 
AiigQstus Island: to the westward of the pmnt 
there appeared to be many islands and much 
broken land* I salt Mr. Boe to Point Adieu to 
get some bearings from the summit of the hiU» 
and in the mean time Mr Basfcenritte sounded 
the diannei between the point and the islands; 
whidi be found to be deep and dear; Mr. Boa's 
f&porU howeyer» of the appearance of the inner 
part among the islands was not so favourable, for 
it is studded over with numerous extensive reefs, 
wlucfat being low water, were exposed to view* 
Mx. Boe saw a tderably broad sepaiation be-* 
twean two islands to die soudi^west, but moM 
to the westward the islands were so numerous, 
diat very little information as to their diape or 
nmiiber could be obtained* 

At daylight the following morning we weighed, h.; 
and widi a moderate land-fareese from S.El, 
tteered to the N.W., and passed round the 
islands. Very for to the noKthwaxd, on the sea 
horinon* we saw a sand-bank, surrounded with 
heavy breaJfiers; and more to the westward was 
an island* which was at first supposed to bs one 
ef the Cbampdgisj Isles of Captain Baudin, but 
m)ad^ I afterwatds satiifi^ myself was Captain 



76. SUR VEY.OF. THE. INTDRTROnCAL 

im. Heywood's^Red Island : it is. nodcy and of.small . 
A«gr\ 1^ extent* . and. apparently quite barren. We :weia . 
fivxm afterwards abreast of a strait leading be-* 
tween some rqcky islands. to the southward; 
which, as it appeared to be free from danger, we ^ 
puq)osed to. steer through.. The brig entered it 
at. noon, when.it was highiwater^.and.as.she 
advaoced and reached the narrow part, the ebb- 
tide was setting so strong against . us that, al- 
though we were sailing five knots by the log, we 
were losing ground; we continued, however, to 
persevere for.three^hours and a half, and had run 

nearly twenty. miles by the log, without gaining 

• 

an inch ; the breeze then died away, and. not be- 
ing able to .stem the.tide, we steered, back for an- 
chorage, but it was dark and late before a favour- 
able :bottom .was. found, . so that we lost. all the. 
progress that: we had gained since noon. 
15. The next morning, after taking angles, from 
the sun's rising amplitude, we got underweigh 
and . stood . towards the strait, to make another 
ajlempt to pass through it. The view that vras 
obtained yesterday evening from the mast-iiead, 
before we put about to look for. anchorage, .in- 
duced us. to suppose that many reefs existed in 
the neighbourhood of its south entrance, fat one 
of .very extensive size was observed dry, lying 
off the south-west end of the island that bounds 



CdAfTS OF AUdTRALTA. 7? 

the west side of the strait. The north end of iML 
that island also appeared to be fronted by many Aug7i& 
shoals, which either embrace Red Island and 
extend to the northward, or else the channels 
are .narrow and deep. The flawing tide» now in 
oar &vour, carried us quickly forward : as we 
passed on we heard the voices of natives, and 
soon afterwards perceived two standing on a 
hill ; our course was, however, so rapid that we 
were soon out of sight of them; their fires ^ere 
seen yesterday, but then they did not make their 
appearance. 

The .flood-tide, running to the S. W. through 
the strait, meeting the ebb flowing N.E. into the 
deep bay to the S.E., formed many strong rip* 
plings, which to a stranger would have been a 
frightful vortex to have entered, and although 
we^had lately been accustomed to such appear- 
ances, yet we did not encounter them without 
some feax. After clearing them we sounded on 
a muddy bottom; upon which, as the wither 
was so thick and hazy as to conceal the land 
from our view, we anchored in seventeen fathoms 
muddy sand, at six miles from the strait r : 

In the afternoon the weather cleared a little^ 
but it was still too thick for us to be underweigh, 
so that we remained all the evening, which was 
profitably spent.in briqgiqg up the chart.; a 



78 SURVEY OP THfi INTfiBTROPICAL 

un. litdo before stuiBet the weatiher cleared and af-^ 
An^^ 16* forded a good view of the land, which to the 
8.E. is composed principally of islands, but aa 
numerous that the knain land could not be dis« 
tinguidhed beyond them; a point, afterwarda 
called Point Hall, round whidi the land trended 
to the southwaidi bore from the andiorage S. 
19^ E. 

The direction of the tides, the flood setting 
S.S.R, and the ebb N.N. W. and N.W., induced 
me to suppose that the opening to the eastward 
of the bay we were at anchor in, whidi was 
called Camden, in compliment to the noble 
Marquess, was not only connected with Rogers' 
Strait, but was also the outlet' of another consi- 
derable river or bay. 

At the anchorage the flood did not run at a 
greater rate than a mile and a half an hour, but 
it ebbed two miles, and fell thirty-seven feet, 
which is the greatest rise and ML we had yet 
found; it is probable, from the intricate nature 
of the coast, that these high tides are common to 
all this neighbourhood. 
M. At five o'clock, on the morning of the 1 6th after 
a fine night, the wind sprung up from the E.S.E. 
and blew fresh ; but misty weather immediately 
after sunrise enveloped us, and clouded our view. 
The breeze was too fi^sh for us to continue at 



COiUm OF AUVTRAUA. 79 

anchor, we therefiire got underweight and made im. 
sail by the wind ; but, upon standing across the Aug. it. 
diannel, and finding that the flood-tide set to 
the S.W.9 we bore away, and, passing round 
Point Hall, steered to the southward towards 
some low islands, thai were just visible through 
the haze, and which, being disposed in a group, 
were named after Mr. Andrew Montgomery, the 
mffgeon of the Bathurst. 

At noon, our latitude observed to the South, 
was 15^ 44' ir. The land was visible from the 
deck as fiu: as S. B(f W., but from the mast head 
at one o'clock it was seen as &r S; SO^ W., and a 
long low island, the westernmost of Montgomery 
Isles, bore from S.W.b.W. to S.W.b.S. The 
gioup, besides this, contained six other isles, . 
wfaidi are all low and rocky, and crowned with 
bushes: as we approached them the water 
shoaled to ten &thoms rocky ground ; which on 
being reduced to the depth of low virater, would 
not be more than five, and perhaps only four 
&thoms. Between Point Hall and these islands 
the ground was also rocky, and, as the group ap- 
peared to be connected by reefe, we steered off to 
pass round them ; the wind, however* changing 
to the westward, detained us all the evening 
near them. 

The land to the southward trended de^ly in, 



80 SURVEY' OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

'i88i» and appeared to be' much broken in its character, 
Aiigr.fo. and very uninviting to us who had only one 
anchor to depend upon. This bight vras named, 
at Mr. Montgomery's request, in compUment 
to the late Captain Sir George Collier, Bart., 
K.C.B., R.N. During the greater part of the 
night the v^ind was light, and, by the bearings 
of a fire on the land, we were making but little 
17. drift. At sunrise we were near two low islands, 
bearing S. 12° 22^ W., and S. 20° W., from 
which very extensive reefs were seen extending 
between the bearings of South and S.W.b.W. 
They were called Cockells Isles. We passed 
round their north end over a bottom of hard 
sand, mixed with shells, stones, and coral; in 
doing which, we found an irregular depth, but, 
as the water did not shoal to less than twelve 
fathoms, our course was not altered. Soon after 
the sun appeared above the horizon, the dis^- 
tant land was again enveloped in mist. At eight 
o'clock we ventured to steer more southerly, but 
continued to sound over a rocky bottom until 
ten o'clock, when the islands bore S.E.; we 
then steered S.W. through a muddv channel 
with the flood-tide in our favour, towards some 
land that, as the mist partially cleared off, be- 
came visible as &r as S.W.^W. ; some islands 
were also seen bearing S.S.K ; and at nooOt 



CX>ASTS OP ATISTTRALIA. 81 

being in latitude 15^ dOf 39", we found ourselves i89i. 
off a bay, the east head of which was formed Aug^. ir. 
by several islands. The land at the back ap^ 
peared to be of tolerable height, but its outline 
was so level, that it did not present any promi- 
nent feature sufficiently defined to take a bearing 
of more than once; its coast appeared to be 
fronted by several rocky islands, and to be very 
much intersected to the westward; either by 
straits or considerable openings. 

The continued hazy state of the weather pre- 
vented our ascertaining the particular feature of 
the country; it seemed to be rocky and very 
bare of vegetation ; but there were some parts, 
particularly on one of 'the islands to the east- 
ward at the entrance of Collier's Bay, where a 
few good-sized trees were growing over a sandy 
beach. 

The ebb tide after noon was against us, and the 
wind being light, we were making no progress. 
As sunset approached, we began to look for 
anchorage; but the suspicious nature of the 
bottom, and the great depth of the water, pre- 
vented our being successful until some time after 
dark ; the anchor was at last dropped in twenty- 
eight fathoms, on a bottom of sandy mud, with 
the ebb-tide setting to the N.W., at the rate 
nearly of two knots. 

Vol. II. O 



S8 SURVEY OP THE INTBRTROPICAI. 

im. ^ Several whales^ of that species called by 
Aug. 17. whalers ** fin-backs," were playing about us 
all day» and during the tnoming two or three 
were seen near the vessel lashing the water 
with their enormous fins and tails, and leaping 
at intervals out of the sea, which foamed around 
them for a considerable distance. 

After anchoring^ the wind was variable and light 
from the western quarter, but during the night 
there was a heavy swell. The flood-tidcr which 
commenced at nine o'clock, wh^ the depth was 
twenty-eight fathoms, gradually ran stronger 
until midnight, when its rate was two miles per 
hour: high water took place at 3h. 15' a.m., otf 
at twelve minutes before the pioon passed her 
meridian ; the rise being thirty '^six feet 
i& We were underweigh before six o'clock the 
next morning, and, after steering by the wind 
for a short time towards the southward, (on 
which course the tide being against us we were 
making no progress,) bore up with the inten- 
tion of hauling round the point to leeward for 
anchorage, whence we might examine the place 
by the means of our boats, and wait for more fa* 
vourable weather ; but upon reaching within half 
a mile of the point, we found that a shoal comr 
munication extended across to a string of islands 
projecting several miles to sea in a W-N.W. 



^ COASTS OF AWTRAUA. 83* 

directioii : in mid channel the sea was breaking, 'f^* 
and from the oolour of thfe water it is. more than ^* ^^ 
probable that a reef of rocks stretches the. whole 
distance across the strait ; but thid appearancet 
from the experience we afterwards had of the 
navigation of this part, might have been pro« 
duced by tide ripplings, occasioned by the ra« 
pidity of the stream, and by its 'being contracted 
in its passage through so narrow a pass ; it was, 
however, too doubtful and dangerous to at* 
tempt, without having some resourceio fly td in 
the event of accident. 

Being thus disappointed, we were under the 
necessity of steering round the above-mentioned 
range of islands, and at nine oclock were two 
miles N.E.b.K from the small island 18, when 
our latitude by observation was 16® 67' 56"; 
the depth being thirty-seVen frithoms, and the bot- 
tom of coral, mixed with sand, mud, and shells* 

To the westward, and in a parallel direction 
with this line of islands, was another range, 
towards which we steered ; at sunset we hauled 
to the wind for the night, off the northernmost 
island, which afterwards proved to be the Caffiu> 
relli Island of Captain Baudin. Between these 
two ranges of islands, we only obtained one 
cast of the lead, which gave us thirty-three 
fathoms on a coral bottom. Upon referring to 

G 8 



a4 



SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 



1881. the Fifench charts of this part of the coast, it ap- 
Aug. 18. peared that we were in the vicinity of a reef, (Brue 
Reef) under which the French ships had anchor- 
ed ; and, as the night was passed under sail, we 
were not a little anxious, fearing lest there might 
be others in its neighbourhood: at day-break, 
ift- Cafiarelli Island bore S.S.E. ; and shortly after* 
tvaids we had the satisfaction of seeing Bru6 
Reef; it appeared to be partly dry, but of small 
extrat. 

We passed within half a mile of the dry rock 
that lies a mile and a half from the west end of 
Caffarelli Island, and afterwards endeavoured to 
steer between the range of islands, of which 
Caffiurdli is the northermnost, and a group of 
tocky isles, marked 33 ; but finding we could not 
succeedfromthe scanty direction of the wind, then 
blowing a fresh breeze from S.E., we bore up 
round the west side of the latter, and then steered 
by the wind towards a group, of which the island 
* 40 is the principal. On approaching 40, there 
appeared to be a channel round its south-end ; 
but afterwards observing the sea breaking in the 
direction of our course, we tadced off, to pass 
round the west extremity of the group, towards 
two small low islands, 50 and 51, that were 
seen in the distance, bearing about S. 84^ W« 
The tide, having been before in our &vour> was 



GOA8T8 OF AUOTItAUA. 85 

now against us, and, Betting with great strragth, IM. 
drove us near the rocks that front the islands Aiig.|a 

r 

to the northward of Island 40 ; the wind was, 
liowever, sufficiently strong to enable us to dear 
the dangerous situation we found ourselves in, 
but soon afterwards it fell to a light air, and we 
were carried by the tide rapidly towards the 
low rocky extremity of the islets, which we 
were nearly thrown upon, when a breeze sud- 
denly sprung up again from the S.E., and en^ 
abled us to clear this impending danger. We 
were now drifting to the S.b.E. through a wide 
channel, sounding in between fifty and sixty 
fathoms, rocky bottom. Had the evening been 
less advanced and the wind favourable, we 
could have run through, and taken our chance 
of finding either anchorage or an open sea ; 
and although this would certainly have been 
hazarding a great risk» yet it was of very little 
consequence in what part of the archipelago we 
spent the night, as the spots which we might 
consider to be the most dangerous, might possibly 
be the least so. We had, however, no choice ; 
we were perfectly at the mercy of the tide, and 
had only to await patiently its ebbing, to drift us 
out as it carried us in. 

By our calculations, high-water should have 
tak^i place at a quarter past four o'dock; every 



86 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

IMI. minute, therefore^ after that time was {msiiied by 
Auf' *•• U8 most anxiously. Every now and then we were 
in the midst of the most violent ripplings and 
whirlpools, which sometimes whirled the vessel 
round and round, to the danger of our masts. 
Five o'clock at last arrived and the tide-eddies 
ceased, but the stream continued to run until a 
quarter of an hour afterwards, when at last the 
brig began to drift out slowly. To add now to 
the dilemma and the danger we were in, a 
breeze sprung up against us : had it ccHitinued 
calm, we should have been drifted back through 
the deepest part of the channel, over the same 
ground that the flood had carried us in : we, how- 
ever, made sail and beat out, and before dark 
had made considerable progress; we then lost 
sight of the land until eleven o'clock, when some 
was seen to the eastward: at half-past eleven 
we had a dead calm ; and, to increase our anx- 
iety, the tide had begun to flow, and to drift; 
us towards the land, which was then ascertained 
to be the group 33, on whose shores the sea 
was distinctly heard to break. As midnight 
appioached, the noise became still more and 
more plain ; but the moon at that time rose, and 
shewed that our position was very much more 
favourable than we had conjectured; for, by 
bearings of Caf&relli Island and the body of 38 



ooAsrrs of AVtrntAUk. VI 

group^ I found we were at least two or three i^ii. 
miles from the shore of the latter. A few minutes ^^i- ^^* 
after midnight we were relieved from our fears 
by the sudden springing up of a fresh breeze 
from S.W., and in a moment found ourselves, 
comparatively, out of danger. 

At daylight we were eight miles to the north- stx 
east of Caffiirelli Island ; whence we steered to 
the S.W.b.W. and S.S.W. Bru^ Reef was seen 
«8 we passed by it. At noon our latitude was 
16^ 14' 1", Cape Lev^ue bearing South. 

From noon until one o'clock we were steering 
8.S.W., but made no progress, on account of an 
adverse tide, which occasionally formed such 
Btrong eddies and ripplings, . that we were se- 
yeral times . obliged to steer off to get without 
thi^r ii^uence. The land of Cape Lev^que is 
low, and presents a sandy beach lined by a 
rocky reef, extending off the shore for a mile, 
on many parts of which the sea was breaking 
heavily: the land was clothed with a small 
brush wood, but altogether the coast presented a 
very unproductive appearance, and reminded us 
of the tristc and arid character of the Norths 
West Ci^. 

On laying down upon the chart the plan of this 
paxtf I found Cs^ Lev^que to be the point 
which Dampier anchored under when on his 



88 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^1. Buccaneering voyage in the Cygnet> in 1688, 
Aug. so. He says — '' We fell in with the land of New 
Holland in 16® SC, we ran in dose by it, and 
finding no convenient anchoring, because it lies 
open to the N.W., we ran along shore to the 
eastward, steering N.E.b.E., for so the land lies. 
We steered thus about twelve leagues, and then 
/^me to a point of land, from whence the land 
trends east and southerly for ten or twelve 
leagues ; but how, afterwards, I know not. About 
three leagues to the eastward of this point there 
is a pretty deep bay with abundance of islands 
m it, and a very good place to anchor in or to 
hale ashore. About a league to the eastward of 
that point we anchored in twenty-nine fathom« 
good hard sand and clean ground." He then 
proceeds to say — " This part of it (the coast) 
that we saw is all low, even land, with sandy 
banks against the sea, only the points are rocky» 
and so are some of the islands in the bay */' 

From this description I have little hesitation 
in settling Cape Leveque to be the point he 
passed round. In commemoration, therefore, of 
liis visit) the name t)f Buccaneer's Archipelago 
was given to the cluster of isles that fronts 
Cygnet Bay, which was so called after the name 
of the ship in which he sailed. The point 

* Dahpier, vol i. p. 462k 



COASTS OF AUOTRALIA. 8d 

within Cape Leveque was named Point Swan, issi. 
after the captain of the ship; and to a remark* Au^sol 
able lump in the centre of the Archipelago the 
name of Dampier's Monument was assigned. 
During the last four days we have laid down 
upwards of eighty islands upon the chart, and 
from the appearance of the land, it is not impro- 
bable but that there may be as many more 
behind them. 

Had we even recognised the bay above al* 
luded to by Dampier before we passed round 
Cape Leveque, we could not have anchored in 
it, for the wind was blowing strong from the 
northward, and a heavy swell was rolling, which 
would have placed us in rather a dangerous 
situation, besides its being exposed to easterly 
winds, which for the last two or three days had 
blown very strong. During the time we had 
been among these islands, we had not met with 
a single spot that we could have anchored upon 
without the ahnost certain loss of our anchor ; 
and the weather had been so very thick and 
hazy, that only the land in the vicinity of the 
vessel's situation could be at all distinguished; 
and these disadvantages, added to the great 
strength of the wind and the rapidity of tlie 
tides, had materially prevented us from making 



60 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

ICt}. ouro^lves better acquainted with the plaoe. It 
« 9d. is remarkable that as soon as we passed round 
the Champagny Isles, hazy weather commenced, 
and continued without intermission until we 
were to the westward of Cape Lev^que. The 
French complain of the same thing ; and they 
were so deceived by it that, in their first voyage, 
they laid down Adele Island as a part of the 
main, when it is only a sandy island about 
two or three miles long. No natives were seen 
on any of the islands, but there were many 
large smdces on the horizon at the back of 
Cygnet Bay. 

We were now beginning to feel the effects 
of this fatiguing duty. One-fourth of the people 
who kept watch were ill with bilious or feverish 
attacks, and we had never been altogether free 
from sickness since our arrival upon the coast. 
Mr. Montgomery's wound was, however, happily 
quite healed, and Mr. Roe had also returned to his 
duty ; but Mr* Cunningham, who had been con^ 
fined to the vessel since the day we arrived in 
Careening Bay, was still upon the sick list. 
Our passage up the east coast, the fatigues of 
watering and wooding at Prince* Regent's Riw, 
and our constant harassing employment during 
the examination of the coast between Hanover 



OOAfirra OP AUSTTRAUA. 91 

Bay and •Cape Levftque, had produced their bad iw- 
effects upon the constitutions of our people. Every Au^. aa 
means were taken to prevent sickness: preserved 
meats were issued two days in the week in lieu 
of salt provisions ; and this diet» with the usual 
proportions of lemon-juice and sugar, proved 
so good an anti-scorbutic that, with a few trifling 
esLcepticms^ no case of scurvy occurred Our dry 
provisions had suffered much from rats and cock- 
roaches ; but this was not the only way these 
vermin annoyed us, for, on opening a keg of 
musquet-ball cartridges, we found, out of 750 
rounds^ more than half the number quite de- 
stroyed, and the remainder so injured as to be 
ijuite useless. 

The following day we made very little pro- si. 
fress, from light winds in the morning and a 
dead calm the whole of the evening. At sunset 
we anchored at about four miles from the sbore^ 
in seventeen fiithtHns sandy ground. 

During the afternoon we were surrounded by 
aa immense number of whales, leaping out of 
the water and thrashing the sea with their 
fins ; the noise of which, from the calmness and 
perfect stillness of the air, was as loud as the re- 
port of a volley of musquetry. Some remoras wece 
also swimming about the vessel the whole day, 
and a snake about four feet long, of a yeUowish 



92 SCIRVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

ii^i. brown colour^ rose up along-side, but instantly 
Aug. 21. dived upon seeing the vessel. 
22. High-water took place the next morning at 
twenty-six minutes after six o'clock, at which 
time we got underweigh witli a moderate land- 
breeze from S.S.E., and steered to the south- 
ward along the shore. At noon we were in lati- 
tude 16° 30' 19", Cape Bonla bearing S. 42^° R 
Soon after noon the sea-breeze sprung up from 
the northward and, veering to N.W., carried 
us to the southward along the coast which is 
low and sandy. At three o'clock we were 
abreast of a point which was conjectured to be 
the land laid down by the French as Emeriau 
Island ; the name has therefore been retained* 
with the alteration only of " Point" for Island. To 
the eastward of Cape Borda the coast falls back 
and forms a bay, the bottom of which was visi- 
ble from our mast-head and appeared to be com- 
posed of sand-downs. From Point Emeriau 
the coast trends to the south-west, and pre- 
serves the same sandy character. At five o'clock 
Lacepede Islands, which were seen by Captain 
Baudin, were in sight to the westward ; and at 
sunset we anchored in eight fathoms, at about 
three leagues within them. These islands are 
three in number, and appear to be solely in- 
habited by boobies and other sea-fowl : they are 



COASTS OP AUSTRAUA. 93 

kw and sandy, and all slightly crowned with a i^. 
few shrubby bushes; the reef that encompasses Aag.82» 
them seemed to be of great extent. 

The next day we were steering along the shore, tt« 
and passed a sandy projection which was named 
Cape Baskerville, after one of the midshipmen 
of the Bathurst. To the southward of Cape 
Baskerville the coast trends in, and forms Camot 
Bay ; it then takes a southerly direction. It is 
here that Tasman landed, according to the fol- 
bwing extract frcMn Dalrymple's Papua — •* In 
HoUandia Nova, in IT 12r S. (Longitude 121°, 
or 122° E.) Tasman found a naked, black people, 
with curly hair, malicious and cruel ; using for 
arms, bows and arrows, hazeygaeys and kala- 
waeys. They once came to the number of fifty, 
double armed, dividing themselves into two par- 
ties, intending to have surprised the Dutch, who 
had landed twenty-five men; but the firing of 
guns frightened them so, that they fled. Their 
proas are made of the bark of trees ; their coast 
is dangerous; there are few vegetables; the 
people use no houses." 

At noon our latitude was 17° 13' 29". At four 
o*clock we were abreast of Captain Bandings 
Point Coulomb, which M. De Freycinet describes 
to be the projection at which the Red Clifi^ com- 
mence. The interior is here higher than to 



94' SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

IMI4 the tiorthward, and gradually rises, at the dis- 
Aug:. 88. tance of eight miles from the shore, to wooded 
hills, and bears a more pleasing and verdant ap*^ 
pearance than we have seen for some time past ; 
but the coast still retains the same sandy and \xa^ 
inviting character. During the afternoon we had 
but a light sea-breeze from the westward ; and 
at sunset the anchor was dropped in thirteen 
fathoms fine soft sand, at about six miles from 
the shore. Large flocks of boobies flew over 
the vessel at sunset, directing their course to- 
wards the reefs of Lacepede Islands, and in 
the direction of the Whale Bank, which, ac^ 
cording to the French chart of this part, lies 
in the offing to the westward. As no island 
was noticed by us in the position assigned to 
Captain Baudin s Camot Island, the bay to the 
southward of Cape Baskerville has received that 
name. The smokes of fires have been noticed 
at intervals of every four or five miles along 
the shore, from which it may be inferred that 
this part of the coast is very populous. Captain 
Dampier saw forty Indians together, on one of 
the rocky islands to the eastward of Cape Le- 
v^ue, and, in his quaint style, gives the sub- 
joined interesting account of them :— 

'' The inhabitants of this country are the nli- 
serablest people in the world. The Hodmadoda 



COASTS OF AUOTRAUA. 95 

of Mon0matapa> though a naBty people, yet for iMk 
wealth are gentlemen to these; who have no Auf.st, 
housea, and skin garments, sheep, poultry, and 
fruits of the earth, ostrich eggs, ^., as the Hod^ 
madods have: and setting aside their human 
Bhape, they differ but little from brutes. They 
are tall, strait-bodied, and thin, with small, long 
limbs. They have great heads, round foreheads, 
and great brows. Their eye-lids are always 
half closed, to keep the flies out of their eyes i 
they being so troublesome here, that no fanning 
will keep them from coming to one's face ; and 
without the assistance of both hands to keep 
them off, they will creep into one*s nostrils, and 
mouth too, if the lips are not shut very close ; so 
that from their infancy, being thus annoyed with 
these insects, they do never open their eyes as 
other people ; and therefore they cannot see far» 
unless they hold up their heads, as if they were 
looking at somewhat over them. 

'' They have great bottle-noses, pretty full 
lips, and wide mouths. The two fore-teeth of 
their upper-jaw are wanting in all of them, men 
and women, old and young ; whether they draw 
them out, I know not : neither have they any 
beards. They are long-visaged, and of a very 
unpleasant aspect, having no one graceful feature 
in their faces. Their hair is black, short and 






96 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

180L curled, like that of the negroes ; and not long and 

AttiTss. lank like the common Indians. The colour of 

their skins, both of their &ces and the rest of 

their body, is coal-black, like that of the negroes 

of Guinea*. 

*' They have no sort of ck>thes, but a piece of 
the rind of a tree tied like a girdle about their 
waists, and a handful of long grass, or three or 
four small green boughs fiiU of leaves, thrust 
under their girdle, to cover their nakedness. 

'* They have no houses, but lie in the open air 
without any covering ; the earth being their bed, 
and the heaven their canopy. Whether they co- 
habit one man to one woman, or promiscuously, 
I know not; but they do live in companies, 
twenty or thirty men, women, and children toge- 
ther. Their only food is a small sort of fish, 
which they get by making wears of stone across 
little coves or branches of the sea; every tide 
bringing in the small fish, and there leaving 
them for a prey to these people, who constantly 

* The natives of Hanover Baj, with whom we communicatedp 
were not deprived of their front teeth> and wore their beards 
long-; they also differed from the above description in having- 
their hair long* and curly. Dampier may have been deceived in 
this respect, and from the use that they make of their hair, by twist* 
ing it up into a substitute for thread, they had probably cut it off 
close, which would give them the appearance of having woolly 
bur like the negro. 



COASTS OF AUSTTRAUA. 97 

attend there to search for them at low water. This igsi. 
small fry I take to be the top of their fishery : Aug. ao. 
they have no instruments to catch great fish, 
should they come; and such seldom stay to be 
left behind at low-water: nor could we catch any 
fish with our hooks and lines all the while we 
lay there. In other places at low-water they 
seek for cockles, muscles, and periwinkles. Of 
these shell-fish there are fewer still; so that their 
diief dependance is upon what the sea. leaves 
in their wares ; which, be it much or little, they 
gather up, and march to the places of their 
abode. There the old people that are not able 
to stir abroad by reason of their age, and the 
tender infants, wait their return ; and what Pro- 
vidence has bestowed on them, they presently 
broil on the coals, and eat it in common. Some- 
times they get as many fish as makes them a 
plentiful banquet ; and at other times they scarce 
get every one a taste ; but be it little or much 
that they get, every one has his part, as well the 
young and tender, the old and feeble, who are 
not able to go abroad, as the strong and lusty. 
When they have eaten they lie down till the 
next low-water, and then iall that are able march 
out, be it night or day, rain or shine, 'tis all 
one; they must attend the wears, or else they 
must fast ; for the earth affords them no food at 

Vol. n. H 



. 98 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

im. aU. There is neither herb^ root, pulse, nor any 
A^. 90. sort of grain for them to eat, that we saw ; nor 
any sort of bird or beast that they can catch, 
having no instruments wherewithal to do so. 

*' I did not perceive that they did worship 
any thing. These poor creatures have a sort 
of weapon to defend their wear, or fight with 
their enemies, if they have any that will interfere 
with their poor fishery. They did at first ^i- 
deavour with their weapons to frighten us, who, 
lying ashore, deterred them from one of their 
fishing-places. Some of them had wooden swords, 
others had a sort of lances. The sword is a 
piece of wood shaped somewhat like a cutlass ^. 
The lance is a long strait pole, sharp at one end, 
and hardened afterwards by heat. I saw no 
iron, nor any sort of metal ; therefore it is pro- 
bable they use stone hatdiets, bA some Indians 
in America do, described in chap. iv. 

'' How they get their fire I know not ; but 
probably as Indians do, out of wood. I have 
sa^n the Indians of Bon- Airy do it, and have 
myself tried the experiment. They take a flat 
piece of wood that is pretty soft, and make a 
small dent in one side .i£ it, then they take 
aiHDther hard, roupd- stidk, about the bigness of 
one's little ^finger, and sharpened at one end 

* FtdbeiAj E boomerasgf. See a note, vol. i. p. BtB. 



C0MT9 W AUflTEAlM. M 

like a pencil, they put that sharp end in the hole )W. 
or dent of the flat soft piece, and then rubbing Aug* W> 
or twirling the hard piece between the palm of 
their hands, they drill the soft piece till it umckeB, 
and at last takes fire. 

'' These peq>le speak somewhat through the 
throat ; but we could not understand one woi4 
that they said. We anchored* as I said before^ 
January the 5di, and seeing men walking on the 
shore, we presently sent a canoe to get some 
acquaintance with th^n ; for we were in hqpes 
to get sc»ne provision aBK>ng them* But the in* 
habitants, seeing our boat coming, run away 
and hid themselves. We seaiched afterwards 
three days in hopes to find their houses, but 
found none; ]ret we saw many places whwe 
they had made fires. At last, being out of hopes 
toi find their habitati(»is, we searched no &rther ; 
but left a great many toys ashore, in such places 
where we thought they would come. In all our 
search we found no water, but old wells on the 
sandy bays. 

** At last we went over to the islands, and 
there we found a great many of the natives ; I 
do believe there were forty on one island, men, 
women, and children. The men on our first 
coming ashore, threatened us with their lances 
and swords ; but they were firightened by firing 

H 8 



f 00 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

l*Bi. one gun, which we fired purposely to scare them. 
Aug. so. The island was so small that they could not 
hide themselves ; but they were much disordered 
at our landing, . especially the women and chil- 
dren ; for we went directly to their camp. The 
lustiest of the women snatching up their infants 
ran away howling, and the little children run 
after squeaking and bawling ; but the men stood 
still. Soime of the women, and such people as 
could not go from us, lay still by a fire, making 
a dolefiil noise, as if we had been coming to 
devour them : but when they saw we did not 
intend to harm them, they were pretty quiet, 
aud the rest that fled firom us at our first coming, 
returned again. This their place of dwelling 
was only a fire, with a few boughs before it, 
set up on the side the winds was of. 

** After^ we had been, here a little while, the 
men began to be familiar, and we clothed some 
of them, designing to have some service of them 
for it ; for we found some wells of water here, 
and intended to carry two or three barrels of it 
aboard. But it being somewhat troublesome to 
carry to the canoes, we thought to have made 
these men to have carried it for us, and therefore 
we gave ihem some old clothes ; to one an old 
pair of breeches, to another a ragged shirt, to the 
third a jacket that was scarce worth owning ; 



CX)ASTS OF AUOTRAUA. Wl 

which yet would have been very ax^ceptable at i^. 
some places where we had been, and so we Aug; 90. 
thought they might have bben with these people. 
We put them on them, thinking that this finery 
would have brought them to work heartily for 
us; and our water being filled in small long 
barrels, about six gallons in each, which were 
made purposely to carry water in, we brought 
these our new servants to the wells, and put a 
barrel on each of their shoulders for them to 
carry to the canoe. But all the signs we could 
make were to no purpose, for they stood like 
statues, without motion, but grinned like so 
many monkeys, staring one upon another ; for 
these poor creatures seem, not accustomed to 
carry burthens; and I believe that one of our 
ship-boys of ten years old would carry as much 
as one of them. So we were forced to carry 
our water ourselves, and they very fairly put 
ihe clothes off again, and laid them down, as if 
clothes were only to work in. I did not perceive 
that they had any great liking to them at first, 
neither did they seem to admire any thing that 
we had. 

''* At another time our canoe being among 
these islands seeking for game, espied a drove 
of these men swimming from one island to an- 
other ; for they have no boats, canoes, or bark- 
logs. They took four of them, and brought them 



I ■ • • 

• » • •• 






'1(J2 ' * SukvEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

im. Aboard ; two of them were middle-aged, the 
kag7». other two were young men about eighteen or 
twmty years dd. To these we gave boiled 
rioe, and with it turtle and manatee boiled. 
They did greedily devour what we gave them, 
but tock no notice of the ship, or any thing in it, 
and when they w^De set <»i land again, they ran 
away as fast as they could. At our first owning, 
before we were acquainted with them, or they 
with us, a company of them who lived (m the 
makn, came just against our ship, and standing 
on a pretty high bank, threatened us with their 
swords and lances, by shaking them at us : at 
last the captain ordered the drum to be beaten, 
which was done of a sudden with much vigour, 
purposely to scare the poor creatures. They 
hearing the XK>i8e, ran away as fast as they 
could drive ; and when they ran away in haste, 
they would cry gtmy, gurry, speaking deep in 
the throat Those inhabitants also that live on 
the main would always run away fix)m us ; yet 
we took several df th^n. For, as I have already 
observed^ they had such bad eyes, that they 
they could not see us till we came close to them. 
We did always give them victuals, and let them 
go again, but the islanders, after our first time of 
being among them, did not stir for us^.'* 

* pAMnBiu vol. i. p. 4i4!i et eeq. 



ooAsrrs op auctralia. 103 

At this anchorage we perceived very little rise im* 
and fall of tide, and the flood and ebb both s^ ^^^ ^• 
to the northward ; this was also the case at our 
andiorage within the Lacepede Islands. At four 
o'clock the next morning a strong south-easterly 
breeze sprang up, and moderated again before 
we weighed ; but no sooner were we under sail 
than it finashened again, and, at half-past five 
o'dock, blew so strong as to oblige our double 
re^ng the topsails, which had not been done for 
many weeks before. At noon the wind fell, and 
was very calm, at which time our latitude ob- 
served was IT 36' 38". The highest part of 
the land bore N. 70|'' E., south of which a 
sandy point, supposed to be Captain Baudin's 
Cape Boileau, bore S. 87^ E. ; and a smoke, 
a litde to the northward of the mast-head ex- 
treme, bearing S. 42^ K must be upon the land 
in the neighbourhood of Cape Latreille. 

Soon after noon the breeze veered round by 
South to W.S.W., and enabled us to make some 
progress ; at sunset we again anchored in thir- 
teen fiithoms, soft sand, at six miles &oax a 
sandy projecticoi c£ the main, which we after- 
wards found to be the land called by Captain 
Baudin^ Gantheaume Island; the name has there- 
fine been given to the point, for there was no 
iq[ypearanoe of its being insulated. It bears a 



104 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1881. truly desolate appearance, being nothing but 
Augf. «)• ridges of bare white sand, scantily crowned with 
a few shrubby bushes. 

Behind Point Gantheaume the land appeared 
to be formed by downs of very white sand; 
and between this point and Cape Boileau is a 
bay, which at first, from the direction of the 
flood stream at the anchorage, was conjectured 
to be an inlet ; but as the tide afterwards set to 
the Northward and N.E., it was concluded to 
be occasioned by the stream sweeping round the 
shores of the bay : according to the depth along- 
side, there was a rise of ten feet; after high 
water the ebb set between N.JW. and N.N.E., 
at the rate of a quarter to three-quarters of a 
knot. 

During the whole day the horizon was oc- 
cupied by haze, and produced a very remark- 
able effect upon the land, which was so raised 
above the horizon by refiraction, that many distant 
objects became visible that could not otherwise 
have been seen. This mirage had been fre- 
quently observed by us on various parts of the 
coast, but never produced so extraordinary an 
effect as on the present occasion. The coast line 
appeared to be formed of high chalky cliffs, 
crowned by a narrow band of woody hillodcs ; 
and the land of Cape Villaret was so devated 



r" 



ctjAsrrs OP auotraua. 105 

as to be distinctly seen at the distance of forty is9t. 
miles, whereas two days. afterwards, the weather Aug. so. 
being dear, it was not visible above the horizon 
for more than five leagues. This state of the at- 
mosphere caused a rapid evaporation during the 
day, and as the evening approached, a very co- 
pious dew commenced falling, which by sunset 
was precipitated like a shower of rain. 

The next morning the land was again, enve- 
loped in haze, but at seven o'clock it cleared off 
a litde, and the coast was observed to trend 
round Point Gantheaume to the south-east, but 
as we had last evening seen it as far to the 
westward as S.W.b.S., we steered in the latter 
direction under the idea of there being no open- 
ing to the southward of the point, since the 
flood-tide flowed from it, instead of towards it, 
as it naturally would have done, had there been 
any inlet of consequence thereabout. 

As usual, we had been surrounded by whales, 
and large flights of boobies ; one of the latter 
lighted upon the deck this afternoon, and was 
easily taken; it seemed to be the same bird 
(pelecanus fiber) that frequents the reefs upon the 
north and north eastern coasts^^ Between sun- 
rise and mid-day our progress was much re- 
tarded by light south easterly winds. At noon 
itewere in 17° 51' 45" S. : after which the sea- 



106 SURVEY OF THE INTEBTROPICAL 

iiti. breeze set iii from S.S.W. and S.W., and we 
Ang.Bn. fiteered to the southward. The land was now 
visible ccmsiderably to the southward of Point 
Oantheaume, but of a very low and sandy cha- 
racter ; and as we proceeded, it came in sight 
to the S.S.W. At sunset we anofaoied about 
five or six miles to the north of Captain Baudin*s 
Cape Villaret ; the extreme, which ws^s in sight 
a little without it, was doubtless his Cape La- 
toudie-Treville. From Cape Villaret the land 
trended to the RN.E, and was seen very nearly 
to join the shore at the bade of Point Gantheaume. 

The dew was precipitated as copiously this 
evening as the last, and the sun set in a very 
dense bank ; but the night was throughout fine. 
We now began to experience a more consider- 
able set of tide than we had fimnd since rounding 
Cape Leveque, for the rate was as mudi as a 
knot and a half; but as the tides were neaped, 
it <»ily rose nine feet. 

At an anchorage near this spot, in the year 
1699, Captain Dampier remaiks that the tide 
rose and fell five £ithoms, and ran so strong 
that his nun-buoy would not watch: but the 
Fteadi expedition, at an anchorage a litde to the 
southward, found the flood-tide to set S.S,E. and 
to rise only nine feet, the moon being then three 
days past her full. All these particulars have 



OOAflm OP AOTTllALIA. 107 

bam mentioDfid, since it is from the nature of mi. 
the tides that Captain Dampier formed his hypo- Aug^m- 
thesis of the existence of either a strait or an 
cq>ening between this and the Rosemary Islands ; 
but from our experience, it would appear more 
probable, that these great tides aie occasioned 
by the numerous inlets that intersect the coast 
between this and Cape Voltaire ; a further ex- 
amination, however, can only prove the real 
cause. 

At daylight (26th) we weighed with a light 26. 
breeze from S.W., but soon afterwards falling 
calm, and the tide drifting us to the S.E. the 
anchor was again dropped: ten minutes after- 
wards a land breeze from E.S.E. sprung up, to 
which we again weighed, but no sooner were 
we under sail than we were enveloped in a thick 
mist, that blew off the land, where it had been 
collecting for the last two days. At eleven o^clock 
the fog cleared away to seaward, but the land was 
screened from our view until noon, when a sea 
breeze from west gradually dispersed the f(^, 
and the hillocky summit of Cape Latouche-Tre- 
ville viras seen, bearing S. 17^ W. At half past 
twdve two roc^y lumps on the land to the west- 
ward of Cape ViUsuret were seen, and very soon 
afterwards the hill on the cape made its appear- 
ance. Between Capes Villaret and Latouche- 



108 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

im. Treville, is a bay formed by very low sandy 
Aig. 2s. land, slightly dothed with a stunted vegetation. 
The wind was now unfavourable for our ap- 
proaching the land, and after standing off to sea, 
and then towards the shore, we anchored in 
thirteen fathoms coarse sand. 

At this anchorage we found a still greater dif- 
ference in the tides than was experienced the night 
preceding; the flood set S.E.b.E. and E.S.E..; 
and the ebb from N.N.K round to W.N.W.; 
the rise was sixteen feet and a half, from which 
it would appear probable that there must be some 
reason for so great an indraught of water into 
the bight between Cape Villaret and Point Gan- 
theaume, which I have named Roebuck Bay, 
after the ship that Captain Dampier commanded 
when he visited this part of the coast. 

As the wind now blew constantly from the 
S. W., or from some southern direction, and caused 
our progress to be very slow and tedious ; and 
as the shore for some distance to the southward 
of Cape Latouche-Treville had been partly seen 
by the Frendi, I resolved upon leaving the coast. 
Our water was also nearly expended, and our 
provisions, generally, were in a very bad state ; 
besides which, the want of a second anchor was 
so much felt, tiiat we dared not venture into any 
difficulty where tibe appearance of the place in* 



COASTS OF AUSTTRAliA. 109 

vited a particular invttstigati(»i) on account of the 18^. 
exposed nature of the coast, and the strength of Aug. ai. 
the tides, which were now near the springs: 
upon every consideration, therefore, it was not 
deemed prudent to rely any longer upon the 
good fortune that had hitherto so often attended 
us in our difficulties. Accordingly after weigh- sr. 
ing, we steered off by the wind, and directed our 
course for Mauritius. 

On the 22d . September at daylight, after a Septse. 
passage of twenty-lSve days, we saw Roderigues, 
five or six leagues to the northward. In the 
evening, a fresh gale sprung up from the south- 
ward, and we experienced very bad weather: 
at noon of the 24th, by our calculation, we were ^ 
seventy-three miles due East from the north end 
of Mauritius, and, having the day before expe- 
rienced a westerly current of one mile per hour, 
we brought to at sunset for the night, from the 
fear of getting too near the shore. 
. At daylight the following morning, being by S5. 
the reckoning only thirty-four miles to the east- 
ward of the north-end of the island, we bore up 
for it ; but the land, being enveloped in clouds, 
was not seen until noon ; we then found ourselves 
off the south-east end, instead of the north point; 
having been set to. the southward since yester- 
day noon at the. rate of three-quarters of a mile 



1 10 SURVIT OF THE INmTROPICAI^ 

itti. ao hour : in oonsequence of .which we determined 

i8«pfc.«L upon going round the south side, and bore up 

for that purpose ; upon approaching the land, we 

found another current setting us to the north. 

96. The next morning at nine o'clock, we passed 
round the Mome Brabant, the south-west point 
of the island, but it was four o'dodi before wa 
reached our anchorage, (at a cable's lengthy 
within the flag beacon, at the entrance of Port 
Louis,) in fifteen fiithoms mud ; we were then 
visited by the Health Officer, and afterwarda 
by a boat from H. M. Ship Menai, wbidi was 
at anchor in the port;' but as it was too late 
that evening to enter, the brig was not moved 

fr. until the following morning, when she was 
warped in and moored head and stem within 
the harbour. 

My wants were immediately made known to 
Captain Moresby, C.B. (of H. M. Ship Menai,) 
who directed the necessary repairs to be per* 
formed by the carpenters of his ship ; those ar- 
ticles which could not be supplied from the 
Menai's stores, were advertised for in the Mau« 
ritius Gazette, when the most reasonable tenders 
were accepted. 

As many of the carpenters and caulkers of 
the Menai as could be spared from their other 
occupations, were daily employed upon our re- 



coAsrrs of AUvriuLiA. Tl 1 

pairs ; but, from her being put into quarantine, imi. 
and o£ber unforeseen delays, they were not com* SvpTsr* 
{deted for nearly a month: our sails were re- 
paired by the Menai s sailmakers ; and, as all 
our running rigging was condemned, and we had 
rery little spare rope on board, her rope-makers 
made sufficient for our wants. The greater part 
of our bread being found in a damaged state 
from leaks, was surveyed and condanned. 
Captain Flinders's* account of Mauritius ap- 

• 

* It afforded me lerj great pleasure to hear the high terms in 
which my late friend and predecessor Captain Flinders was spoken 
of hj the inhabitants of this ishmd, and tiieir [general re^t at 
his infamous detention. His friend M. Pitot had lately died, but I 
met many French g^entlemen who were acquainted with him. Gene- 
ral Decaen, the governor, was so much disliked by the inhabitants, 
that Captain Flinders gained many friends at his expense, who 
would not otherwise have troubled themselves about him; and 
this circnmstance, probably, went far toMrards increasing the seve- 
rity of the treatment he so unjustly received. An anecdote of him 
was related to me by a resident of Port Louis, which, as it re- 
dmmds to his honor, I cannot lose the gratification of recording. 

When Captain Flinders was at the house of Madame d*Arifat, in 
file district of Pfatins Wilhems, in which he was latterly permitted to 
reside upon his parole, an opportunity of escaping from the island 
was offered to him by the commander of a ship bound to India : it 
was nrged to him by his friends that, from the tyrannical treat'- 
ment he had received, and the unjustifiable detention he was en- 
during, no parole to such a man as General Decaen ought to be 
thought binding, or prevent him from regaining his liberty, and em- 
bracing any opportunity of returning to his friends and country. 
The escape was well planned, and no chance of discovery likely to 
happen: the ship sailed from Port Louis, and at night, bringing to 



1 12 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

1821. pears to have been drawn up with much cor- 
SepTsr. rectness and judgment, and is, even at the pre* 
sent day, so descriptive of the island, as to 
be considered both by the Englisih and French 
residents of Port Louis, as the best that has yet 
been given to the world. Many alterations and 
considerable improvements have, however, taken 
place since his departure, and among the latter, 
the improved system of the culture of the sugar 
cane, and the introduction of modem machinery 
into their mills, may be particularly mentioned. 
These have been eflfected entirely by the political 
changes that have, since Captain Flinders's cap- 
tivity, taken place in the government of the 
island ; and by the example and exertions of the 
English, who possess very large plantations, and 
indeed may be considered now as the principal 
proprietors of the land. 

For some years past coflFee has entirely fSEtiled 
upon the island, and cotton is seldom seen grow- 
on the leeward side of the island abreast of Captain Flinders^s re- 
sidence, sent a boat to the appointed spot, which was six miles only 
from Madame d*Arifat*s house ; but after waiting until near daylig^ht 
without the captain making his appearance, the boat returned to the 
vessel, which was obliged to pursue her voyage to prevent suspicion. 
It is almost needless to add, that Captain Flinders did not think 
it consistent with his feelings to take advantage of the opportunity, 
nor to effect his escape from imprisonment by a conduct so dis- 
graceful to the character of a British officer, and to the honourajble 
profession to which he belonged. 



COASTS OF AUffTRAUA . 113 

ing. The principal attention of the halntans ap- laei. 
peaied to be given to the cultivation of the sugar* SepTsr, 
cane and maize, both of which had begun to 
produce an abundant return to the planters ; the 
manihot is also generailly cultivated: but the 
dreadful effects of the hurricanes, to which this 
island is exposed, render property of so preca- 
rious and doubtful a tenure, that nothing is se* 
cure until the season for these destructive visi- 
tations is over ; they last [from the beginning of 
December to the end of April, and generally 
occur about the full of the moon, being inva- 
riably preceded by an unsteady motion of the 
mercury in the barometer. They are not always 
so violent as to be termed hurricanes : the last 
experienced before our visit, was merely a '' coup 
dc vent" by which very little damage was sus- 
tained*. 

The town of Port Louis, which is at the north- 
west, or leeward, side of the island, is built at 
the extremity of an amphitheatre of low land, * 
bad^ed in by a high and precipitous range, upon 

• In the month of January, 18S4i» thig unfortunate idand was 
ngun visited and laid waste by a tremendous hurricane that did 
Tery considerable damage, and has in a gretit measure destroyed 
the prosperous state which the island was beginniog to arrive at, 
from the prerioiis long^ absence of this dreadful Tisitation. 

Vol. II. I 



1 14 SURVSV 0P Itm tHfBHtftOPICAL 

jm. whieh Peter Botte, and the Pouce are conspiai- 
tiirsr. ouB features. The streets are laid out at right 
angles^ the principal of which lead from the 
Chauss^e to the Champ de Mars, a plot of 
grassy land, about half a mile square, that in* 
tervraes between the town and the hills* This 
is the promenade, the drive, the race course, and, 
in fact, the principal resort for the inhabitants* 
It is skirted by houses, and gardens, and is a 
valuable acquisition to the town. The Chaussee 
and other streets are well furnished with useful 
shops, of which those of the Tinman, the Drug* 
gist, and the Comervateur et Patimery are the 
most numerous. 

The houses, generally of wood, are irregularly 
built, and far from being elegant in their .appear- 
ance; those, however, that have been lately con- 
structed by our countrymen have already given 
the place an appearance of solidity, that it 
could not boast of before, and several sub- 
stantial stone dwellings and stores have lately 
been erected. The roads, for seven or eight 
miles out of the town, leading to Pamplemousses, 
to Plams Wilhems and to Moca districts, are 
very good, and are kept in repair partly by Ma- 
labar convicts from India ; but travelling beyond 
that distance is performed in palanquins, which 



ooA9n OP kvmkkUk. 1 15 

four bearen wiU carryt at a steady pace, at the im. 
rate of six njOes per hour* fiapt wv 

At the time of our visit there were few firoits 
ripe ; but when we were about to sail, the mango 
of delicious flavour began to be common; be* 
sides whidi there were coooa-nuts» guavas, pa- 
paw8> grapes, the letchy (or la-chu, a Clhinese 
iruit), and some indifferent pineapples. The 
ship's company were sup^died daily with fresh 
beef and vegetables. The latter were procured in 
abundance at the bazaar, and were exceeding 
fine, particularly carrots and cabbages of an 
unusually large size, and fine flavour* Bullocks 
are imported into the island from Madagascar, 
in which trade there are two vessels constantly 
engaged during the fine season. 

Horses are very scarce; they are imported 
from the Cape of Good Hope, and fetch a high 
price : a cargo of a hundred and seventy-seven 
mules arrived from Buenos Ayres while we were 
at Port Louis, which, on being sold by auction, 
averaged each one hundred and eighty dollars. 
To encourage the importation of these usefiil 
animals, a premium of five dollars is oflfered by 
the government for every mule that is brought 
alive to the island. 

The circulating medium was principally of 

19 



1 16 SURYEY OP THE INTERTROnCAL 

im, paper, but bore a very great depreciation ; the 
9^u «r. premium upon bills of exchpnge upcm Europe, 
at the time of our departure, was as much as 
66 to 76 per cent., and upon silver . coin there 
was a depreciation of 45 per cent. 
. On the voyage to this place, three charts of 
^e north-west coast were reduced and copied by 
Mr. Roe, and were forwarded to the Admiralty 
by H. M. Sloop Cygnet, together with a. brief 
account of our voyage, from the time that we 
parted company with the Dick, off Cape Van 
Dieinen. 

No observations were tdcen at this place, ex- 
cepting for ascertaining the rates of the chrono- 
meters, and for the variation and dip of the 
magnetic needle : the former being 12^ 31' West, 
and the latter 5r 42^ 1". The situation of the 
observatory has been long since fixed by the 
Abbe de la CaiUe, in 20'' 10' South latitude, and 
Sr 29' East longitude. 

I cannot conclude this very brief account of 
our visit to Mauritius, without expressing my 
acknowledgments for the civiUties and hospita- 
lity we received from our countrymen at Port 
Louis, particularly from His Excellency Sir Ro- 
bert T. Farquhar, Bart, who so long and ably 
presided as Governor of the Island; and for 



COASTS OF AUSTTRAUA. 



117 



the valuable assistance rendered me in our re- i82i. . 
equipment by Captain Fairfax Moresby, C.B., ScpTsr. 
of H. M. Ship Menai, for which, the expedition 
I had the honour to command is under more 
than a common professional obligation. 



lis suRVKY Of vm mwtwpvMj 



CHAPTER III. 

Departurb from Port Louis :— Voyage to the South- West Coast 
of New Holland : — ^Anchor in King George the Third*8 Sound : 
— Occurrences there : — ^Visited hy the Natives : — Our intercourse 
with them: — Description of their weapons and other iinpJe- 
ments: — ^VocabuUry of their language: — Meteorological and 
other observations : — Edible plants : — Testaceous productions. 

1821. On the 10th of November we were ready for 
Nov. 10. sea, but, from various delays, did not quit the 

15. V^^ ^^^ ^^ 1^^* ^^ midnight we passed 
round the Mome Brabant, and the next evening 
at sunset saw the high land of Bourbon : for the 
first two days we had south-east winds, and upon 
reaching the parallel of 25"^, the winds became 
light and baffling, with cahns; but as we ad- 
vanced more to the southward, they gradually 
veered to east and north-east, and afterwards to 

81. north-west, with very fine weather. We did not 
get out of the influence of these variable winds 

%• until the 28th, when we were at noon in latitude 
32^ 47', and longitude 65° 5'; after which we 
encountered westerly winds and rough weather. 
On the whole, we had a very quick passage 
to the coast of New Holland ; and for the last 
week were expedited by a strong westerly 



?: 



GOAffTB OF AUTTRALU. U9 

gale, without mcountering any accident, or the mi- 
cocurrence of any circumstance worth reooidiog* Nov. tt. 

On the 28rd of December, at daylight, the Dec sa 
land about Cape Chatham was in sight, and a 
course was directed to the eastward for King 
Oeoige's Sound ; where it was my intention to 
complete our wood and water previous to com- 
mencing the examination of the west coast At 
four o'dock in the afternoon we hauled round 
Bald Head, and entering the Bound, soon after- 
wards anchored at one mile firom the mtmnce of 
Princess Royal Harbour. 

Having at our former visit re*fitted at Oyster ^ u. 
Harbour, I wished, on this occasion, to try Prin- 
cess Royal Harbour ; but as I was both unac- 
quainted with its entrance, as well as its con- 
venience R>r our purposes, excepting from Captain 
Flinders's account, I hoisted the boat out early 
the next morning, to make the necessary exami- 
nation before the sea-breeze commenced. Whilst 
the boat was preparing, a distant shouting was 
heard, and upon our looking attentively towards 
the entrance, several Indians were seen sitting 
oa the rocks on the north head hallooing and 
waiving to us, but no further notice than a re- 
turn of their call was taken until after break- 
&st, when we iniUed towards them in the whale- 
boat. As we drew neaqr the shore they came 



120 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^. down to receive us, and appeared from .their 
Dec. 34. gestures to invite our landing; but in this they 
were disappointed, for, after a little vociferation 
and gesture on both sides, we pulled into the 
harbour, whilst they walked along the beach 
abreast the boat. As the motions of every one 
of them were attentively watched, it was evident 
that they were not armed ; each wore a kangaroor 
skin cloak over his left shoulder, that covered, the 
back and breast, but left the right arm exposed. 
Upon reaching the spot which Captain Flinders 
occupied in the Investigator, I found that the 
brig could not anchor near enough to the shore 
to carry on our different operations without being 
impeded by the natives, even though they should 
be amicably disposed. Our plan was therefore 
altered, and, as the anchorage formerly occupied 
by the Mermaid in the entrance of Oyster Har- 
bour would be, on all accounts, more convenient 
for our purposes, I determined upon going thither. 
By this time the natives had readied that part 
of the beach where the boat was lying, and 
were wading through the water towards us; 
but, as we had no wish at present to commu- 
nicate with them, for fear that, by reftising any 
thing we had in the boat, for which their impor- 
tunity would perhaps be very great,, a quarrel 
might be occasioned, we pulled off into deeper 



COAgrS OF AU8TRAUA. 121 

water, where we remained for five minutes par- ^^* 
laying with them, during which they plainly ex- J^* •*• 
pressed their disappointment and mortification 
at our want of confidence. Upon making signs 
for fi:esh water, which they instantly understood, 
they called out to us — *' bd-doo^ ba-doo,'' and 
pointed to. a part of the bay where Captain 
Flinders has marked a rivulet. Bd-doo, in the 
Port Jackson language, means water; it was 
therefore thought probable that they must have 
obtained it firom some late visitors ; and in this 
opinion we were confirmed, for the word kan- 
garoo was also familiar to them*. 

Upon our return towards the entrance the na- 
tives walked upon the beach abreast the boat, 
and kept with her, until we pulled out of the en- 
trance, when they resumed their former station 
upon the rocks, and we returned on board. 

Upon reaching the brig, the anchor was 
weighed, and witii a fi-esh sea-breeze firom S. E. 
we soon reached Oyster Harbour, but in cross-^ 
ing the bar the vessel took the ground in eleven 
and a half feet water, and it was some time be- 

■ 

* The San Antonio, merchant brig, the vessel that jomed our 
compuiy duriDgf oar passage up the east coast, visited this port in 
December, 1890, and communicated with the natives ; it is therefore 
Pfobabk that the above words were obtained fiNxn that vessel^s crew. 



122 SURVEY OF THE IfmSftTEOPICAL 

i«n. fow we succeeded in heaying her over, ud 
IkcTn. reaching the anchorage we had occupied at 
CHir last visit. Whilst warping in, the nadvea, 
who had Mowed the vessel along the aaady 
beach that separates the two harbours, were 
arousing themselveB near us, in striking fish 
with a single bwAyed spear, in which qport 
they appeared to be tderably auocessluL As 
soon as we passed the bar, three other natives 
made their appearance on the east side, lAOi 
upon the boat going to &at shore to lay out 
the kedges, took their seats in it as unceremch 
niously as a passenger would in a ferry-boat; 
and upon its returning to the brig, caroe on 
boaid, and remained with us all the aftaniooii, 
muob amused with every thing they saw, and 
totally free from timidity or distrust, Eadi of 
our visitors was covered with a mantle of kan* 
garoo-skin, but these were laid aside upon their 
beiiig clothed with other garments, with the noh 
velty of which they appeared greatly diverted. 
The oativea on the opposite shore seeing thai 
iheir companions were admitted, were loudly 
vociferous in their request to be sent for also; 
but, unfortunately for them, it was the lee shore, 
so that no boat went near them ; and, as we did 
not wish to be impeded by having so many on 



cQum OF AvantALu* 128 

tin deck at cm time, their request was hot m« mt. 
oedod to. aod by degrees they separated and h^m- 
reared in diftrent directions. 

As soon as the brig was secured, two cX our 
viBitora went ashore^ evidently charged with 
acxne message from the other native, but as 
he voluntarily remained on board, nothing hos- 
tile was suspected; we therefc»re landed and 
dug a hole three feet deep among the grass, 
about two yards above the highest tide*mark, 
&r water ; but it was found to be so highly c<>* 
loured and muddy, as it flowed in, that other 
holes wtfe dug in the sand nearer the edge of 
the tide*mark, where it was abo produced, and 
proved to be of a mu(^ better taste, as well as 
clearer, from being filtered through the sand. 

On examining the place of our former encamp* 
ment, it was so much altered from the rapid 
growth of vegetation, that we could scarcely re- 
cognise its situation. The stem of the coMorha, 
on which the Mermaid's name and the date of 
our visit had been carved, was almbst destroyed 
by fire ; and the inscription in consequence so 
nearly obliterated, that the figures '* 1818/' and 
two or three letters done remained visible. 
There was not the least trace of our garden, for 
the space which it formerly occupied was co- 
vered by three er four feet of addition^ soil. 



124 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

I88L fonned of sand and decayed vegetable matter, 
Dec. 84. and clothed with a thicket of fine plants in fiiS 
flower, that would be much prized in any other 
place than where they were. The initials of the 
names of some of our people were still very per- 
fect upon the stem of a large banksia grandis, 
which, from being covered with its superb flow- 
ers, bore a magnificent and striking appearance. 

Afi;er an absence of an hour, our two Mends 
returned, when it appeared that they had been 
at their toilet, for their noses and faces had evi- 
dently been fresh smeared over with red ochre, 
which they pointed out to us as a great orna- 
ment ; affording another proof that vanity is in- 
herent in human nature, and not merely the con- 
sequence of civilization. They had, however, 
put off the garments with which we had clothed 
them, and resumed their mantles. 

Each brought a lighted fire-stick in his hand, 
intending, as we supposed, to make a fire, and 
to pass the night near the vessel, in order to 
watch our intentions and movements. 

On returning on board, we desired the native 
who had remained behind to go ashore to his 
companions, but it was with great reluctance 
that he was persuaded to leave us. Whilst on 
board, our people had fed him plentifiiUy with 
biscuit, yams, pudding, tea, and grog, of whidi 



. , COASTS OP. AUSTRAaA. 1 25 

he ate and drank as if he was half famished, i^. 
and after being crammed with this strange mix- Dvc S4. 
tore, and very patiently submitting his beard to 
the operation of shaving, he was clothed with a 
shirt and a pair of trowsers, and christened 
^' Jack/' by which name he was afterwards al- 
ways called^ and to which he readily answered. 
As soon as he reached the shore, his companions 
came to meet him, to hear an account of what 
had transpired during their absence, as well as 
to examine his new habiliments, which, as may 
be conceived, had effected a very considerable 
alteration in his appearance, and at the same 
time that the change created much admiration 
oa the part of his companions, it raised him 
very ccoisiderably in his own estimation. It 
was, however, a substitution that did not im- 
prove his appearance; in fact, he cut but a 
sorry figure, in our eyes, in his chequered shirt 
and tarry trowsers, when standing amongst his 
companions, with their long beards and kan- 
garoo-skin mantles thrown carelessly over.. their 
shoulders. 

Upon being accosted by his companions. Jack 
was either sullen with them, or angry with us 
for sending him on shore, for without deigning 
to reply to their questions, he separated, himself 
from them, and after watching us in silence for 



126 SURVEY OF THE iNTfiRTRO^ICAL 

iML some time, walked quietly and slowly away» fd* 
Htc. M. lowed at a distance by his friends, who were lost 
in wcmder at what could have happened to their 
sulky companies. The grc^ that he had been 
drinking had probably taken effect upon his 
head, and, although the quantity was very trifling, 
he might have been a little stupefied. 
sSi At daylight the following morning the natives 
had again collected on both sides, and upon the 
jolly-boat's landing the people to examine the 
wells. Jack, having quite recovered his good hu« 
mour, got into the boat and came on boards The 
natives on the opposite side were vociferous to 
visit us, and were holding long conversations 
with Jack, who explained every thing to them 
in a song, to which they would frequently ex* 
claim in fiill chorus the words — •• Cm, m, cat, 
ad, caigh" which they always repeated when 
any thing was shewn that excited their surprise. 
Finding we bad no intention of sending a boat 
for them, they amused themselves in fishing. 
Two of them were watching a small seal that, 
having been left by the tide on the bank, was 
endeavouring to waddle towards the deep water ; 
at last one of the natives, fixing his spear in its 
throwing*stick, advanced very cautiously, and, 
when within ten or twelve yards, lanced it, and 
pierced the animal through the neck> when the 



cwdsfn or AuamiAyA. ^21 

Gifaer instantly ran up and stuck his spear into im. 
it also, and then beating it about the head with Oec* a& 
a small hammer very soon despatched it. 

This event collected the whole tribe to the 
^t, who assisted in landing their prize, and 
washing the sand off the body ; they then carried 
the animal to their fire at the edge of the grass» 
and began to devour it even before it was dead. 
Curiosity induced Mr. Cunningham and myself 
to view this barbarous feast, and we landed about 
ten minutes after it had commenced. The mo- 
m^it the boat touched the sand, the natives, 
springing up and throwing their spears away 
into the bushes, ran down towards us ; and, be- 
fore we could land, had all seated themselves 
in the boat ready to go on board, but they were 
obliged to wait whilst we landed to witness their 
savage feast On going to the place we found 
an old man seated over the remains of the 
carcass, two-thirds of which had already dis- 
appeared; he was holding a long strip of the 
raw flesh in his left hand, and tearing it off the 
body with a sort of knife ; a boy was also feasting 
with him, and both were too intent upon their 
breakfast to notice us, or to be the least dis- 
concerted at our looking on. We, however, were 
very soon satisfied, and walked away perfectly 



128 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

ifisi. disgusted with the sight of so horrible a repast, 
Dec. 25. and the intolerable stench occasioned by the ef« 
fluvia that arose from the dying animal, com- 
bined with that of the bodies of the natives, who 
had daubed themselves from head to foot, with a 
pigment made of a red ochreous earth mixed up 
with seal-oil. 

We then conveyed the natives, who had been 
waiting with great patience in the boat for our 
return, to the vessel, and permitted them to go 
on board. Whilst they remained with us, Mr. 
Baskerville took a man from each mess to the 
oyster-bank; here he was joined by an Indian 
carrying some spears and a throwing-stick, but 
on Mr. BaskerviUe's caUing for a musket that 
was in the boat, (to the use of which they were 
not strangers,) he laid aside his spears, which 
probably were only carried for the purpose of 
striking fish, and assisted our people in collect- 
ing the oysters. As soon as they had procured a 
sufficient quantity, they returned on board, when 
as it was breakfast time, our visitors were sent on 
shore, highly pleased with their reception, and 
with the biscuit and pudding which the people 
had given them to eat. They were very atten- 
tive to the mixture of a pudding, and a few small 
dumplings were made and given to them, which 



GOASrrs OF AUSTRALIA. 129) 

they put (XI the bars of the fire-pkce, but, bemg i^h 
too impatient to wait until they were baked, ate Dec. 
tfaem in a doughy state with much relish. 

Three new faces appeared on the east sidei 
who were brought on board after breakfast, and 
permitted to remain until dinner-time:, one of 
them, an dd man, was very attentive to the sail- . 
maker's cuttmg out a boat's sail, and at his re- 
quest was presented with all the strips that 
were of no use. When it was completed, a 
small piece of canvass was missing, upon which 
the old man> being suspected of having secreted 
it, was slightly examined, but nothing was found 
upon him ; after this, while the people were look- 
ing about the deck, the old rogue assisted in the 
search, and appeared quite anxious to find it ; he, 
however, very soon walked away towards another 
part of the deck, and interested himself in other 
things. This conduct appeared so suspicious^ 
that I sent the sail-maker to examine the old 
man more closely, when the lost piece was found 
concealed under his left arm, which was covered 
by the doak he wore of kangaroo-skin. This 
ciicumstanoe afforded me a good opportunity of 
shewing them our displeasure at so flagrant a 
breach of the confidence we had reposed ia 
them ; I therefore went up to him, and, as- 
suming as ferocious a look as I could, shook 

Vot.U. K 



ISO SURVEY OP TCE !OTEKTROiIC/lL 

im. him violently by the shoulders. At first he 
XhQ' 2&. Ifiughedi but afterwardst when he found I waa 
in earnest, became much alarmed: upon whichs 
his two componionas who were both boys, wanted 
to go on shore; this, however, was not pennitted 
until I had made peace with the old man« and 
put them all in good humour by feeding them 
heartily upon bisGuit, The two boys w^te soon 
satisfied; but the old man appeared ashamed 
and oonsdous of his guilt; and although he waa 
fitequently afterwards with us, yet he always 
hung down his head, and sneaked into the badk- 
ground. 

During the day, the people were ^nployed 
about the rigging, and in the evening before 
sunset, the natives were again admitted on board 
for half an hour. In the afternoon, Mr. Mont* 
gomery went to Qreen Island, and shot a few 
perrakeets and water birds, some of which \m 
gave to the natives, after explaining how they 
had been killed, which of course produced great 
applause, 

. 99. The next day was empjbyed in wooding and 
waterings in which the natives, partiadady our 
friend Jack, assisted. We had this day twenty* 
one natives about us, and among them were five 
4itrangers. They were not permitted to come on 
board until four o'ckxdc in the afiemooo^ exoqit- 



cQAjm or AUiriuuA, 131 

mg Jack, who was privileged to ooine and go as im. 
he liked, yflw^f, siqcq it did not appear to oreatQ Deo. m. 
zaj jealousy among his covpaniqns, enabted us 
to detain him as fm hostage for Mr* Cimning- 
ham's safety, who was busily eng^ed in adding 
to his oollejctions from the. country in thq vicinity 
oftheyesseL 

In the evening, Jack dimbed the rigging as 
high as the tqpmasVhead^ much to the amuses 
meat* of his companions, but to the mortificatioD 
of Bunddl, who had never taken courage to 
siount so high. 

The water'holes yielded about a ton of water 
a day; but a stream was found in the sandy 
bay to the eastward of the entrance, running 
over the beach^ which we used whan the holes 
were emptied cf their contents ; the latter were, 
however, prefened, since our people worked at 
them under an immediate protection from the 
vessel's dedc. Near the stream we found some 
fifiUed trees, and the staves of a cask^. 

Our watering continued to proceed without mo- .S7-»88. 
kslaticn from the natives; the number of whom 
had increased to twenty-nine, besides some whom 
we had before seen that were now absent. Dur* 
ing the afternoon of the 28th the wind freshened 

At Uiii place thtf San Antonio merchant bri; wooded and wa- 
tered m U», 

K8 



132 SURVinr OF THB INTeRTROnCAL 

1881. from south-west, atid blew so strong as to cause 
]>M.- a considerable swell where we Were lying; but 
~~ ' towards sunset the breeze moderated, and the- 
natives were again admitted on board; there- 
were, however, only eleven, for the rest, having 
worn but their patience, had walked away. 

They were now quite tractable, and never per- 
sisted in doing any thing against our wishes. - 
The words ** by and by" were so often used by 
us in answer to their cau-ivah, or '' come here,'* 
that their meaning was perfectly understood, and 
always satisfied the natives, since we made it 
a strict rule never to disappoint them of any 
thing that was promised, an attention to which is 
of the utinost importance in communicating with 
savages* Every evening that they visited us 
they received s(»nething, but as a biscuit was 
the most valuable present that could be made, 
each native was always presented with one upon 
his leaving the vessel; during the day they were 
busily occupied in manufacturing spears, knives, 
and hammers, for the evening's barter ; and when 
they came in the morning, they generally brought 
alarge collection, which their wives had, proba* 
biy, made in their absence. 
29. On the 29th, we had completed our holds 
with wood and water, and prepared to leave 
the harbour. In the morning there was 



COAflTS OP AUfiTIUUA. 133 

feet water at ^ buoy, which had been moored itti* 
oa the deepest part of the bar, the depth of DqcTm 
vMdi,' during the two precedmg days, had been 
freijpieDtly sounded. 

* In the evening we were visited by twei^- 
&ur natives, among whom was bur friend Jack. 
When they found us preparing to go away, they 
expressed great sorrow at our departure, parti* 
cularly Jack, who was more than usually enter- 
taiBing, but kept, as he always did, at a distance 
from:his ccnnpanions, and treated them with the 
greatest disdain. When the time came to send 
them on shore, he endeavoured to avoid accom- 
panying them, and, as usual, was the last to go 
into the boat; instead, however, of f(Jlowing them, 
he went into a boat on the opposite side of the 
brig, that was preparing to go for a load of wat», 
evidently expecting to be allowed to return in her. 
This friendly Indian had bec(Hne a great fa- 
vourite with us all, and was allowed to visit us 
whenever he chose, and to do as he pleased ; he 
always wore the shirt that had been given to 
him on the first day, and endeavoured to imitate 
every thing that our people were employed upon; 
particularly the carpenter and the sail-maker at 
their work : he was the aoij native who did not 
manufacture spears for barter, for, he was evi- 
4entl^ convinced of the superiority of our wea« 



134 SURVtlY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

iM. pong, and laughed heartily wheiMver a bad aod 
Dee- m. cardessly^made^ spear was offered to ub for sale: 
for the natives, finding we took every things were 
not very particular in the form or manufacture of 
the articles they brought to us. He was cer- 
tainly the most intelligent native of the whole 
tribe, ahd if we had remained longer, would have 
afforded us much information of this part of the 
country ; for we were becoming mote and more 
Intelligibte to each other evfery day! he fre- 
quently accompanied Mt. Cunningham in his 
walks, and not only assisted him in carrying his 
plants, but occasionally added to the specimens 
he was collecting. 
sa. The next morning (30th), the anchors were 
Weighed, and the warps laid out, but fccm 
various delays we did not reach a birth suffici- 
ently near the bar to make sail from, until the 
water had fallen too much to allow our passing 
it : the brig was therefore moored in the stream 
of the tide. 

At eight o'clock the natives came down as 
usual, and were much disappointed in finding the 
brig moved from her former place. After the ves- 
sel was secured, the launch and jolly boat were 
sent to the watering-place in the outer bay, where 
the eastern party were assembled with a bundle 
Of spears, throwing-sticks, and knives, for barter. 



COASTS OP AUSTRALU. 135 

Upon the return of the boats, out friend Jack mi. 
came on board, and appeared altogether so at- D^cTa). 
tached to us, that some thoughts were enter- 
tained of taking him on our voyage up the westt 
coaat if he was inclined to go. As he did not 
want for intelligence, there was not much difficulty 
in making him imderstand by signs that he 
Blight go with us, to which he appeared to as- 
sent without the least hesitation, but that it might 
be satisfactorily ascertained whether he really 
wished to go, it was intimated to him that he 
should tell his companions of this new arrange^ 
ment Mr. Bedwell accordingly took hhn on 
Shore, and purchased all the spears the natives 
had brought down, that, in case they should feel 
angry at his leaving them, they might have no 
weapons to do any mischief with. 

When Jack landed, he instantly informed his 
companions of his intended departure, and poijited 
to the sea, to shew whither he was going, but 
his fHends received the intelligence with the 
most careless indifference, their attention being 
entirely engrossed with the barter that was going 
onV After the spears were purchased, Mr. Bed« 
well got into the boat followed by Jack, who 
seated himself in' his place with apparent satis- 
&ctibh. 

Mr. BMwell was purdiftsing thfr i^ears 



136 gURVEY OF THE INTERTKOFICAL 

1^ and other weapons, Jack brought him a throw* 
Dec. aa ing-stidc that he had previously concealed behind 
a bush, and sold it to him for a biscuit ; but after 
he had embarked, and the boat was leaving the 
shore, he threw it among his companions^ there^ 
by affording iis a most satisfactory proof of the 
sincerity of his intentions. 

About an hour after he had returned, and I 
had determined upon taking him, the breeze 
freshened and raised a short sweU, which, caus-' 
ing a slight motion, effected our friend's head 
80 much, that he came to me, and, touching his 
tongue and pointing to the shore, intimated his 
wish to speak to the natives. He was therefore 
immediately landed, and Mr. Baskerville, after 
purchasing some spears and waiting a few mi^^ 
nutes, prepared to return (XI board: upon getting 
into the boat he looked at our volunteer, but Jade 
having had a taste of sea-sickness, shook his 
head and hung back; he was therefore left on' 
shore. Upon the boat's leaving the beadi, the^ 
natives dispersed for the night, but Jack, as 
usual, was perceived to separate himself fi*om 
his companions, and to walk away without ex-^ 
changing a word with them. 

The weather, at daylight the next morning, 

ai« (31st,) was too unsettled, and the breeze too 

stiong from the westward to think of moving^from 



COAfiTS OF AU8TRAi4A. 137 

the anchorage. Jack and another native were iMi. 
down on the rocks at an early hour, halloomg i>ec.8i» 
imd waiving to us, and at eight o*ciock some 
natives appeared on the opposite shore with 
qpears and knives to barter, but we had no com* 
munication with them. 

During our visit we have obtained from these 
peoide about oae hundred spears, thirty thrown 
ing-sticks, forty hammers, one hundred and fifty 
knives, and a few hand-dubs, the value of each 
being at from half to one-eighth of a biscuit. 
We saw no fizgig, shield, nor boomerang ; it is 
probable that they may have such weapons, but 
did not produce them from a dislike at parting 
with them ; but the knives, spears, and hammers, 
which did not require much labour to manufac- 
ture, were always ready for barter, particularly 
the first, but the greater part were, like Peter 
Pindar's razors, only made for sale. 

Altpgether we saw about forty natives, of 
whom ten were boys : they were in most respects 
similar to their neighbours, having the same 
long curly hair and slight figure ; they did not 
appear to be a navigating tribe, for we saw no 
canoes, nor did we observe any trees in the woods 
with the bark stripped, of which material they 
aie usually made; and, from the timid man- 
per they approached the water, it is more than 



138 SURVEY OP THE INTBRTHO^ICAL 

1^. probable that they are not much aocustomed 
Ike. 91. even to swunming. Captain FUnders is mis- 
taken in stating that the natives of this place do 
not use the throwing-stick ; but it is probable 
they did not produce those instruments to him^ 
for fear of being deprived of them, for it required 
much persuasion on our part to prevail upon them 
to let us have any; they were much more in« 
geniously formed than others that we had previ- 
ously seen, and different also, in having a small 
sharp-edged shell, or piece of quartz, fixed in a 
gummy knob at the handle, for the purpose of 
scraping the points of the spears: the shaft id 
broad, smooth and flat. Some of these throwing- 
sticks, or •* mearas,'' were three inches broad and 
two feet six inches long. The following is a re<* 
presentation of this instrument ^— 




The spears are very slender, and are made 
from a species of leptospermum that grows abun« 
dantly in swampy places ; they are from nine 
to ten feet long, and barbed with a piece of 
hard wood, fastened on by a ligature of batk 
gummed over;, we saw none tiiat were not 

barbed, or had n6t a hole a.t the eiid to receive 



COASTS Of^ AUSTKALIA. 



139 



tb6liookedi)omtofthe"meiirtt." The following Mt 
wood-cut thewB the mefthod by which this wea* i>^- ^^ 
pon 18 propelled :--*- 




The hammer, or kaoit, appears to be used only 
for the purpose of breaking open shell-fish, and 
killing seals and other animals by striking them 
on the head ; for it has no sharpened edge to be 
used as a chopping or cutting instrument; the 
handle is from twelve to fifteen inches long, 
having one end scraped to a sharp point, and 
on each side at the other end two pieces of hard 
stone fixed and cemented by a mass of gum, 
which, when dry, is ahnost as hard as the stone 
itself; the hammer is about one pound weight. 



The knife, or '' taap,'' is perhaps the rudest 
instrument of the sort that ever was made ; the 
handle is about twelve inches long, scraped to 



140 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

188U a point like the hammer, and has, at the other 

Dec. 31. end, three or four splinters, of sharp-edged quartz, 

stuck; on in a row with gum, thus forming a sort 

of jagged instrument, of which the foUowing is a 

represention: — 



It is thus used : after they have put within 
teeth a sufficient mouthful of seal's flesh, the 
remainder is held in their left hand, and, with 
the *' taup'* in the other, they saw through, «nd 
separate the flesh*. Every native carries one 
or more of these knives in his belt besides the 
hammer, which is also an indispensable instru- 
ment with them. 

We did not perceive that these people ac-. 
knowledged any chief or superior among them ; 
the two parties that collected daily on the op- 
posite sides of the harbour, evidently belonged 
to the same tribe, for they occasionally mixed 
with each other. Their habitations were pro- 
bably scattered about in different parts, for when 

* A very gwA idea may be obtained of the manner in wbbh 
tbese " iaapt'^ are used, by referring to Captain Lyon*8 drawing; of 
tbe Esqaimaux sledges, at p. S90^ of Parry*8 Second Voyage : the 
natives pf King George's -Soiindj however, hold the knife aiider^ 
banded, and cut upwards. 



GOAsrrs OP Australia. 141 

the natires went away for the night, they tse- itfi. 
pamted into several groups, not more than three BacTsK 
or four going together, and these generally re- 
turned in company the next morning by the same 
p^ which Oiey tad Uke. when ftey M »,: 
they also arrived at different times, and some 
evid^idy . catne from a distance greater than 
others, for they were later in arriving, and al- 
ways took their leave at an earlier hour. 

With the exception of c»ie or two petty thefts 
besides the^ one above-mentioned of which se- 
rious notice was taken, and an attempt to steal 
a hat from one of the boys, when he was by him- 
self on the Oyster Bank, our communication with 
these peo^dewas carried on in the most friendly 
manner. Mr. Cunningham was, to their know- 
ledge, on shore every day attended only by his 
servant, but none, excepting Jack^ followed him 
after they had ascertained the intention of his 
walk, and observed the care that he took to avoid 
going near their habitations, for whidi they 
evinced a great dislike ; one of their encampments 
Yfas about a mile and a half off, but, curious as 
we naturally were to witness their mode of liv- 
ing, and to see the females and children of their 
tribe, we never succeeded in persiiading them 
td> allow us to gratify our curiosity. On one 
it waa-neoessary to lay a kedge anchor 



• i ^ :r'rf I 



143 SURVEY OP THE INTBRTROPICAL 

out in the direction of their dwelling-pl«oe« and 
upon the boat's crew landing and catrying it 
along the beach» the natives followed and in* 
timated by signs that we should not go that 
vray ; as eom, however, as the andior was fixed* 
and they understood our intention, they assisted 
the people in carrying the hawser to make &8t 
to it 

They were well-acquainted with the eflects of 
a musket, although not the least alarmed at 
having one fired off near them. Every thing 
they saw ezdted their admiratitm, particulariy 
the carpenter's tools, and our clothes ; but what 
appeared to surprise than above all other things 
was the effect produced upon the flesh by a 
burning glass, and of its causing the explosion 
of a train of gunpowder* They perfectly un<^ 
derstood that it was fiom the sun that the fire 
was produced, for on one occasion, when Jade 
requested me to shew it to two or three strangers 
whom he had thought to visit us, I explained to 
him that it could not be doae while the sun 
was douded ; he then waited patiently for five 
minutes, until the sun^shine re-appeared» when 
he instantly reminded me of the removal of the 
obstade* He was a good deal surprised at my 
collecting the mys of the sun upon my own 
hand^ suppoiing that I was caUoua to the pain^ 



coAsrg or austraua. 143 

firom which he had himself before shrunk ; but i^^* 
as I held the glass within the focus distance, ]>^*0i< 
to painful sensation was produced ; after which 
he presented me his own arm, and allowed me 
to bum it as long as I chose to hold the glass* 
without flinching in the least, which, with greater 
reason, equally astonished us in our turn. 

They were all furbished, as has been before 
moitioned, with a doak of kangaroo-skin, which 
is always taken off and spread under them when 
theyliedown. Their hair was dressed in different 
ways; sometimes it was dotted with red pig* 
ment and seal oil, dubbed up behind, and bound 
round with a fillet of opossum-fur, spun into a 
long string, in whidi parrot^feathers, escalop 
shells, and other ornaments being fixed in dif- 
ferent fimciful ways, gave the wearer a wailike 
appearance. 

Their faces, and sometimes their whole bodies, 
were daubed over with a mixture of seal oil and 
red pigment, that caused a most disgusting ef- 
fluvia; but the only colouring matter that our 
friend Jack used, after his acquaintance with lis, 
was the carpmter's dialk, which he thought par* 
ticularly ornamental. 

Bracelets of dog-tails or kangaroo-skin were 
commonly worn, and one had several escalop 
shells hanging about Im, the noise of which, as 



144; SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^. they jingled together, he probably thought mu-. 

Dec: SI. sical. 

The noodtt'bul or belt, in which they carry 
their hammer and knife, is manufactured from 
the fiir of the opossum, spun into a small yam 
like worsted; it is tightly bound at least three 
or four hundred times round the stomach ; very 
few, however, possessed this ornament ; and it 
is not improbable that the natives who had their 
hair clubbed, those that wore belts, and the one 
who was ornamented with shells, held some par- 
ticular offices in the tribe, whidi it would be 
difficult for strangers to discover. 

During our communication with these people, 
the following vocabulary of their language viras 
obtained, of which some of the words are com- 
pared with those recorded by Captain Flinders : 
these last are inserted in the third column. 

A goose . • • Ca-an-gan . • • . 
A dog . • . Ti-a-ra 



To eat biscuit • Ya-mOnga-mi-ii • • 

(dooMfld) r. -. 

A seal . • , B&-al-lot .... 

The Sim. » . Djaat Djaat. 

Water . . . Bi-dooJ SiS*l£J3 

Beard . . . Ny-a-nuck. . • • 

Cheek . . . Ny-a-lack .... 

Mouth . . . Tft-tSh 



COASTS OP AUSTTRAUA. 



145 



Teeth . . . 

Tongue • • • 

Ann • • • • 

Nails . . . 

Finger . . . 

Toe ... . 

FSnger nailf • 

Toe nails • . 

Nipple • • . 

Belly . . . 

Posteriors • • 

Kangaroo • . 

Afrog . . . 
Spear-tkrowing- 



Oi>lock . . . 
Dar-lin, or Thft-lib 
W6r-muck . . , 
Per-a. (^ir*"^ 
Mfii, plural Maih • 
K^a, plural Kean 
Pera-mftih . • . 
Pera-kean . • . 
Be-ep .... 
Cob-bull, or ko-pul 
Wal-la-kah . . 
Be-&ngo . . . 
T6ke .... 



stick . . 
Hammer 
Eye . • • . 
Nayel • • • 
Shoulder . • 
Shall I go on 
board ? • . 
Elbow • . . 
Scars on the body NaSm-bOrn 
Pire-wood . , Go-gorr 
A spear . . Nam-berr, or pe*ge-ro 
A knife • . . Ta-ap • . 
Rope (on board) Ne-ar-bfingo 
Wood (Plank). Yan-da-ri . 



Me*ft*ra . 
Kaoit . . 
Me-al . . . 
Be-il . . 
K§d-ya-r&n • 

Bo-ken-yen-na 
6nd-yong . 



Lips . . 
Throat • 
Thighs . 
Knee 
Leg . . 
VolH. 



Tar . 

Wfirt 
Dtou-al 
Wd«nat 
M&at 



Yea*al. 



1881. 
Dec. 31. 



') 



Bpep. 
Kobul. 
Wal-la-kafi. * 



Uriuck. 

Dtoaal. 
Wonat. 
Maat 



i 



146 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

3981. Foot .... Jaan, or bangul • . Jaan. 

D^Sl, Ear ... . Duong Duong. 

Nose. • . . Tar-mul . • . • Moil. 

Head . . . Ma-ka Kaat. 

A porpua . . Ndr-dock . • • , 

Woman . • . Pay-dge-rO| or co-miUi 

(dodMoI) 

Hair of the head Kaat Kaat jou. 

Come here . . CaQ-wah .... Cav*wah« 
Go away • • Bul-I6*c5 . • • • 
Shoulder . . Djadan • • . . i 
Musket . . • Puelar (4«ib«iu) 

Gum .... Pe-rin 

To-morrow M&*ni^dc (dMbnu) 

Surprise or ad- fCai-cai-cai-cai-caigh. 

miration . . \ '^'ISS:* »"«*-«» •««!«* 
A hawk . . . Bar-le-rot . • . • 
A shark, or 

shark's tail . Mar-git 

Belt worn round 

the stomach . Noodle-bul . • . 
Back .... Gro^i^ • . . • • 
A particular fish W&llar, («' w&Uat 



l^boys. 



NAXBS OF JTHB KATITB8. 

Y&llapo6l (a little bo^.) 

U-r6e-ton 

Wy-tum-ba 

Mar-in-bibba 

C6ol-bun 

Na-kln-na 

Mal-ka ' 

U»der-ra 



Ky-ndo-nt l^tl*^ 

Han-bar^rah DieTsji. 

Ba-war-rliiig 

Mdnga 

Floo-reen-a 

Cool-ya-rong 

Mc^U (a youzig num.) * 

The winds during our stay performed two or 
three resolutions of the compass, but they par- 
took chiefly of the character of sea and land* 
breezes: during the night and early part of the 
morning the wind was usually light from the 
northward, and at ten o'clock, gradually dying 
away, was succeeded by a wind from the sea, 
generally from S.W, or S.R; this sea-breeze 
occasionally blew fresh until four o'clock in the 
evening, when it would gradually diminish with 
the setting sun, to a light air. 

Thebarometrical column ranged between 29.75 
and 30.22 inches ; a fall of the mercury pre- 
ceded a westerly wind, and a rise predicted it 
from the S.K : when it stood at thirty inches, we 
had sea-breezes from south, with fine weather. 
The easterly winds were dry; westerly ones 
the reverse. The moisture of the atmosphere, 
for want of a better hygrometer, was ascertained 

* The above names I were obtuned at a subsequent visit, on 
<Nttre^ni to Baf lanA the M^ynog year. 

L9 



148 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

i«ii. with tolerable precision by the state of a small 
Dec/si. piece of sea-weed, the weight of which varied 
according to the dryness or moisture of the at- 
mosphere between one and three • scruples. I 
found it on all occasions extremely sensible, and 
very often to predict a change of wind much 
sooner than the barometer. 

Fahrenheit*s thermometer ranged between 64^ 
and 74^ but the usual extremes were between 
66^ and 70^ 
istt. During the day of the I st of January , thie depth 
Jan. 1. of the bar was frequently sounded, but as there 
was not more than ten feet and a half water upon 
it, we were necessarily detained at the anchorage. 
«. On the following morning, also, at four o'clock 
the depth was the same ; but at ten o'clock the 
water rose suddenly eighteen inches, upon which 
the anchors were lifted, and the brig warped 
over the bar to an anchorage . in three and a 
half fathoms off the outer watering-place, to await 
a favourable opportunity of going over to Seal 
Island; near which it was intended to anchor, 
in order to refit the rigging, and otherwise pre- 
pare the vessel for our voyage up the west coast. 
In the afternoon we procured a load of water, 
and permitted the natives, thirteen of whom were 
assembled, to pay us another visit. On their 
coming on board, it was noticed that many of 



COAJSTS OF KD8TRAIJA. 149 

them bdonged to the tribe that lived on Ihe op- lase. 
posite shore, but how they had crossed over was Ja^« 
not satisfactorily ascertained. - Their wonder on ' 
this their last visit was much raised by our firing 
off a nine-pounder, loaded with shot, the splash of 
which in the water caused the greatest astonish- 
ment, and one of them was extremely vehement 
and noisy in explaining it to his companions. 
Upon repeating this exhibition they paid particu- 
lar attention to the operation of loading the gun, 
and expressed the greatest surprise at the weight 
of the ball, upon which, after they had all seve- 
rally examined it, they held a long and wordy ar 
gument as to what it possibly could be. At the 
splash of the ball, for which they were all looking 
out, they expressed their delight by shouting 
in full chorus the words — Cot, cat, cci, cai, caigh. 
After this they were sent on shore. 

At daybreak thd next morning an opportunity a 
offered to cross the sound, and by eight . o'clock 
the brig was anchored imder Seal Island ;. upon 
which we commenced the repair of the rigging, 
and in the course of the day shifted the main 
top-mast. We had left the anchorage on the other 
side of the sound too early for our friends the 
natives, who had promised last evening to bring 
us a hawk's nest, that was built upon a xock 
near the watering-place; aV^ten o'clock a very 



!50 SURVftY O^ Tllfi mtERtROPICAL 

1686. large fire was perceived dose to the nest ; it was 
^an. s. no doubt kindled by them, and meant to shew 
that they were not inattentive to their promise. 

, 4 The following day some natives were se^wi 
about a mile off, upon the beadi, but did not 
come near the vessel. Mr. Cunningham bo- 
tanised upon the summit of Bald Head. Of thi« 
excursion he gave me the following account : — 
** Upon reaching the summit of the ridge, and 
tdearing a rocky guUey which intersected our 
track, we instantly entered an elevated valley of 
pure white sand, bounded on either side by ridges 
forty feet high, that were in themselves totally 
bare, excepting on the tops, where a thin doth- 
ing of shrubs was remarked ; the whole surface 
reflected a heat scarcely supportable, and the air 
was so stagnant as scarcely to be respired, al- 
though we were at a considerable elevation, and 
in the vicinity of a constant current of pure atmo- 
spheric air on the ridge. After traversing the 
whde length of this sandy vale, which is one- 
third of a mile in extent, in our route towards 
Bakl Head, with scarcely a plant to attract oar 
attention, we perceived at its extremity some re- 
markably fine specimens of candollea cuneiformig^ 
Labil., which had, in spite of the poverty and 
looseness of the drifting sand, risen to lai]ge 
spreading trees, sixteen feet hi^^ of robust 



COA8T6 OF AbSTRAUA 151 

growth and habit ; they Wete at this time covered '^ 
with flowers and ripe fruit ; but so painful was it *^ ^ 
to the eyes and sensed to remain for a moment 
staticmary in this heated valley, that whilst I ga- 
thered a quantity of the seeds of this truly rich 
(dant, my servant was obliged to hurry away to 
a coder ait on the ridge, which we had again 
nearly reached ; and but; for this fine plant, and 
the no less conspicuous blue-flower^ scavota 
mtida^ Br. the whole scene would have deeply 
impressed us with all the horrors that such ex- 
trmnes of aridity are naturally calculated to 
excite. 

*' Upon again reaching the ridge, whose mode- 
rated temperature required our care to avoid suf- 
fering {h)m the sudden transition, we came to the 
granite, oh whose bare sutface I found a pros- 
trate specimen of backea, tetiiarkable for the rd* 
gularity of its decussate leaves, which I have 
designated in my list as b. saxicola. Continuing 
to the extremity of the ridge, I was mudi sur- 
prised to find we had already attained the highest 
point of the range, and to observe another ex- 
panse, or extensive cavity, of bare white sand 
below us, to the S.E., the termination of which 
we afterwards found to be the Bald Head, of 
Captain Vancouver. This part is of r&markable 
appearance firom seaward, having on either side 



J52 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

18^* of its bare, sandy summit, a contrasting brushy 
Jan, i. vegetation : from the sea, however, a very small 
part only of its extensive surface of sand can be 
perceived, the greater part being only observ- 
able from the commanding hillocks we had with 
much exertion arrived at A calcareous rock 
(aflfording evidently a very considerable portion 
of pure lime) was seen in a decomposing state 
piercing the sandy surface of all parts of the 
ridge about Bald Head, which, however, is itself 
a pure granite; the dense low brushy wood in 
its vicinity is chiefly composed of the delicate 

In the evening we visited, Seal Island, and 
killed five seals for the sake of their skins, which 
were serviceable for the rigging ; the boat's crew 
also found some penguins, (aptenodytes minor,) 
and a nest of iguanas. The bottle deposited 
here at our last .visit in 1818 was found sus- 
pended where it had been left, and brought on 
board, when another memorandum was enclosed 
in it, containing a notification of our present 
visit, of the friendly and communicative disposi- 
tion of the natives, and a copy of the vocabulary 
of their language. 
5. On the 5th, in the afternoon, on our return to 
the vessel, after visiting the shore and landing 

* CUMKINOHAM MSS« 



coA9r8 OF AuannuuA, I^ 

upon the flat rock, which is merely a bare mass i^- 
of granite, of. dbddi thirty yards in diameter, J"*- *• 
scMoie natives were heard calling to us, and upon 
our pulling to the part whence the sound came, 
we found two men and a boy. After some time 
they were discovered to be three of our Oyster- 
Harbour friends, and therefore we made no hesi- 
tation of communicating with them, and of taking 
them on board, where they were regaled upon 
the flesh of the seals we had killed at the island. 
Notwithstanding the friendly disposition of the 
inhabitants of this sound, I felt it necessary to 
act. very cautiously in our communication with 
them, in order to avoid any misunderstanding. 
And that this might not even be accidentally 
done, I requested Mr. Cunningham to confine 
his walks to the vicinity of the vessel, and parti- 
cularly to avoid any route that would take him 
towards their encampment. He was therefore 
prevented from visiting many parts near which 
he had promised himself much amusement and 
infoiination in botanizing, particularly the neigh- 
bourhood of Bayonet Head, and the distant parts 
of Oyster Harbour. At our . former visit to this 
place he had searched . in vain for that curious 
little plant cephalotus follkukaris *, Br., but on 

* Flinders, vol. i. p. 64» and Brown*8 General Remarks la 
Flinders, yoI, u.p. 001, etseq. 



154 SURVEY OP *IIE INTERTItOt>ICAL 

- 1^. this occasion he was more fortunate^ for he fottbd 
Jan. 6. it in the greatest profusion in the vicinity of 
the stream that empties itself over the beadi of 
the outer bay where we watered. Of this he 
says — " TTie plants of cephalotm were all in a 
very weak state, and none in any stage of fructi- 
fication: the ascidhy or pitchers, which are in- 
serted on strong foot-stalks, and intermixed about 
the root with the leaves, all contained a quantity 
of discoloured water, and, in some^ the drowned 
bodies of ants and other small insects. Whether 
this fluid can be considered a secretion of the 
plants as appears really to be the fact with refer- 
ence to the nepefdhesy or pitcher^plant of India^» 
deposited by it through its vessels into the 
pitchers ; or even a secretion of the a^ddia them- 
selves ; or, whether it is not simply rain-water 
lodged in these reservoirs, as a provision from 
which the plant might derive support in seasons 
of protracted drought, when those marshy lands 
(in which this vegetable is alone to be found) 
are partially dried of the moisture, that is in- 
dispensable to its existence, may perhaps be 
presumed by the following observations. The 
opercular shaped like some species of oyster, or 
escalop-shells, I found in some pitchers to be very 
closely shut upon their orifices, although their 

* Smith's Introd. to B^^njf^ p. ISfk 



coAsrrs of atistralia. 155 

cavities, upoD examination, contained but very isis. 
little water, and the state of the weather was JanTs. 
exceedingly cloudy, and at intervals showery; 
if, therefore, the appendages are really cisterns, 
to receive an elemental fluid for the nourish- 
ment of the plant in times of drought, it is na- 
tural to suppose that this circumstance would 
operate upon the ramified vessels of the lids, so 
as to draw them up, and allow the rain to re- 
plenish the pitchers. Mr. Brown also, who had 
an opportunity in 1801 of examining plants fully 
grown, supposes it probable that the vertical or 
horizontal positions in which the opercula Were 
remarked, are determined by the state of the at- 
mosphere, at the same time that he thinks it 
possible that the fluid may be a secretion of the 
plant. The several dead insects that were ob^ 
served within the vases of cephalotus were very 
possibly deposited there by an insect of prey* 
since I detected a slender-bodied fly (ichneu- 
mon) within a closed pitcher, having evident* 
ly forced its passage under the lid to the 
interior, where an abundant store of putres* 
cent insects were collected. Whilst, there- 
fore, these pitchers are answering the double 
purpose, of being a reservoir to retain a fluid, 
however produced, for the nourishment of the 
plant in the exigency of a dry season, as also 



156 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

• * 

im a repository of food for rapacious insects, as in 
Jan. 5. sarracmia, or the American pitcher-plant; it is 
also probable that the air, disengaged by these 
drowned ants, may be important and beneficial 
to the life of tl)e Australian plant, as Sir James 
E. Smith has suggested, in respect to the last- 
mentioned genus, wild in the swamp of Georgia 
and Carolina; 

'' I spent much time in a fruitless search for 
flowering specimens of cephalotus ; all the plants 
were very small and weak, and shewed no dis* 
position to produce flowers at the season, and 
none had more than three or four a^cidta*." 

The only edible plants that Mr. Cunningham 
found were a creeping parsley, {opium prostrar 
turn, Labil,) and a species of orach, (atrijdex 
Halimus, Brown) ; the latter was used by us 
every day, boiled with salt provisions, and 
proved a tolerable substitute for spinach, or 
greens. During our visit we caught but. very 
few fish, and only a few oysters were obtained, 
on. account of the banks being seldom uncovered, 
and the presence of the natives, which prevented 
my. trusting the people out of my sight for 
fear of a quarrel. Shell-fish of other sorts were 
obtained at Mistaken Island in abundance, of 
which the most common were a pot e//a and . ai) 

* CUVNIN«HA|[ MSS. • 



COASTS OP AU8TRAUA. 157 

haliotis; the inhabitant of the former made a is« > 
coarse, although a savoury dish. TTiere were ^^^^ 
also varieties of the following genera: viz.9 lepass 
chiton, cardiuin, pinna, nerita, two or three species 
(£ oHrea, a small mj/tUus, and a small bucdnum 
of great beauty ; that covered the rocks, and at 
low*water might be collected in abundance. 



l^ SURVEY. Qf TUe INTBRTBOKICAL 



CHAPTER IV. 



liEAVB King QeoTge the Third's Sound, and commence the survej 
of the West coast at Rottnest Island :--Another remarkable 
effect of mirage: — Anchor under, and land upon Rottnest Island: 
-^Break an anchor: — Examine the coast to the northward: — 
Cape Leschenault : — Lancelin Island : — Jurien Bay .- — Houtman's 
Abrolhos :— Moresby's Flat-topped Rangfe:^Red Point:— An- 
chor in Dirk Hartog*s Road, at the entrance of Shark's Bay : — 
Occurrences there: — Examination of the coast to the North 
West Cape : — Barrow Island.* — Heavy gale off the Mcmtebello 
Isles : — Rowley's Shoals : — Cape Lev^que :— Dangerous situation 
of the brig among the islands of Buccaneer's Archipelago .- — 
Examination and description of Cygnet Bay : — Lose an anchor^ 
and leave the coast:— Adele Island. — ^Return to Port Jack- 
son. 



18^ We sailed from King George's Sound on the 
Jan-«- 6th, but from south-westerly winds, were no 
a further advanced by the 8th than the meridian 
of Cape Chatham. After which, entering a cur- 
rent setting at one mile an hour to the west- 
ward, the brig made considerable progress. 
10. At daylight, 10th, Cape Leeuwin came in 
sight from the mast-head, and, at eight o'dock, 
was seen from the deck at the distance of ten 
leagues, bearing N. 42^ K by compass. 

At this, the south-westernmost extremity of 
New Holland, Captain Flinders commenced his 



C0AflT8 OP AU9FRAUA. 159 

examination of the south coast, but saw no part i^- 
to the northward. The French expedition under l^^ ^^' 
Captain Baudin were upon this part at two differ- 
ent periods of their voyage, and it appears from 
an examination of their tracks, that the coast 
between Capes Leeuwin and Peron, the latter 
of which is about five leagues to the southward 
of the entrance of Swan River, has been suf- 
ficiently examined by them. They landed in 
several parts of Geographe Bay, which affords a 
shelter from southerly winds, but is so exposed 
to those between North and W.N.W., that the 
French ships ran great danger of being ship- 
wrecked during a gale from that quarter. 

The coast is sandy^ and from M. Peron's de- 
sqiption, barren and unprofitable. With the ex- 
ception of. the '' Rccif du NaturalisU,'' which lies 
about five leagues to the north of the cape of 
that name, there seems to be no danger in the 
vicinity of the bay. The small inlet of Port 
L^schenaKlt is only the embouchure of a salt- 
marsh ; it is scarcely attainable even by boats ; 
for there appears to be only three feet water 
on the bar, and over and within it not more 
than fifteen feet. The French found no fresh 
water in any part of Geographe Bay. From 
Port Leschenault to Cape Peron the coast is 
low and sandy, but inland it is of a moderate 



160 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

1888. height; and appears to be furnished with a slight 
Jan. 10. vegetation. The French ships sailed along this 
coast at the distance of four or five miles firom 
the beach/ and the report made by them is suf- 
ficiently in detail for all the purposes of navi- 
gation. 

Upon these considerations it was not deemed 
necessary that we should examine this part 
again, and therefore sailed at a distance from 
the land, to ensure a quicker passage to Cape 
Peron, in order to explore the bay behind 
the Isles of Louis Napoleon. Swan River 
and Rottnest Island had been already carefully 
examined by the French; but from the latter 
island to the North-west Cape, with the ex- 
ception of Shark's Bay, they saw very little o£ 
the coast, and have given its outline principally 
from Van Keulen *. 

At noon, on the XOth, our latitude was 34^ 
16' 14", and a large bare, sandy patch upon 
the land, the " Tache Blanche remcarquablt'' of 
Captain Baudin, bore N. IT E. (mag.) At six 
o'clock in the evening we passed Cape Natu- 
raUste, having experienced a strong current, 
setting N. 11® W., at nearly two miles per 
hour ; hence we steered to the northward, but it 

* Febtcikbt, p. 44L 



COASTS OP AUSTRAUA. 161 

was dark when we passed near the position as- 1S28. 
signed to the •* Recif Naiuraliste .•" after steering Jan. lo. 
on for three hours longer, we edged in for the 
land; and at ten o*clock hauled to the wind fc^ 
the night The next day at noon we were in ii. 
latitude 32^ 36' 2^, having the land about Cape 
Peron in sight from the mast-head, bearing 
E.b.S.|S. ; but during the day the wind was 
so light, that we had not approached it within 
four leagues by sunset. 

At this time the coast was visible as far as 
Cape Bouvard, between which and Cape Peron 
it is low and sandy, but the hills appeared to 
be tolerably well wooded, and of a moderate 
height. 'Buache Island was visible as well as 
the small rocky islet between it and Cape Peron. 
The former is low and sandy, and its outline 
of hummocky shape ; and to the eastward was 
some distant land, trending towards the assigned 
entrance of Swan River. To the northward 
of Buache Island a small lump was seen on 
the horizon, which perhaps might have been 
BerthoUet Island, but it was very indistinct. 
The sun set in a dense bank, and the moment 
it disai^peared a very copious dew began to fall. 
The next morning at dayJight the land to the i^. 
southward of Cape Peron was ten miles off, but 
at half-past nine o'clock we were between Capes 

Vol. II. M 



162 BURVET OF THE )NTERT{tpPICAL 

1889. Perm and Bouvaid, and about fiv^ milas fiwp 
JtiuTiB. the shore, which from the £bniier extended in a 
N.£.b.N. direction, still low and sandy. 

At noon the latitude was observed to be 32^ 
3(y 4r, but by the lapd it was only 32^ 23' dtf, 
a diferenoe of 7 12"'. This error was occaia«n«d 
by the haze which oonoealed the true honvjnf 
and oaused an a{]pearance of land all nyand ns, 
QQ which rodcs, sandy beaches, and trees weF« 
so plainly formed; that the officer of the watcb 
actually reported two islands on the westmi hori- 
zon* This was the most remarkable instanoa <xf 
'* mirage'' that we ever witnessed ; thp haze had 
only conun weed a few minutes before noon^ whilst 
the observation for the latitude was in the act <^ 
being taken ; and immediately after I was em^ 
ployed upon the chart for half an hour, puzzling 
myself in attempting to reconcile the observed lati* 
tude with the bearings of the land* This curious 
phenomenon was also witnessed by the Fcencb 
in Geographe Bay. During the time this magical 
appearance continued, we had very light aira 
from the southward: the barometrical calwrnn 
fell to 29.76 inidies, but the hygrometer indicatedl 
an extraordinary dryness d* the air* At snoset 
the haze cleared away, when Rottnest Island 
was seeUt bearing between N* 10^ and 3^ St 
(mag.); a breeze then fresfa^ied from W*S.W«, 



CaMT« OF AU^TRiUA. 1^ 

but gy^dually veered round to the southward; istt 
and at nine o'clock was very light from S.E. Jan. ul 

During the night we made short tacks* At 
four o'dock in the morning, (13th») the latitude is. 
)>y the inoon's meridional altitude was 32f^ 16' 
IT\ and sooq afterwards Rottnest was in sight 
in the N*N,E. At six o*ciock the sky was 
dquded, and the weather threatened to be bad ; 
the mercury fell to @9.69 inches, upon which 
all sail was made off the land, as appearances 
indicated a westerly gale: but after an interval 
of two hours, during which we had a fresh 
breeze from N.W.b.W., the weather cleared up, 
and we steered towards Rottnest Island. The 
next morning the brig was anchored off the north- 
east end of the island in thirteen &thoms gra- 
vdly sand ; and in the afternoon I went on shore, 
in a bay, on the east or leeward side, where we 
found the water smooth and the landing more 
practicable than upon the north side, where a 
tremendous surf was rdling in upon the beach. 
We disturbed a great many seals, but only 
killed three; and were much disappointed in 
finding that these animals were not of the fur 
species, as in M, de Freycinet's account of the 
island they are said to be ; they were evidently 
the same description as those noticed at King 
George's Sound. The traces of a small kan* 

M 2 



164 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

16S2, garoo were every where abundant, but the ani- 
Ju. 14. mals were not seen. We walked to the east- 
ernmost of the lakes which the Frendi named 
** Etangs Duvaildaify** and whidi M. de Frey- 
cinet remarks as being surrounded by an exten- 
sive beach, composed entirely of bivalve shells, 
a species of cardium: the quantity was indeed 
extraordinary. The banks were frequented by 
gulls and sand-pipers, of whidi many were shot. 
The water was found to be perfectly salt, and from 
the circumstance of its rising and felling with the 
tide, it must have some conmiunication with the 
sea. The rocks of the island are principally 
calcareous, and in a very advanced state of de- 
composition. The beaches were covered with 
dead shells of the genera buccinum, bulla, mwex, 
trochtis, and haliotis; but we found none with 
the living ' animal in them. Of the feathered 
tribe, a hawk and a pigeon were the only land- 
birds seen ; but boobies, terns, and sand-pipers 
were very numerous about the shores. Mr. 
Cunningham was fully emj^oyed during the 
short time that we were on shore, and, excepting 
the pleasing interest created in our minds by 
landing on an island which has been so seldom 
before seen, and which from Vlaming's account 
bears a prominent place in the history of this part 
of the coast, he was the only one of the party 



COASm OP AUSTRAUA. 165 

that deriyed any advantage from our visit. Of lass. 
the productions of this island, he makes the fol- J«i- 1^ 
lowing brief remarks: — '* It is surprising that 
an island, situated at so short a distance from 
the south-west coast/ should bear so small a 
feature of the characteristic vegetation of King 
George's Sound, as not to furnish a plant of its 
several genera of Pn^eacem or MitnoMcm^ and but 
a solitary plant of Legumnosit. It would there* 
fore seem that these families are confined to 
the shores of the main, particularly about King 
George's Sound, where we have just left them 
in the greatest luxuriance and profusion. Among 
the botanical productions of this island, there is 
no i^ant of so striking a feature as the callUriSf 
a tree of about twenty-five feet high, with a 
short stem of three feet in diameter ; it much 
resembles the pmw cednss, or cedar of Leba* 
non, in its robust horizontal growth ; it is found 
abundantly over the island, and within a few 
yards of the sea-beach. The island is formed 
by a succession of small hills and intervening 
valleys ; and although the soil is very poor, being 
principally a mixture of quartzose sand, and a 
laige proportion of marine exuviae, yet this tree 
grows to a considerable size, but covering the 
surface of the island, gives it a monotonous ap- 
pearanoe, which is, however, occasionally relieved 



I6& SURVBt OP THE INTBllTROPICAL 

ifittSL by a spreadmg undescribed species tfmdakiUM^ 
3i^u. (allied to m, arfnillaris, Soiith;) and the tn0M 
degsaxt pitto^porum, an atbOTesoent species^ alsd 
uttdestiribed. In fact, theM three trees oonsfi^ 
tute the timber of the island, llie ground is 
in some parts profusely dothed with spintfex 
hSrgutw, Labil., in which I detected a new spe^ 
cies ofxerotea, a romid bushy plant grawmg lA 
large bodies. 

No fresh water has ever been discoverftd 
upon this island : indeed the loose filtering iia^ 
ture of the soil is not tenacious enough to 
retain that element at the sur&ce. The woods 
are abundantly stocked with a small species 
of kangaroo, of which we saw only the traces; 
lior did we see the animal, on account of whosd 
numbers and resemblance to a rat, the island 
received its name from Vlaming, in 1619. M« 
Peron says, that it forms a new genus, and of 
a very remarkable character*. Rottnest Island 
does not appear ever to have been inhabited, 
or even visited by the natives from the main ; 
probably on account of the stormy natuito of the 
weather, and the prevalence of westerly winds, 
which VTOuld be quite sufBcient to deter them 
from venturing to sea in such fragile vessels 
as tiiey possessf ." 

*^ pEHON, vol. 1. p. 189. t Cunniiiffaam MSS. 



COASTS OF AfTSTRALIA. 167 

On oui^ return to the brig, we passed over a lan. 
dear sandy bottom, that would have afforded J^4. 
better anchorage than whete we had brought up ; 
for the reMd was not only exposed to a con- 
sicktable swell, but the ground was so foul, that 
hi weighing the anchor the following moming 
one of ^e flukes hooked a rock and broke off, 
besides which the cable was much rubbed. 

As Swan River had been very minutely ex- 
amined in Baudin's voyage, by MM. Helrissoii 
and Baily, the former an enseigne de vaisseau, . 
the latter a mineralogist, an aocotmt of which 
is fully detailed in De Freycinet's and Peron's 
respective accounts of that voyage*, without 
their hiding any thing of sufficient importance 
to induce me to risk leaving the brig at an- 
diGor off Kottnest Island for so long a time as 
it would necessarily take to add to the know- 
ledge of it that we already possess, I did not 
think it advisable to delay for Such a pur- 
pose, and therefore, as soon as we were un- 
derweigh, steered for the main land, and con- 
tinued to run northerly along the shore, at the 
distance of six miles firom it^ At noon our la- 
titude was 3r 37 32f. The coast is formed 
by sandy faSlocks, or ** dunes,'' of frcxn one 

* 866 Db VwnoMvr, p# 17ft 6t m^., ui Pbaon , vol L p* 

)78»et8eq. 



168 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

18SSL hundred to one hundred and fifty feet high, 
Jan. 15. here and there sprinkled with shrubs, but in 
many parts quite bare: behind this frontier a 
second range of hills was occasionally seen, on 
which the trees appeared to be of moderate size : 
the shore is rocky for two miles off, and in many 
parts the sea broke. At half-past three o'clock 
we were abreast of a low, sandy projection, 
supposed to be Captain Baudin's Cape Les- 
chenault. The appearance of the coast to the 
northward of this cape differed from what we 
passed in the morning, in that the coast hillocks 
are more bare of vegetation ; there appeared to 
be several ridges behind the coast ** dunes," but 
they were all equally unproductive of vegetation. 
Lancelin Island was not distinctly made out, but 
the two small rocky lumps on the bare sand-hills, 
that M. de Freycinet mentions, were seen and 
thought to be very remarkable. At seven o'clock, 
having reached in my plan the latitude 31^ Of 30'', 
and longitude 115® 0' 0", we hauled offshore for 
16. the night, and at six o'clock a.m., stood towards 
the land again. At half-past ten o'clock we were 
so near to it as to see the beach: at noon, the 
latitude was observed to be 30"^ 52' 13", its lon- 
gitude being IM"" 56' 45", at which time we 
were on the parallel of the two rocky lumps 
seen the last evening. Hence we steered north. 



COASTS OP AUCTRAUA. 1(>9 

on a parallel direction with the. coast, and ran i^ 
forty-five miles, passing the different projections J^* 19« 
of the beach at the distance of four or five miles, 
and sounding in between nineteen and twenty- 
five fiithoms. At four o'clock we were abreast 
of a bare sandy point, which appeared to be the 
north bead of Jurien Bay, in which two rocky 
islets were seen, fronted by reefs, on which the 
sea in many parts was breaking violently. To 
the southward of the point, the coast hills are 
rather high, and principally formed of very white 
sand, bearing a strong resemblance, from the 
absence of vegetables, to hills covered with 
snow. Here and there, however, a few shrubs, 
partially concealed the sand, and gave a variety 
to the scene which was dismally '* triste.*' The 
country to the northward bears a difierent cha- 
racter; the shore is very low and sandy, and 
continues so for some distance in the interior, 
towards the base of a range of tolerably-elevated 
hills, on which the French have placed three re* 
maikable ** pUo7i8" but these, perhaps, from our 
being too dose in-shore, we did not discover. 

This range extends in a N.b.W. and S.b.E. 
direction, and appears to be rocky. In the mid- 
dle ground some trees were noticed, and vege- 
tation appeared to be more abundant than in the 
space between the bare sandy point and Cape 



170 SURVEY OF TME rt^TERTROWCAL 

18^. Lesdienaiili In Jurien Bay, towards its MUth 
Jan. 16. part near the shore, is a small hillodit, on which 
some trees of a moderate size were seen ; they 
are thus noticed, because the existence of trees 
hereabout is so rare as to be deserving of re- 
cord. No native fires were seen between this 
part and Rottnest Island, nor was there any 
other indication of the coast being inhabited; 
it is, however, likely to be as populous as any 
other part, for the hills in the interior, which 
we occasionally got a glimpse of, seemed to b6 
wooded, and would therefore furnish subsistence 
to natives from hunting, even if the sea-shore 
failed in suppljring them with fish. Between 
the bare sandy point and Island Point there in 
a deep bay, the shores of which are fronted by 
a reef partly dry, extending from the shore two 
miles. 

At seven o'dodc we were about a mile and a 
half from a reef that nearly crossed our course ; 
and, as it was time to haul off for the night, we 
shortened sail and brought to the wind, then 
blowing a strong squally breeze from south ; but 
notwithstanding this succession of bad weather, 
the mercury in the barometer had ranged steadily 
between 2^.90 and 29.92 inches. 

17. At daybreak we steered in for the land, but 
ran twenty-two miles before it was seen* At 



COASTB OF AWTRALIA, 171 

ilitid o'clock it bore between N.E. and S.B., and i«». 
at a quarter after nine, heavy breakem wMe Jtiuir. 
deeii in the S.E., at iSbe distance of five milem. 
The weather was now fine, and the wind I^.B«R^ 
but Mill blew strong; the horizoh was so en* 
▼eloped by haze that the land, although not more 
than seten mifes from our track, was very indis* 
tinctly seen: it seemed to be formed of sand hills, 
from one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet 
high, sHgfady studded with a scrubby vegetation ; 
in the interior we perceived a range cf hiHs of 
tabular form, which are probably very high. 
At ten o'dock we passed another patdi of break*» 
era at the distance of about a mile and a half; 
but these appeared to have no connexion with 
those seen at nine o'clock. Our soundings were 
between fifteen and seventeen fathoms, and our 
distance from the beach, from six to seven miles. 
At noon the wind Veered back to S.S.W., and 
Mew hard: we were at this tune in 2SP & V S. 
and by dironometers in 114"" 40' dff' East; by 
which we found that a current had set us during 
the last twenty-four hours, to the N.N.W. at (Xie 
mile per hour. At half past twelve o'clock, more 
breakers were seen, bearing N.W.p^., when 
we hauled off W.N. W., in order to ascertain the 
distance between the land and the Abrolhos 
bank» which^ in Van Keulen*s cbarty is Jdaiied 
abreast of this part of the coasts 



172 0URVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^ At half past four o'clock the mast-head man 
J«i.i7« was cautioned to look out for breakers, and in 
less than half* an hour afterwards he reported 
some, bearing N. W.b.N. On going to the mast- 
head I saw them distmctly, for they were not 
moTe than four miles off, and on looking round 
the horizon towards the westward, distinctly 
saw the island of Frederick Houtman's Abrol- 

hos/ which for some time the mast-headman 

« 

persisted was only the shadow of the clouds ; 
but a small hummock being soon afterwards de- 
scried upon the summit of the largest, confirmed 
my conjectures. The group appeared to con- 
sist of three islands, all low and of small size. 
Beyond and around them the sea was smooth^ 
and to the southward another patch of breakers 
was observed. Preparations were now made 
to tack off, but I had scarcely reached the deck 
when the look-out man repotted rocks under 
our lee bow, upon which the helm was imme- 
diately put up ; and when the Tessel's head was 
round upon the opposite tack, the following bear- 
ings were taken: — 

• • • 

r West 1 
Island of the Abrdhoe • eight miles off, between i and v 

[S.76*W.j 

Breakers . . foarmilesoff. . {^'^ti^'} 

Another patch • •, seven miles off • 8.W* 
And the small rock patch balfa mile off •• « West 



COASTS OP AUSTRALIA. 173 

This last I did not see myself, but two men I822. 
perceived it distinctly from the mast-head, and Jan. jr. 
it is from their accounts that I am induced to 
give it a place upon the chart. The position 
of the vessel, when we saw the breakers, was 
in latitude 28^ 53', and in longitude 114^ ST,^ 
and from the short interval between our ob- 
taining sights for the chronometer, and the me- 
ridional observation at noon, the position may be 
considered to be tolerably correct. After taking 
the bearings, and before sail was made, we 
sounded in twenty-five fathoms, fine shelly sand ; 
but, as we stood to the eastward, the water 
gradually deepened to twenty-nine and thirty 
fathoms. 

The next morning at daylight the land was is. 
out of sight, but at five o'clock was distinguished, 
forming a range of flat-topped land, probably 
about one thousand feet high. At the northern 
end of the range were four or five hills standing 
apart from each other, of which, in the view we 
then had of them, the northernmost was flat- 
topped, and the others peaked; at the south 
end of the range were three other distinct hills, 
the centre being peaked and the other two flat- 
topped. Near the centre of the main range was 
another summit that was remarkable for its form. 

This range was seen by Captain Hamelin of 



172 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^ At half past four o'clock the mast-head man 
Jan. 17. was cautioned to look out for breakers, and in 
less than half an hour afterwards he reported 
some, bearing N.W.b.N. On going to the mast- 
head I saw them distmctly, for they were not 
moTe than fow miles off, and on looking round 
the horizon towards the westward, distinctly 
saw the island of Frederick Houtman's Abrol- 
hosy which for some time the mast-headman 
persisted was only the shadow of the cbuds ; 
but a small hummock being soon afterwards de- 
scried upon the summit of the largest, confirmed 
my conjectures. The group appeared to con- 
sist of three islands, all low and of small size. 
Beyond and around them the sea was smooth^ 
and to the southward another patch of breakers 
was observed. Preparations were now made 
to tack off, but I had scarcely reached the deck 
when the look-out man repotted rocks under 
our lee bow, upon which the hehn was imme- 
diately put up ; and when the Tessel's head was 
round upon the opposite tack, the following bear- 
ings were taken: — 

• « • 

r West ] 
Island of the Abrolhos • eight miles off, between < and \ 

|S.76*W.J 

Breakers . . foarmilesoff. . { n^*} 

Another patch '• ., seven miles off . 8.W. 
And the small rock patch balfa mile off • « West 



COASTS OP AUSTRALIA. 173 

This last I did not see myself, but two men is22. 
perceived it distinctly from the mast-head, and Jan. jr. 
it is from their accounts that I am induced to 
give it a place upon the chart. The position 
of the vessel, when we saw the breakers, was 
in latitude 28^ 53', and in longitude 114^ ST. ^ 
and from the short interval between our ob* . 
taining sights for the chronometer, and the me- 
ridional observation at noon, the position may be 
considered to be tolerably correct. After taking 
the bearings, and before sail was made, we 
sounded in twenty-five fathoms, fine shelly sand ; 
but, as we stood to the eastward, the water 
gradually deepened to twenty-nine and thirty 
fathoms. 

The next morning at daylight the land was is. 
out of sight, but at five o'clock was distinguished, 
forming a range of flat-topped land, probably 
about one thousand feet high. At the northern 
end of the range were four or five hills standing 
apart from eadi other, of which, in the view we 
then had of them, the northernmost was flat- 
topped, and the others peaked; at the south 
end of the range were three other distinct hills, 
the centre being peaked and the other two flat- 
topped. Near the centre of the main range was 
another summit thait was remarkable for its form. 

This range was seen by Captain Hamelin of 



172 gURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^ At half past four o'clock the mast-head man 
Jan. 17. was cautioned to look out for breakers, and in 
less than halt* an hour afterwards he reported 
some, beating N. W.b.N. On going to the mast- 
head I saw them distinctly, for they were not 
more than four miles off, and on looking round 
the horizon towards the westward, distinctly 
saw the island of Frederick Houtman's Abrol* 
hos/ which for some time the mast-headman 
persisted was only the shadow of the clouds ; 
but a small hummock being soon afterwards de« 
scrred upon the summit of the largest, confirmed 
my conjectures/ The group appeared to con- 
sist of three islands, all low and of small size. 
Beyond and around them the sea was smooth^ 
and to the southward another patch of breakers 
was observed. Preparations were now made 
to tack off, but I had scarcely reached the deck 
when the look-out man repotted rocks under 
our lee bow, upon which the helm was imme- 
diately put up ; and when the Tessel's head was 
round upon the opposite tack, the following bear- 
ings were taken: — 

• • • 

f West ] 
Idand of the Abrolhos • eight miles off, between i and > 

[S.76*W.j 

Breaken . . four miles off . . {^SI^*} 

Another patch \ .. seven miles off • S.W. 
And the small rock patch half a mile off •- « Wett 



COASTS OP AUSTRALIA. 173 

This last I did not see myself, but two men isaaf. 
perceived it distinctly from the mast-head, and Jan. jr. 
it is from their accounts that I am induced to 
give it a place upon the chart. The position 
of the vessel, when we saw the breakers, was 
in latitude 28^ 53', and in longitude 114^ 2^, . 
and from the short interval between our ob-^ 
taining sights for the chronometer, and the me- 
ridional observation at noon, the position may be 
considered to be tolerably correct. After taking 
the bearings, and before sail was made, we 
sounded in twenty-five fathoms, fine shelly sand ; 
but, as we stood to the eastward, the water 
gradually deepened to twenty-nine and thirty 
fathoms. 

The next morning at daylight the land was is. 
out of sight, but at five o'dock was distinguished, 
forming a range of flat-topped land, probably 
about one thousand feet high. At the northern 
end of the range were four or five hills standing 
apart from each other, of which, in the view we 
then had of them, the northernmost was flat- 
topped, and the others peaked; at the south 
end of the range were three other distinct hills, 
the centre being peaked and the other two flat- 
topped. Near the centre of the main range was 
another summit thait was remarkable for its form. 

This range was seen by Captain Hamelin of 



176 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

1828. have been the summit of Moresby^s Flat-topped 
Jan. 18. Range*. 

The soimdings of the coast upon our track 
between Rottnest Island and the Abrolhos have 
been generally of a gravelly nature, mixed some- 
times with shelly sand, and were generally 
coarser as we approached the shore. In some 
parts, particularly near Cape Naturaliste and 
Rottnest Island, the bottom appeared to-be a 
bed of small water-worn quartzose pebbles hot 
larger than a pin's head. Off Moresby's Flat- 
topped Range the bottom is of a soft dark-gray- 
coloured sand of a very fine quality, that would 
afiford good anchorage, was it not for the ocm- 
stant swell that pervades this stormy coast ; the 
water was, however, much smoother than in other 
parts, which might have been occasioned either 
by the Abrolhos bank's breaking the sea, or frcmi 
the temporary cessation of the wind, for it was 
comparatively light to what it had been since 
our leaving Rottnest Island* 

A large patch of bare sand terminates the 
sandy shores of this coast, in latitude 27^ 55'. A 
steep cliff then commences and extends for eight 

* So M. de Freyclnet also thinks, for be says — " qtte]qa<9 per* 
•onnes n*osent assurer que nous ayons vu les Abrolhos; d^autres, et 
je suis de ce nombre, peusent que ce que nous avons pris pour ce 
g^Dupe d'iles est one portion du Coatinent;**— Frbtcinbt, p. ISO. 



COASTS OF AUSTRALIA. 177 

miles to the Red Point of Vlaming; behind i^ 
which is a bight, called by the French Gan- Jan. u 
theaume Bay ; in the soutli part of which there 
appeared a small opening. This bay did 
not seem to be so well calculated for taking 
shelter in from southerly gales, as Van Keu- 
len's chart indicates; since it is exposed to 
wiads from S.W.b.S., from which quarter it 
must frequCTtly blow. The country appeared 
very rocky; the slight vegetation covering its 
sur&ce gave it a greenish hue, but no trees 
weire seen near the shore, which is fronted by a 
sandy beach ; the depth of the bight is probably 
five or six miles. The cliffs of Red Point par- 
take of a reddish tinge, and appear to be dis* 
posed nearly in horizontal strata. In the centre, 
and about half way between the base and sum- 
mit of the cliffs, is a remarkable block of stone, of 
very white colour, that at a distance appeared to 
be either a fort or house : some black marks on its 
face tock our attention, and resembled characters 
of a very large size, as if they had been painted 
for the purpose of attracting the attention of ves- 
sels passing by ; but a closer examination with 
the telescope proved them to be only the sha- 
dows of the projecting parts of the surface. 

At half past seven o'clock we hauled off for 
the night, and, standing off and on, sounded in 

VOI..U. N 



178 SURVEY OP THE fNTSETI^QPICAL 

1^. between thirty-three and thirty-five fitithoma. At 
Jan, 19. daylight the next morning, the land bore £rcm 
East to £,S.E., but the morning and forenoon 
,were ao hazy, that it was very indistin^Aly 
f(een; at noon a partial clearing away of the 
haze exposed to our view a long range of hi|^ 
igod precipitous clifife, the base of wfaidi was 
washed by the s^a, breaking upon it with a 
tremendous roar, and heard distinctly by vol 
The wind falling in the afternoon induced me 
ito stand off shore, when we soon lost sight of 
the land. At noon we were in latitude 27^ 
5' 18'\ At one' o'clock the depth was forty*£ve 
fathoms 0ne gray sand. No land wbb seen 
during the rest of the day ; &r although the sky 
WAS beautifully clear and serene, the atmosphere, 
for jSfiew degrees above the hoorizon, was enve- 
loped in a thick hazy mist, that caused aaex^- 
traordinary dampness in the air, and from the 
unfavourable state of the weaHiw we did not at- 
tempt to make it again, 
^' The next morning we saw that part d Dirk 
Hartog's Island, which lies in latitude 25^ 56^ 
and when we had reached within four miles €i 
the shore steered to the northward parallel 
to the beach, but the haze was still so great 
9S to rend^ the land very indistinct We saw 
enough of it> however, to be convinded of its 



Q9m% W AWntAUA. 179 



peifeot sterility. The coast is lined with a lan 
barrier of rocks, on which the sea was btea^ing JaiuioL 
high, with a roar that was heard en board, 
although our distance from the shc»re was at 
least three miles. 

The warmth of the weather now b^n ra* 
pidly to increase ; the thermoineter at neon 
ranged as high as 79^ 

At one o'clock Cape Inscription^ the narth- 
westemmost point of Dirk Hartog's Island, was 
distinguished, and ^e sea-breeze veered as far 
as &W.b. W. which was two points more westerly 
than we had hitherto had it At two o'clock the 
brig passed fomd the cape, and, as there was 
an appearance of good shelter in the bay to the 
eastward of it, we hauled in, and at half past 
three o*ckxJc, anchored in twelve fathoms find 
gravelly soft sand; the west point of Dirk 
Hartog's Island (Cape Inscription) bearing 
N. 82^ W., and the low sandy point that forms 
its nwth-east end S. 58^ W., at a mile and a half 
from the shore. 

As we hauled round the cape, and were passr 
ing under the lee of the land, the breeze became 
so suddenly heated, by its blowing over the arid 
and parched sur&ce of the coast, that my sea* 
weed hygrcmeler, whidi had been quite damp 
since we left Rottneat Island, was in ten minutes 

N2 



180 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

ii^. so dried as to be covered with crystals of salt ; 
Jan. 20. and in this state it continued during our stay. 

Upon rounding the cape, two posts were des- 
cried upon its summit, which we conjectured to 
be those on which the French had affixed a 
record of their visit, ^s well as the more ancient 
one of the Dutch navigators, Dirk Hartog and 
Vlaming; for they were very conspicuously 
placed, and appeared to be in good preserva- 
tion. 

We had not anchored five minutes before the 
vessel was surrounded by sharks, which at once 
impressed us with the propriety of Dampier's 
nomenclature. One that was caught measured 
eleven feet in length, but the greater num- 
ber were not more than three or four feet 
long. They were very voracious, and scared 
away large quantities of fish, of which, however, 
our people during the evening caught a good 
supply. 
SI. The following morning we landed at the Cape, 
and with eager steps ascended the rocky fsuce 
of the hill, to examine the interesting memorials 
that were affixed to the post ; but found to our 
great mortification, that they had been removed; 
the only vestige that remained was the nails by 
which they had been secured. One of the posts 
was about two feet high, and evidently made of 



COASTS OP AUSTRAUA. 181 

the wood of the cedlitris, that grows upon Rottnest latt 
Island ; it appeared to have been broken down ; Jm* 9h 
the other was still erects and seemed to have 
been either the he^l of a ship's royal-mast, or 
part of a studding-pail boom ; upon one side of 
it a flag had been fastened by nails. A careful 
search was made all round, but as no signs of 
the Dutch plate, or of the more recent French 
inscription were seen, it was conjectured that 
they had been removed by the natives; but 
since our return to England, I have learnt tiiat 
they are preserved in the Museum of the In- 
stitute at Paris, where they had been deposited 
by M. de Freycinet, upon his return from his 
late voyage round the world. After this disap- 
pointment, we returned to the sea-beach, whilst 
Mr. Cunningham botanized along the summit of 
the ridge ; and before he rejoined us, we had 
been fortunate enough to find two very fine tur- 
tles, and a large quantity of turtle-eggs. The 
animals had been' left by the tide in hdes of 
the rocks, from which we had some difficulty in 
extricating them. During our absence from the 
vessel; our people had been very successful with 
the hook and line, having caught about five or 
six dozen snappers, besides some of the genus 
tdradon. 
This seasonable supply, and the probability 



i^ SURtfiV Ot THfi INTKRTBOPICAL 

Ugk of out pttxniring more turdeB fix)m the beadi» 
J^.M. iAdueed me to remain here a few' days to 
perform som^ trifling repairs that could not 
b6 effected at sea. We were also prevented 
{h>m moving) from the unfavourable state of the 
weather ; for it was blowing a gale of wind all 
the time we remained ; but bA our people were 
living upon fresh food, the time was not consi* 
* dered as lost. The next morning fifty turtles 
Were turned, but as we could not convey them 
all on board, forty were left on shore upon their 
backs for the night: upon landing the next 
morning they were all found de^, having killed 
themselves by their exertions to escape, and 
from their exposure to the heat of the sun» 
whidi was so great durit^ the day, that I did 
not send any of the people on shore. We found, 
however, no difficulty in procuring more, some 
of which weighed four hundred weight. 

The shore of this bay is fronted by a rocky 
reef, covered with shell^fish, df which the prin- 
cipal sorts were species of trochus, chama^ conus, 
totuta, cyprma^ buccmum^ t^strea, wytiluH^ and 
padla ; among the latter was the large one of 
King George's Sound. Ujpon the beadles to wind- 
ward of the cape, we found varieties of sponge 
and coral ; and beche de mer were observed 
in ^ crevices of the rooks, but were neither 



CDAITB OP At/SinULlA. 183 

iuga nor plentifiiL Mr. OuHningfaaln «&W two iftifc 

land snakes, one of which waB abo&t four 1^ ilk JMk i4 
lengdi; the cdouf of its back was black, and the 
beUy yellow ; tte rnily quadruped seen, was a 
small opossum. A seal of the hair species, like 
those bf Rottnest Island^ was seen on the tocks, 
probably of the same description that Dampier 
found in the maw of the sharic* ; and also what 
was found by the^ French c»i Faune Idaod, which 
M. Peron siqpposed to be an herbivorous animal, 
and described as a dugon^f. 

On the 24th Mr. Roe visited the Cape, to fix S4. 
on the post a memorial of our visit ; an inscrip- 
tioD Was carved upon a small piece c^ Wood, in 
the back of whidi was deposited another memo- 
randum vrritten upon "veUum ; the wood was of 
the size of the sheave-hde of the larger post, 
into which it was fixed, and near it Mr. Roe piled 
up a heap of stones. After this Was accom- 
plttdMdy the party walked fat some distance along 
the beacb^ to the south-wbst of the cape, Wlmre 
they found the remains of two or three whales 
that had beed lately wrecked ; a small piece of 
putr^ed flesh was also 8een> about two os three 
f«et longi one side of which was covered with 

• !>AiinB% Td. iii. p. S7. 



184 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

isn red hair, it was, however, too far gone to aseer- 
jan.»di. tain to what animal it belonged. 

On examining into the state of our dry pro- 
visions, it was mortifying to find that the rats 
and cockroaches, had destroyed an incredible 
quantity, particularly of our biscuit and flour. 
In one of the casks of the latter, more than 
two thirds of its contents was deficient The 
biscuit was completely drilled through, and the 
greater part would not have been thought fit to 
eat if we had possessed any of a better quality ; 
I still, however, hoped to have a sufficiency on 
board to complete the survey of the north-west 
coast, before our return to Port Jackson, whidi I 
now found would^ of necessity, be at least four 
or five weeks before the time I had fixed upcxi 
when we left the Mauritius. As it would take 
up a great portion of the time we had now 
left to make a more extensive examinaticxi of 
Shark's Bay than what the French have already 
performed, and would entirely prevent my going 
upon the north-west coast again ; it was deter- 
mined that we should not delay here, but pass 
on, and resume our examination of the coast at 
Cape Cuvier, the northern head of the bay. The 
only part of Shark's Bay that seems to be at all 
interesting, and to require further examination, 
is. the eastern side of the bay, immediately op- 



coAfirrs OP austraua. 185 



posite to tiie Islands of Dorre and Bemier ; but iml 
from the very intricate and shoal nature of its Jm.M 
approach^ it is very doubtful whether even a 
sight of the land in that direction could be 
procured. 

The rocks of Dirk Hartog's Island are of a 
very remarkable formation, consisting of a con- 
geries of quartzose sand, united in small circular 
kernels by a calcareous cement, in which some 
diells were found imbedded. The geological 
diaracter of this rock is more fully treated upon 
in the Appendix by my friend Dr. Fitton. 

Upon the summit of the diflb there are a few 
low shrubs, at this time much parched up, but 
among them Mr. Cunningham found a tolerably 
rich harvest In his collection were the following 
plants, which were originally brought to Europe 
by Dampier; viz., trkkinium incanum, Br. ; diplo- 
kma Dampieri, Desf.; solanum, a thorny ferrugi- 
nous species without fructification, (S. Dampieri?) 
Dan^era incana, Br. ; and a cordate melaleuca^ 
figured by Dampier* — " a beautiful lorantkus 
(teretifolius^ Cunn.) grew on the branches of 
an undescribed acacia (a. lipdata^ Cunn. MS.):" 
» * *• '^ many were the wrecks of most interest- 
ing plants, and especially those of soft herbace- 
ous duration, which had some time since fallen a 

«*PAifPism vol. iii., p. 110. tab. S» figr- 4* 



186 SURVEY OF TUB INTERTEOnCAL 

Itel. sacrifice to the apparent Ibng-piotracted dtoag^t^ 
Jitei^ tbe season ; bbt it was impossible, amidst the sad 
languor of tegetation, not to admire the luxuriaitf 
and healthy habit of an undescribed species offk- 
tosporum^ (oleifolium, Cunn. MS.), which formed 
a -small robust tree^ ten feet high, laden ^ith 
ripe fruit. We could perceive no traces either of 
remains of fires, or otherwise of natives, in the 
whole length of our walk along the edge of the 
cliflb or the plains, but we saw two snakes of 
very distinct kinds, each exceeding five feet in 
length ; the one black with a yellow belly, the 
other green and black, but they qiiiddy e8ci4)ed 
into holes^ leaving a serpentine impression of 
their bodies upon the sand. These marks were 
seen and remariced near the edge of all the hdes. 
Which were very numerous upon the sur&ce of 
the island, before I discovered that they werfe 
th6 tracks of reptiles, from which it may be 
infi^rred that these animals are very abundant. 
The only bird seen was a solitary specim of 
' Idxik, but upon a steep ledge of rocks I observed 
one of those nests of whidi frequent mention 
has been already made : I examined and found 
it built upon the pinnacle of some large rocks, 
rerj strongly constructed of long sticks; it 
was about five feet high> and esEceeded four 
feet in diameter^ with a yeiy sUgjbt cavity 



COA0)PS 5» AUSf ftALlA. l6t 

above' ; and seemed lo have been very recently 1^ 
inhabited. The rocks that formed its base J^m. ««: 
were lomamented with a prostrate cappam, or 
cafyptranlhu^9 (cafyptrantftus orbicularis^ Cunft. 
MSO» which* afforded me good flowering sped* 
mens. In my walk I started a small black kan^^ 
garoo : it was feeding upon the seeds of a small 
aeaoia, aiKl, upon perceiving my approach, fled 
acroBi the down without reaching a single bush 
or riDck large enough to conceal itself as iar as 
the eye could discern iU so bare and destitute of 
vegetatic»i are these arid, sandy plains */* The 
heat of the weather was so great as not to allow 
of aay conmiunication with the shore, excepting 
between daybreak and eight o'clock) Mf ^ Cutt-^ 
Bingham's visits were^ therefore, necessarily 
mudi confined : this precaution I found it abso^ 
lately requisite to take, to prevent the people 
from being exposed to the very great heat of the 
sun* which on shore must have been at least 
twenty degrees mc»re powerful than on board) 
whrae the thermometer ranged between 71|^ at 
midnight, and SS"" and 87*" at noon. The baro- 
meter ranged between 29.76 and 29.99 inches, 
and stood highest when the wind was to the 
eastward of souths with which winds the horizon 

« OKimibgtaii ftis.' 



188 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1888. was much clearer, and the air consequently drier 
Jan. 94* than when the wind blew from the sea. 

As an anchorage, during the summer months. 
Dirk Hartog's Road has every thing to recom- 
mend it, excepting the total absence of fresh 
water, which, according to the French, was not 
found in any part of Shark's Bay ; the anchorage 
is secure and the bottom clear of rocks. There 
is also an abundance of fish and turtle, and of 
the latter a ship might embark forty or fifty 
every day, for they are very sluggish, and make 
no efibrt to escape, perhaps from knowing the 
impossibility of their scrambling over the rocky 
barrier that fronts the shore, and dries at 
half ebb. Of fish we caught only two kinds ; 
the snapper, a species of sparm^ called by the 
French the *^ rouge bosm" and a tetradon^ whidi 
our people could not b^ persuaded to eat, al- 
though the French lived chiefly upon it. There 
are some species of this genus that are poison- 
ous, but many are of delicious flavour: it is de- 
scribed by M. Lacepede in a paper in the Armal. 
du Museum D'Histoire Naturelle, (tom. iv. p. 203,) 
as le tetrodon argente, (t. argenteus.) 
96. On the 26th we sailed, and passed outside 
of Dorre and Bemier's Islands; nothing was 
seen of the reef that lies in mid-channel, on 
the south side of Dorre Island : a rippling was 



COASTS OP AUSTRALIA. 189 

noticed by Mr. Roe in an £.b.S. direction from i^ 
the mast-head at twenty minutes before one Jaa-ss. 
o'dock, but, if the position assigned to it by the 
French is correct, we had passed it long before 
that time. At six o'clock Kok's Island, the small 
rocky islet that lies off the north end of Bemier's 
Island, bore N. S3° E., distant seven miles. 

The following morning at daylight the land sr. 
was seen in the N.E., and at half-past eight 
o'clock we resumed our course, and passed Cape 
Cuvier, a reddish-coloured rocky bluff that pre* 
sents a precipitous face to the sea. The coast 
thence takes a N.b.E. direction; it is low and 
sandy, and fronted by a sandy beach, occasi- 
onally interrupted by projecting rocky points; 
those parts where patches of bare sand were no- . 
ticed, are marked upon the chart. 

At one o'dpck we were near a low sandy pro- 
jection, round which the coast extends to the 
E.N.E., and forms a shallow bay. This projec- 
tion was called after Sir Robert Townsend Far- . 
quhar, Bart., the late Governor of the Mauritius. 

Farther on, in latitude 23^ 10' 30", is a pro- 
jection which, at Mr. Cunningham's request, 
was called after Mr. William Anderson, of the 
Apothecaries' garden at Chelsea. The coast to 
the northward of Point Anderson is higher than 
to the southward, and falls back to the N.E., 



190 SURVEY OP THE INTERTEOPICAL 

Wi. but was very imperfectly seen, on account of tha 
^Wn !W. thick haze that enveloped it. At a quarter be- 
fore seven o'clock we hauled to the wind for 
the night, with a fresh gale from the southward. 

28. The next morning was cloudy, and the horizon 
tolerably clear; but towards noon a li^t 
haze began to spread, which by sunset was so 
thick as entirely to conceal the land. The mer- 
cury fell as low as 29.76 inches, and, althou^ 
the thermometer was at 79"^ and the sun pow^ 
erful, yet the atmosphere was so charged ¥rith 
moisture that the decks and every thing out of 
the immediate influence of the sun were quite 
damp. This extraordinary and constant faumi* 
dity appeared only to occupy the atmosphere, 
for the sky was always beautifully dear and 
serene. 

. During the night the gale blew strong from 
the southward, with a high topping sea from the 
S.W. ; and being occupied in shifting the main 
topsail, which had split during the night, we 
stood off until three o'clock before we tacked 
towards the shore. 

29. At eight o'clock being in latitude 22'' 19' 23", 
the land was visible from N.K to S. 35"" E., 
at the distance of five or six leagues : by its out* 
line, which, from the glare of the sun, was the 
pnly part at all discernible, it seemed to be 



of moderate height, very level, and oflEering itm 
BO particular mark that could be set with any JaibM« 
chance of recognition to obtain a cross bearing* 
Aa there ia every reason to believe that this part 
of the coast is what was taken by former navi« 
gators for Cloates Island*/ I have named the 
southernmost point of the high land Point Cloates. 

At noon we were in latitude 21"^ &T 5f\ having 
experienced a cunmt of twenty-three miles to 
the north since yesterday at noon, lie northern 
extreme, Vlaming's Head, bore N.Kb.E.|K, and 
the south extreme S. 7^ W. ; and in the bearing 
of between S, 33° to 82° K, the land is higher 
than in other parts, and declines very gradually 
towards the extreme. 

As the brig approached the land, breakers were 
seen to extend the whole length of the shore, 
which is Wonted by a sandy beach: the land is 
of moderate height, but the sununit is rather 
more ru^ed than that to the southward, where 
the outline is perfectly level. At half-past three . ; 
o'dock Vlaming Head hate south, six miles and 
three-quarters off: at four o'clock the latitude, 
by the moon's meridional altitude, was found to 
be 21'' 38' 27', at which time sights, were taken 
for the chronometer, which made the longi* 
tude of the head 114° 2f 16': the situation as« 



192 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

iM. signed to it on our first voyage was 1 14° 1' 47" ; 
Jan. 29. the mean of the two, 1 14° 2^ 2", may therefore be 
considered its true situation. 

From the above observation for the latitude 
of the North- West Cape agreeing nearly with 
those of our former voyage, I was induced to 
think that there might be some land more 
to the northward, that the French saw and 
took for the cape; for they have placed it in 
2r 37 7'' S., which is nearly KX too northerly. 
Captain Horsburgh, in the supplement to his 
Directory, notices some islands seen by the San 
Antonio in 1818, called Piddington's Islands, that 
are said to lie in the latitude of 21° 36', but after 
steering seventeen miles to the N.E. from the 
above situation, without seeing any thing like 
land, there remained no doubt in my mind that 
the French must have been deceived, and that 
Piddington*s Islands are some of the low, sandy 
islets to the eastward of Muiron Island, 
ao. Having steered through the night on a north- 
east course, Barrow's Island came in sight the 
next morning, when it was about five leagues 
off; at ei^t o'clock it bore between S. 27° E. 
and N. 87° E. From noon to three p.m. we had 
calm, dull, and cldudy weather; and, although 
the thermometer did not range higher than 87°, 
the heat was extremely oppressive, and occa- 



•C0A9TS OP AUSmtAUA. 193 

sioqed the death of three of our turtles. At three is». 
o'clock a breeze springing up from the westward, JaZft). 
enabled us to steer to the northward, round the 
Montebello Islands, in doing wiiich we saw 
nothing of Hermite Island, which the French 
have laid down as the westernmost island of that 
gcoup. There is certainly no land to the west- 
ward of Trimouille Island; and the error can 
only be accounted for by Captain Baudin's hav- 
ing seen the latter at two diflferent periods ; in- 
deed this conjecture is in some measure proved, 
since there is a considerable reef running off 
the north-west end of that island, which in the 
French chart is attached to Hermite Island ; this 
reef might not have been seen by him at his first 
visit, and when he made the land ag^n and ob- 
served the reef, he must have concluded it to 
have been a second island. 

After steering a north course until seven o'dodc, 
and deepening the water to sixty-five fathoms, we 
gradually haided round the north end of the Mon- 
tebello Isles ; and at eleven p.m. steered East ; 
but at two o'clock, having decreased the depth 
from seventy-two to forty-one fathoms, we steered 
off to the Jiorthward until daylight^ and then to 
the E.S.E., in order to anchor in the Mermaid's 
Strait to the eastward of Halus Island, to take 
some stonea on board as ballast^ for the brig 

Vol. n. o 



194 SURYSV Of THE ISTTOTROPICAL 

1^ was SO very lig^t and leewardly* that it would 
jfB. 30. have been running a great risk to approaeh tha 
land, as she then was. But in this we w^re dis-* 
appointed, for after an interval of dose wiiixf 
weather, and a severe thunder«8t(»in, a gale of 
Irind set in from the S.W,, during whidi thtf 
barometer fell as low as 29.86 inches. . Tb« 
gale then veered gradually round to the N. W«^ 
and obliged lis to make sail off the opaat, ajod 
by the time it moderated, we were so far to 
leeward of Dampier's Archipelago, that I was 
constrained to alter my plan, and give up the 
idea of taking ballast on board. I ther^(»re de^ 
termined upon making Rowley's Shoals, for thq 
purpose of fixing their position vrith greater cor^ 
reotness, and examining the extent of the bight 
round Cape Lev^e, which we were obliged 
to leave unexplored during, the earlier part of 
this voyage. 
Feb. 4. The first of these objects was eflEected on the 
4th ; on which day we passed round the south 
end of the Imperieuse (the westernmost) Shoal ; 
which we now found to extend nearly four miles 
more to the southward than had been suspected 
in 1818, at which period we steered round its 
north end. 

A large patch of dry rooks was also seen co 
l^e north-east end of the reei^ about ten uilw 



fion the t^bqI'^ trade, ^ Mr, Hoe, from the im. 

mast-head, thought that the east side ofthd sboqji Fciuii 
did not appear to, be ao ste^ aa the Vefltem 
aide. 

From Boon we steeied eaat to uelce the ahoai 
8e«o by the Good Hope^ but having saikd ia 
that direction aa far as latitude 17^ 42f 51''^ and 
longitude 119^ 83" 4^ without seeing any signs 
of it for ten miles on either side of our.courset 
we hauled to the wind for the nighty and tounded 
in one hundred and forty*five fathocn^ speckled 
sand and broken shells. 

At seven o'clock the following morning, we & 
were steering east, when broken water was re^ 
pc^rted bearing fiom East to E,S.EL, but it turned 
out to be a rippUng which we passed through^ 
These ripplings have been irequwtly noticed 
in the vioinity of the reefe, but we have been 
very litde affected by the tides by wfaidi the^fv 
must be occasioned. At noon we were by 
observation in 17^43' 41^ and longitude 119"^ 
4r 52^» when we sounded in one hundred and 
twenty fathoms, spec^ded sand mixed with hrphm 
'sheila and stones ; and at twenty miles fiurtbe^ 
to the eastward sounded again on the samsr 
depth. At eight o*dook the next morning, having 
steeled through the night N^KkK, we wer6:iin 

OS 



;l96 SUaTSr of the INTCRr&OPICAL 

1^. ninety fitthoms^ saod^ broken shells, and large 
peb.«. stones. 
8. On the morning of the 8th, the land was seen 
in the S.E., and soon afterwards the brig passed 
round Cape Lev^iie, at the distance of a mile 
aad a half. On our way towards Point; Swan, 
we- saw from the mast-head a line of strong 
tide-ripplings, extending from the point in* a 
N;W.b,W. direction; within which we at first at- 
tempted to pass, but, finding that they were con- 
nected to the point, hauled up to steer throu^ 
them where they seemed to be the least danger- 
ous. As we i^proached, thfe noise was tenific, 
and, although we were not more than two minutes 
amongst the breakers, yet the shocks of the sea 
were so violent, as to make me fear for the safety 
of our masts. A smaller vessel would perhaps 
have been swamped; for although the sea was in 
other parts quite smooth and the wind Ught, yet 
the water broke over the bows, and strained the 
brig considerably. 

We then steered between Point Swan and twa 
rocky islands, lying five miles from the shore, 
over a space which, at our last visit, appeared 
to be occupied by an extensive reief, but we 
were then probably deceived by tide-ripplings. 

It was my intention to have brought up under; 



COASTS OP AUSnULU. 197 

the lee of the point, i;^ere Dampier deseribes is». 
his having anchored in twenty-nine fathoms dear Feb. 9. 
sandy ground ; but» upon rounding the projection, 
the wind suddenly fell, and, after a light squall 
from S.Wm we had a dead calm ; the depth was 
thirty fathoms coral bottom, and therefore not 
safe to anchor upon ; this was unfortunate, for 
the sudden defection of the wind prevented our 
hauling into the bay out of the tide, which was 
evidently running with considerable rapidity, 
and drifting us, without our having the means of 
preventing it, towards a cluster of small rocks 
and islands, through which we could not discover 
any outlet, and which were so crowded, that in 
the dangerous predicament in which we found our- 
selves placed, they bore a truly awful and terrific 
appearance. At this time I was at my usual 
post, the mast-head, directing the steerage of the 
vessel; but, as the brig was drifting forward 
by a rapid sluice of tide towards some low 
rocks, about a quarter of a mile ofi; that were 
not more than two feet above the water's edge, 
and upon which it appeared almost inevitable that 
we must strike, I descended to the deck, under 
the certain conviction that we could not escape 
the dangers that were strewed across our path, 
unless a breeze should spring up, of whidi there 
was xiol the slightest appearance or probability. 



SB 8URVEV DF THB IKTIKTROPICAL 

r HappQy; lKm«ver» {be . Mream bf the tid^ 
Fib. 8.- swept U8 past the rocks ^v^ithout accident, and, 
after carrying us abcnit half a mile &xther» changed 
its direction to south-east, and drifted us toward* 
a narrow strait, separating two rodcy islands, ia 
the centre of which was a large insulated rook 
Aat seemed to diride the stream. The boat was 
now hoisted out and sent a-head to tow, but we 
doutd not succeed in getting the vessel's head 
nund. As she approached the strait, the chan** 
hel became much narrower, and several islands 
were passed, at not more than thirty yards 
fSrom her course. "Rie voices of natives were 
now heard, and soon afterwards some were 
seen on either side of the strait, hallooing and 
waving their arms ; we were so near to one 
party, that they might have thrown their spears 
on board; they had a dog with thetn, which 
Mr. Gunhingham remarked to be blacL By 
this time, we were flying past the shore with 
i§uch velocity, that it made us quite giddy * and 
oiir situation Was too awful to give us time to 
observe the motions of the Indians ; for we were 
entering the narrowest part of the strait, and the 
next mcment were close to the rock, which it ap- 
peared to be almost impossible to avoid ; and 
ft was more than probable that the stream it 
divided would earry us broadside, upon it^ wb^ 



€0A8rB OF AnrRALUL 199 

thd'ecBiBeqimncad would have been truly dFeed* iMt; 
ful ; the (^neiit, at ftluice, was setting past the FiibTt^ 
1^ at Ae rate of eight or nine knots, and the 
water bsing confined by its interyentiaii^ fell at 
least six or seven feet ; at the momrat, how- 
e?er» when we were upon the point of being 
dashed to pieces^ a sudden breeze piovidentiaily 
sprung up, and, filling our sails, ]iiq>eiled the 
fessel forward for three or four juAs ; — this 
was enough, but aolj just sufficient^ for tbe rud- 
der was not more than six yards from the rock. 
No sooner had we passed this frigfatfiii danger 
than the breeze fdl again, and was succeeded, 
by a dead calm; the tide, however, continued to 
carry us on with a gradually decreasing strength, 
mitil one o'dock^ when we (dt vtery tittle eflfect 
frcxnit 

- From the spot we had now reached, the coast 
finxH Cape Lev^e appeared to trend to the 
Soathward, bift was not visible beyond th6 betur* 
i6g of S.W. ; there wa6, howev^, some land 
ttore to the southwald, that h^ the a{]pearanos 
of being an island ; it was afterwards found to 
be a j^ojectkm, timing tl^ east head of a bay, '^ 
and was subsequently called after my friend Mr; 
Cunaingfaam, to wk>se ind^tfigable jzeal the 
iSt world is considerably indebted for the 



200 SURVEY OF THE JNTERTROEKIAL 

iM; very extensive and valuable botanical collectioii 
Feb. & that has been formed upon this voyage. 

We had a dead cahn until high-water» during 
whichy as the brig continued to drive frith the 
tide to the southward in from twenty to twenty- 
four &thoms, over a rocky bottom^ I was. unde- 
termined what course to pursue, in order to* 
preserve the situation which we had so unex- 
pectedly reached, and to prevent the ebb-tide 
from carrying us back through the strait: the 
bare idea of this impending danger reconciled 
me to determine upon sacrificing an anchor, for> 
from the nature of the bottom, it seined next 
to impossible that we could recover it, if once 
dropped. Just, however, as the tide was begin* 
ning to turn, a breeze sprang up from the west» 
ward, and at once put an end to our fears and 
anxieties ; all sail was made towards Point Gun* 
ningham, beyond which no land was visible; 
but the tide being adverse, and the evening near 
at hand, we anchored in the bight to the north* 
west of the Point, which bore S. 32^"^ E. seven 
miles and a half 
9. The next day I remained at the anchorage^ 
and despatched Mr. JRoe to examine the coast 
round Point Cunningham ; Mr. Baskerville in the 
mean time sounded about the bay, between the 



COASTS OP AWTBAUA. 901 

brig and the western shore, and found very good iWi 
andiorage in all parts: at about one mile to the Feb*^, 
westward of our situation, the bottom was of 
mud» and the depth nine and ten fathoms : the 
land appeared a good deal broken^ like islands, 
but from the vessel the coast seemed to be 
formed by a continuity of deep bays, that may 
perhaps afibrd good anchorage. On one of the 
sandy beaches at the back of the bay near Park 
Hillock, so called from its green appearance and 
being studded with trees, eight or ten natives 
were observed walking along the beach dose to 
the low-water msA, probably in search of shell- 
fish ; some of them were children, and perhaps 
the others were women, except two or three 
who carried spears ; a dog was trotting along 
the beach behind them. 

After dark, according to a preconcerted plan, 
port fires were burnt every half hour for Mr. 
Roe*s guidance, and before midnight the boat 
came alongside. Mr. Roe informed me that 
there was good anchorage round the point; and 
where he landed, at Point Cunningham, there 
was plenty of fresh-water ; but he saw nothing 
like land to the S.E. ; the coast trended from 
Point Cunningham to the south, and was of low 
wooded sandy land. The heat was excessive ; 
the thermometer* at noon, out of the influence of 



im the »ui), tt(X)d at 190^, and \i9l^ they Ian 
Ab.o. Point CimAidghaUi 'U.t Roe Ihoag^ die heat 
vms ulcfMSed al least 10^. At this plaoe lie 
obtained an indifferent tEMidian altitude, vhidi 
placed it in 16^ 40' 18" S. 
^ In the mean time Mr. Cunningham, who had 
aooompanied him> botanized with Buccesa. llie 
traces of natives, doga, turde-boQefi, and broken 
shells, were feund Jstrewed about ; and aev^ai 
fire-places were noticed that had very recently 
been used; a fresh water stream was runnii^ 
down the rodts into ihe sea, and at the beck c^ 
the beach was a hollow, M of sweet watei^. 
Near the fire-places Mr. Roe picked up som6 
stmies, that had been diipped probably in tiie 
manufacture of their hatehets. 

The soil was of a red-cdoured eaith, of a veiry 
sandy nature; and the rocks were two sorts of 
sand-stone, one of a deep red colour, the other 
Whitish, aAd harder. After leaving Point Cua<^ 
ningham, they pulled round the rocks, which eit* 
tended for some distance off the point, and then 
entered a bay, all over which they found good 
Snchorage ; a low distant point ^^rmed the south 
Extreme, but it was too late to teadi it, and at 
high-water they landed at a bright red» difff 
point 

Athalf past fi^ d'doek they t«-eaibMk6d m 



thtirwottn, and; although the tide was im thMr _ 

fkvour, were mx hours before th€fy readMd dk6^' M«*. 
vMBel; ftom which Mr« Roe cakiilated the dift^ 
tanod to bti deafly twenty iniled» and by the sur- 
vey » subsequently made» it was found to be se^ 
venteen. 

We did not leave this andiorage untU the n. 
nth, and then had some diibculty in doing it, 
dn account of the shoalness of the water upon 
the sand-bank that fronts the bay ; indeed we 
were obliged to anchor until the tide rose high 
dnough to permit our crossing it. At two o'clodc 
we again got uhderweigh and crossed the bank, 
when the wind falling calm, we anchored with 
Fbint Cunningham bearing S. 17^ £., three and 
i half miles. The following morning, I sent is. 
Mr. Roe to the point to take some bearings 
Ae boat left the brig at hsdf past three o^dodc, 
but did not succeed in reaching the land be^ 
fore the sun rose; at which time the horizon, 
from being clearer, would have {M^ented a more 
distinct view of distant objects. The group of 
]idan<fe to the eastward was observed to extend 
no farther to the southward than the bearing of 
N. 88^ E., and beyond this was an open, bound- 
toss sea. The station whence this bearing was 
taken, was on the nc»rth-west trend of the point 

On their first landing, Mr. Iloe uul Mr. Bas% 



304 SURVEY OP THE. INTBBTROPICAL 

1^ kemlle, with one of the boat's crew^ ascended 
F^b. 1% the summit, and, whilst employed in loddi^ 
romid. heard the voices of natives among the 
trees about thirty yards off; but as they could 
not see them, they very properly descended, 
and carried on their operations in the vicinity of 
the boat ; they were on shore for two or three 
hours afterwards, but the natives did not make 
their appearance. The fopt-marks of men and 
boys were evident on the sand below the high* 
water mark, and the remains of fire-places^ 
and where the natives had been manufacturing 
spears, were of recent date. The gentlemen 
brought off a few shells and some insects, 
among which was a beautiful sph/nx; besides 
which, one of the boat's crew caught a species 
of vamfgfruSf apparently similar to the flying 
fox of Port Jackson. Of shells there was not 
a great variety ; a charm (tridacna gigas. Lam.), 
a pimta, and the trochu9 (carulescens,) of Dirk 
Hartog's Island ; but at one of the fire-places, 
they found a very large voQluta, that seemed to 
have served the purpose of a water-vessel ; it was 
fifteen inches Icxig, and ten inches in diameter. 

The shores appear to abound with shell-fish, 
although Dampier thought that shells hereaboutSi 
were scarce. We could easily have completed 
our water at this point, but from the place ap 



coAsrrs op austtraua. 205 

pearing to be populous, and, as the vessel could 18S2. 
not be anchored sufficiently near the shore to -Feb.i?. 
have protected the boat's crews, it was feared 
lliat our work might be impeded by the natives. 

The boat returned at ten o'clock while we 
^re getting underweight but the wind being at 
S.E., it was one o'clock before We weathered 
Point Cunningham, when the tide was urging 
us forward rapidly. In steering round the point, 
We found ourselves passing through some light 
edloured water, and, before we could extricate 
the brig, were in three and a half fathoms ; the 
andior was inunediately dropped underfoot, and, 
with the assistance of the sails, which were kept 
fiill, the vessel waa retained whilst the whale- 
boat was veered astern, and ascertained that the 
shoalest part had beea already passed ; therefore 
the andior was again weighed, and eventually 
dropped in the bay to the south of Point Cun- 
Bingham, in fourteen &thoms and three quarters, 
fine spedkled sand and stones. 

In the direction of N. 63^ W. and at a mile 
and a half from the anchorage^ was a remarkable 
flat^topped hill, which waa called at Mr. Cun- 
nin^am's wish, Carlisle head, and the bay 
in. which we anchored, Goodenough Bay, in; 
compliment to the Right Reverend the Lord 
Bishop of Carlisle. At this part Mr. Cunning- 



iBQ$ SUR VST 9F TDK QiTf i»RQPICAL 

1 Mk bam fimnd a new speciea of t^lM (of the nat« 
Ffb. Ilk oT<l Gooeimww.) 

We were pow suffering much ftom ihe ex<« 
treme heat and doeenegs of the weather ; the 
thermometer ranged night and day bet^reen 
8^ and ^9^ and wheti the breeze was light ot 
the weather cahn« the air was insufferably hot 
and close, and affected us all very much» but 
happily without any very serious consequences. 

In the evenings fi)ur natives armed with speara 
were seen sitting in the shade, upon the sandy 
beach under Carlisle Head, attentively watching 
US ; but, upon being joined by three others, who 
came towards them from Point Cunningham; 
got up and walked away. We have yet to leaftf 
how fduc these people may be confided in, for w4 
were not at a very great distance fr<xn Hanover 
Bay where we so nearly paid dear for tmsting 
ourselves amongst them unarmed. 

We remained at the anchorage in Ooodenough 
IS. Bay, until the following morning, when we^ 
weighed to a very light bieeae from south-east, 
the only direction from which we experienced 
any wind; the breeze generally blew strong at 
night, whilst during the day it was light, or 
nearly calm ; so that, during the night, we weret 
very insecurely placed if the anchorage wa» 
at all suspidouSt and in the day weie .eithef 



delayed very much; of entirely prevented firom vm 
veighing. i^*. 1% 

. Thm it was with us on ibis dfiy ; sgon after 
W9 wd^ied it fell caliPi and the tide, drifting 
us r^dly tQ the soij^thward over ipoky groundi 
earried iis dose to a reef of 4>7 rocks to the 
northward of Foul Pointi without our being able 
to avoid it^ At a little before five o'cloqk ih^ 
flood-tide was nearly expended^, and obliged ui| 
to drop tbe chain*cabled anchor^ at the distance 
of three miles from FquI Pointy upon a bottoni 
^ rotten yellow-colpured rock» that crumbled 
away upm being touched, but from the noise 
that the chain made in dragging over the groundt 
there was reason to apprehend it was very rocky; 
and consequently great fears were entertained 
for the safety of our anchcff • 

Our situation was in the outer part of a bay^ 
the southern head of which bore S. 22^ E., and 
which, from tbe loss and perplraity we met 
with in it;^ was afterwards called Disaster Bay^ 
and its south extreme, off which is a smail rocky 
island, was named Repulse Point. 

IXiring the aft;emoGn we had another instance 
of mirage, which proved use^ so far that it ixi^ 
dicated to us the trend of the 1^ tQ the south- 
eastward! in which direction nothing had pre^ 

^9Pdy i>6m mu I H ^pp*«»d ta be y^ low 



208 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

ifiast. and level, and similar to the character of the 
Feb. 13. coast to the southward of Cape Lev^que. At 
sunset, when the haze cleared off and the ap- 
pearance of the land gradually sank below the 
horizon, we were instantly relieved from the op- 
pressive heat we had experienced during the 
day, for the thermometer had indicated a temper^ 
ature of 91^ and, when exposed to the influence 
of the sun, rose to 120 degrees. 

Three natives were noticed as we passed 
idong the shore; they were walking upon a 
Bandy beach abreast of us, but very soon 
disappeared among the trees and bushes, which 
here grow dose down to the water-side; they 
were armed with spears, and appeared to be 
watching our movements ; for they moved along 
in the direction of our course, and did not af- 
terwards make their appearance during the 
evening. 
14 The next morning, whilst the ebb-tide lasted 
we had a light breeze, but, at ncx)n, as the wea* 
ther was calm and the brig could not be got un«> 
der weigh, either with safety or utility, the boats 
were despatched in different directions to improve 
our knowledge of the place. 

At low-water a considerable sand-bank was 
exposed to our view, that had not previously 
been seen ; it fronts the bay, and is dry at low 



COASTS or AUSTRAUA. 209 

tide for some extent, it is also shoal some dis- issi. 
taooe to the northward, as our boat had only Febri4. 
four feet in passing over iL In the afternoon, 
as there was every appearance of fine weather 
and no likelihood of a breeze, Mr. BaskerviUe 
and Mr. Cunningham set off in a boat to visit 
Repulse Pointy in order to make what observa- 
ticms they could upon the further trend of the 
land; but no sooner had they left the vessel 
than a breeze sprung up and freshened to a gale 
in which our cable parted ; and, as there was no 
dianoe of dropping another anchor with a pros- 
pect of recovering it, we were obliged to return 
to our former anchorage in Goodenough Bay ; 
but, owing to the tide being contrary, the brig 
did not reach it until nearly sunset Our alarm 
and anxieties were now raised to a great pitch 
for the safety of Mr. BaskerviUe and his onnpa- 
nicns: signals of recal had been hoisted, and 
several guns fired before the cable parted, but 
the boat was too fiiroff to notice either: as soon 
as it was dark, signal guns were fired and 
port fires burnt every ten minutes, to guide its 
return. 

Happily these signals at last had the desired 
effect, for at ten o'clock the boat came along- 
side. Mr. BaskerviUe had failed in reach- 
ing Repulse Point, but obtained some useful 

Vol. II. P 



* 210 SURVfiV OP THE INTeHTBOPICAL 

1^ information as to the trbnd of the land round 
Teb» 14. the point, which still appeared to extend to the 
southwai^l ; they had not been able to land, but 
had encountered much dagger ftom the dmall 
size of the boati which shipped a great deal of 
water, so that by the time it arrived they were 
completely drenched with the sptey of the sea. 
They had only observed out signals for a fete 
minutes before their arrival; for the flashes 6f 
' the guns and the lights of the port-fires were so 
* confused with lighbilng and the fires of the na- 
' tives on the shore, that they could not be dis- 
tinguished from each other. Soon after they 
arrived on board, heavy rain commenced^ and 
fell during the greater part ci the night 

15. The ensuing day the weather was still squally 
and unsettled In the aftemocm the launch and 
another boat were sent in seardi of our lost 
anchor, but returned at night without success; 
for the tide was so strong that the buoy did not 
watch. The next morning it was again intended 
to resume the search, but the weather clouded 
in, and threatened to be so bad that all fiuther 
attempts were abandoned. 

This succession of bad weather, and our having 
cdy one anchor left, made me feet the necessity 
of leaving this part, and giving up for the present 
the examination of this int^esting place; and 



MAim OP AtSTHAUAi 811 

as we wanted both wood and W&ter^ Whidi ifrb im. 
had found no opportunity of obtaining hete on ^^^ i*. 
account of the tempestuous state of the weather, 
it Was purposed we shoidd go to Port George the 
Fourth, which place would affiml both seeufity 
for the ?es^ and facility for procuring these ar- 
tictesii This delay ttiight also be made service- 
aUe« by employing a jpart of the crew at the 
same time in the boatg in examining this islands 
in Rogers Strait, and tracing the continuation 
ctf the main land behind the islands that form 
the Bouth-east coast of Camden Bay, of which 
we knew nothing. Aftet doing this I hoped 
to be able to continue the examination of the 
deep bay b^ind Montgomery's Islands, and 
tiotmect that part with the gulf or strait behind 
the Buccaneer's Archipelago in which we now 
were ; but our loss of anchors made all this very 
dangerous^ and, indeed, nothing could be done 
without very fine weather, of which there was 
at present, unfortunately, no appearance. 

But a greater and more serious hindrance, 
was^ that our provisions were very much re- 
duced in quantity, and that we had not moire 
t^ enough to last, upon a fuU allowance, for 
the voyage to Port Jackson ; the hope, however, 
of procuring more information of this part df 
the cotet was so inviting^ that J did not despair 



2\ 2 SUR VE V OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

Tses. cf effecting scnnef hing in a fortnight worth the 

FcbTis. delay. We had. dry provisicais and water on 

board for about tea weeks, so that with fine 

weather we could have retarded our departure 

for ten or twelve days without much risk. 

16. Our quitting this place being determined upofi, 

* 

we did not lose any time; but from various 
delays of calm weather and adverse tides, 
could not succeed im getting out to sea until 
the 18th. 

It was impossible to go out by the dangerous 
channel through which we entered ; but as Sun- 
day Strait, through which the brig had been 
drifted before we went to Mauritius, appeared 
free from danger, we directed our course to it ; 
and, after being under weigh all the night near 
its inner entrance, during which we had once 
nearly struck on. a reef of rocks, found our- 

17. selves at daylight drifting through it with a rapid 
ebb-tide, without a breath of wind. The tide 
however lasted long enough to carry us out> and 
when the flood commenced, which would have 
drifted us back again, a ftesh breeze spmqg up 
from the westward^ and yery soon carried us 
dear of the influence of the tide. 

With respect to the, opening we had now left, 
there were many conflicting opinions among us, 
but I have every rea^n ta think that the land 



COASTS OF AVSnKUK. 213 

ftom Cape Lev^ue to Point Oantheauine is an i^ 
island, and that there is also a communication Feb. 17« 
between Cygnet and Collier's Bays, behind ibb 
islands of the Archipelago> where it is also pro- 
bable there is an opening trending to the south* 
east The great rise and fell of the tides in 
the neighbourhood of Point Gantheaume gives a 
plausibility, to this opinion ; and the only thing 
that I know iagainst it, is the trifling depth of the 
water between that point and Cape ViUaret* 
This, however, may be caused by the nume- 
rous banks and channels existing there, and 
which, of themselves alone, are indicative of 
the opening being something morQ than a mere 
bay. 

As sunset approached, the eastern horizon 
was as usual in commotion ; heavy dense clouds 
were collected, from which we had thunder and 
hghtning. At seven o'clock the appearance was 
more threatning, and, as a squall was evidently 
approaching* the sails were taken in and pre* 
paration made to ineet it; soon after ieight 
o'dook it passed rapidly over* and brought a 
strong gust of wind, before which we were 
obliged to scud» After blowing most tempestu* 
ously for an hour, the wind moderated, and the 
night passed without any repetition of it; we 
had» however^ run five miles to leewaid: 



214 SURVEY OF THE IMTEEIHOPICAL 

tm. had wd been obliged to do this last night whiM 
Feb. 17. under way in Cygnet Bay» or been drifted back 
this evening by the ebb-tide, we should have bcm 
yery dangerously plaoed, from being surrounded 
by islands and blinded by the darkness c^ the 
night. Whilst this squall lasted the barometer was 
in no way afifected, but the thermometer fell two 
degrees, having stood all the afternoon at 89f ^ 

During the remainder of the night we stood 
off and on, and experienced a current setting in 
the direction of N. 52^ W., one mile per hour, 
18. At eight o'clock the next morning (18th) Adele 
Island was seen; and in the afternoon we 
passed at a. mile and a half from the western 
side of the reef which surrounds it. This island 
i& low and sandy, and covered with small bushes ; 
it is about tw:o or three miles in length ; a dry 
sand extends for five miles from its south end* 
and as far as one mile from its north-west point; 
but the covered part of the reef is more ex^ 
tensive, and appeared rocky. At the distance 
of three miles and a half, in a north-west 
direction from its north end, are two dry sand'* 
banks, which are probably covered at high-wa^ 
ter. Light-coloured water extended for three 
miles to the westward, and for fourteen miles 
to the north'West; .but the water is probably 
desp enough over it for any v^sael to piuui; 



COA«T£f OF AUiTRAUA. 219 

m ttaerad over the tail within the ccdouml n 
Wttter, but bad no bottom with forty-five fs^tbonut* Feb. i& 
la many parts near the island the rockt must be 
very little below the aur&ce of the water> for 
the sea oocasionally broke upon them* . 
. We then steered to the East and KN.E.t and 
at ni^ made short trips on either tack^ The 
weather was. extremely sultry during the after* 
noon, the thermometer being at 89^, and when 
exposed to the sun, the mercury rose, to 125^« 
Towaids. sunset large flights of boobies, terns, 
luod other sea-birds passed byi flying towards 
the islands. One or two stopped to notice us» 
jsmd flew round Ae brig several times. 

The night was fine with light south-west 
.winds ; but we had lightning in the N.E., from 
which quarter, at daylight^ the weather clouded is» 
in ; and, from the increasing dampness of the 
atmosphere, indicated rain. 

At noon we were in 15? 12' 15" S. and TV 
east of the aiydiorage in Cygnet Bay. The 
wind was. from the southward with dull cloudy 
weather. I^ge flights of birds were aboqt 
the vessel, preying upon small fish swimming 
among the sea-weed, of which we passed a gre^t 
.quantity. As th^ evening approached, the wea- 
ther clouded in, and threatened us with another 
^aqu^U. from ^.eastward. The the]*QK>ineter / \. 



21fi SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^ Stood at 88\ and the barometer at 29.81 indies: 
JP«b. i9« half an hour brfore sunset the clouds, which had 
collected in the eastern horizon, began to thidce^ 
and approach us with loud thunder and vivid 
lightning : all the sails, except the topsails which 
were lowered, were furled just in time to avoid 
any bad effects from the squall, which com* 
menced with a strong gust from RS.E. and 
East; it lasted about an hour, during the latter 
part of which we had very heavy rain* At eight 
o'clock the vnnd fell to a calm, and was after- 
wards baffling imd light from north to east and 
south-east. 
^* At daylight (20th) the morning vrns dull and 
cloudy : a bank of heavy threatening doads, 
rising from the eastward, induced my steer- 
ing to the westward to await thd issue of this 
weather, so unfavourable for our doing any good 
upon the coast, as well as increasing the danger 
of navigating among reefs and islands^ where 
the tides were so strong. The next morning 
at daylight we had a squall with rain and vdnd 
from the eastward, after which a fresh breeze 
set in fn>m the same quarter: as this weather 
appeared likely to last» I very unwillingly deter-* 
mined upon leaving the coast, and returning im- 
mediately to Port Jackson. 
si-^M. From the 21st until the 24th we had moderate 



COASTS OF AU&rnULIA*. 217 



winds between north and soiith-east^ whidi gra«- istti 



dually drew us out of the influence of the Feb. 
damp^unwhoLesome weather we so lately experi- 
enced. Our course was held to the northward 
of Rowley's Shoals^ which upon passing, we 
found a strong current setting towards them» at 
4fae rate of one mile an hour. This indraught 
increases the danger of navigating near this 
part» but I do not recollect haying experienced 
any idien we passed them in June, ISIS. The 
4current, therefore^ thai we felt^ may be only df 
temporary duration, and probably caused by the 
variable state of the wind. 

Between the 24th of February and the 3rd of Feb. 84. 
March we had light and variable winds from Maiths. 
all directions^ but, being more firequrat from the 
eastward than from any other point of the com- 
pass, I became reconciled to the step I had taken 
of leaving the coasts sinc6 it would not have been 
possible to have reached Port George the Fourth 
to effect any good. 

The thermometer now ranged between 87^ 
and 89% and the weather was consequently ex* 
tremely oppressive and sultry. On the 3rd at s«-iu 
noon we were in latitude 18^ 45' 18% and bn- 
gitude 111^ 4' 15", when a breeze sprang up 
frran the S.E., and carried us within the influence 
of the trade^ whidi blew steadily between S.S.EL 
and S.bt£« and advanced us on our passage 



218 SURVEY or THB BmiltTROPICAL 

im. but earned us considerably ta die westwatd. 

iiureh On ibi& course we were aooompanied by im« 
mense shoals of albicores, (setmber t^fvnm 
Idnn.,) but they Were of small size; very few 
measured more than twenty inches in length* 
jmd the average weight about ten pounds: 
the meat was very good and tender, and» as a 
great number of the fish were caught, proved a 
grateful relief to our salt diet. The atmosphere 
was very damp, and before the vessel entered 
the trade we had lightning every night, but it 
ceased the moment that we were within its limits. 
Tropic and other oceanic birds, some of a dark 
brown colour, hovered about us, and were our 
daily companions, particularly the latter, whioh 
preyed upon the small fish that were pursued by 
the albicores. 

11—14 From the llth to the 14th the trade ceased, 
and the interval was supplied by a northeiiy 
wind, veering round to west, which enabled U9 
to make up for the ground we had lost by its 
having been so much from the southward. After 
this we had variable breezes between South and 
E.S.E., but the current, which before had been 
setting us to the north-west, now set to the ncn^- 
0ast; this change was probably occasioned by 
the south-westerly swell. 
. Oathel4thwewereiaar49'S„aDdl0rr^B. 
.Some ^opic birdA. warn seen thisinuMmiag*: but 



at yU ntiihar alb«tro6Be» nor pintddoei h»d nm 
made their appearance. During the short ce884* Mmk 
tioQ of the trade the atnuDBphere was veory dry, 
until the sonth-eaBterly winds returned, when it 
became more humid ; but as we approached the 
fouthem limit of this S.K wind, which may be 
eonsideied to bear more of the character of a 
periodical wind than the trade, the atmosphere 
became altogether drier: it carried ub as far as 
32^ 4(y S. and 96° 42^ W., before it veered to 
the northward of east, when, after a calm, we 
had north*e^steriy winds and fine weather, of 
wliich we made good use. 

The first albatross was seen in 314^ South, 
and was flying about the brig at the same time 
with a tropic bird, which is a remarkable oocur^ 
rence, for I never saw the latter bird before so 
&r without the tropic ; but here was one nearly 
five hundred miles to the southward of it, and 
at least three hundred leagues from the nearest 
land ; an albatross {diomedea exulam^ Linn.) was 
shot, but did not measure more than nine feet 
nine inches across the tips of the wings. 

On the 25th of February we examined our ; 9& 
water, and found the casks so much damaged by 
rats, that instead of haying thirteen tons we had 
Doly nine on board, but as this was thou^t to 
be sufScient for our voyage, thd.dsdfy. iasuQ wai 
not reduced : on the 28th of March, however, it 



290 SURVEY OF THE DfTBRTROnCAL 

1888. was found necessary to make a oonsideraUe le^ 

Mar. 8& duction in the allowance. 

April i& On the 13th of Aprils the north-west end of 
Van Diemen's Land came in sight, but it was 
not until the 15th that we entered Bass' Strait 
by the passage between King's and Hunter's 
Islands* Off Cape Howe we boarded a trading 
brig bdonging to Port Jackson bound to Van 
Diemen's Land, from which we obtained pleasing 
and satisfactory news of our friends at Sydney, 
as also the gratifying intelligence of the promo- 
tion of myself to the rank of commander, and of 
Messrs. Bedwell and Roe to that of lieutenant; 
The promotion of the latter gentleman was under 
circumstances of the most flattering nature, and 
here not only offers a most satisfactory proof of 
the approbation bestowed by the Lords Com-^ 
missioners of the Admiralty upon my zealous 
assistant, but precludes me from the otherwise 
pleasing task of giving my humble testimonial 
of his conduct and merits. 

Between Cape Howe and Port Jackson we 
experienced much bad weather, which delayed 
our arrival so long, that we had expended all 
our breads and were reduced to a very smaU 
proportion of water : we, however, succeeded in 
35, effecting our anival at Sydney by the 25tht afier 
to ^seooe of 344 ciays^ 



-COASTS op AUSTRAUA. 221 



CHAPTER V. 

I 



Thk Batiiunt sails for England: — ^Remaiks upon some errors in 
the hydrography of the soath coast of Van Diemen*B Land:*- 
King Qeorge the Third*s Sound.- — Passage to the Cape of 
Good Hope : — Cross the Atlantic, and arrive at Plymoath Sound: 
— Obserralions upon the voyages, and conclusion* 



Upon an examinatioQ of the brig's defects, after ifltk 
our arrival at Port Jackson^ her stern and ApriTss 
cut-water were found so defective, Bi to re- 8»ptS& 
quire H considerable repair ; but from the diffi- 
culty of procuring seasoned wood, so long a time 
dapsed before it was effected, that we were not 
ready for sea until the beginning of September^ 
when other delays of minor importance detained 
us until the 2dth. 

At Port Jackson I found orders from the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to re* 
turn to England in the Bathurst when the sur- 
vey shoidd be completed; but as we were in 
want of many things that the colony could 
net furnish^ and as we should be detained 
until the month of February before the mon- 
soon would afiow of our going upon the coast; 



« 



fSXi SURVEY 0!^ *H« tNTeilTttOhCAL 

1828. it was deemed most advantageous for the public 

Sept £6. service to return without making another voy- 
age. Accordingly, on the 25th of September 
• we sailed from Sydney, with the intention of 
proceeding to the flbrth through Torres' Strait» 
and calling at the Mauritius on our way; but 
Ao sooner had we put to sea than a hard gale 
set in from the north, which induced me to bear 
up) and either to go round Van Diemen^s Land 
to the westward, if the wind should favour sUch 
a proceeding, or, by doubling the south end of 

' / ' New Zealand to tnake the eastern passiige 
round Cape Horn. 

€Miit#; Having reached the south-east end of Van 
Diemen's Land on the 6th of October^ and a 
fresh north-easterly wind setting in at the sam« 
time, I determined upon adopting the first plaA ; 
ahd therefore proceeded round the south side 6f 
the island, in doing which I had an opportunity 
of verifying some observations formerly taken, 
by which it appeared, that the coast between 
"Storm Bay and the South-west Cape was veiry 
erroneously laid down both by Captain Flinders, 
and the French expeditions under D'Entrecas- 
teaux and Baudin. 

On my voyage to Maoquarie Harbour in 1819, 
I found so many errors in the bearings that were 
taken, as induced me ta suspect an original 



coAflfra OF AUnrnALuu 813 

error, and on this occasion a yeiry contidemUe ^^ 
one wag detected ^ •• 

When Captain Flinders passed round Van 
DiemM's Land in the NoffoUc^ he obtained a 
-meridional supplementary altitude of the stiii to 
the south, his vessel being under the l^uid» 
which made the South-west Cape in 43"" S9' & ; 
.but flnding the. next day-tiiat his instiutnent was 
HI 40" in KToif to the north, he assigned t6 iAe 
&ipe a position of 43'' 32^. In thd Introdiie- 
tiott to hifl voyage ^ he makes some remarks in a 
note upon the positions assigned to it by Captains 
' Cook laid FurneailJc ; the latter oflSoer placed it 
in 43"" 39', inwhidh I also ibund it to be by its 
transient bearing from the South Capei By a 
series of* bearings carried along the coast, its 
position is thirty-three miles W. 3^ Si true, ftcon 
the South Cape. 

All parts of the coast in this interval are pro- . 
portionally in error ad to latitude, but tolera- 
bly Well placed in reference to the coast. The 
subjoined are the positions now assigned to the 
Mowing places, tiii. ^ 



to 



Sottih Cape , . . 43^ 88' , .146^ 66\ 
Mewstone • c « • 48 4a . • 146 31^. 
South-west Cape . . 48 89 . .146 IS. 
* Flindbbs, ToLi. Introduci, p. clizix. 



224 SURVEY OF THE lOTERTROPICAL 

1^ The south-east cape of Bruny Island^ Tasman's 
Oct. $. Head, is also placed too much to the southward 
in Captain Fiinders's chart» as well as in that 
ofBaudin. From the Mermaid it was set in a line 
with the souUi-east cape, on the bearing of N. 
56^ K (the vessel's head being to Uie eastward); 
and on this occasion (the brig's head being to 
the westward) it bore, when in the same line, 
N. 53^ E. The variation in the latter case VTas 
9^ E., but in the former no more than 6^ was 
allowed, and Captain Flinders found even 4^ 
8ufficient% 

I passed outside the Mewstone, and took its 
bearing as it came on veith the points of the 
land between the south-west and the- south-east 
capes, by which I satisfied myself beyond a 
doubt of the correctness of my observations, and 
of the error into which Captain Flinders had 
&Uen, and which must either be attributed to 
the imperfection of his instrument^ or to his 
reading off the altitude 10' in error; and as 
there is just that difference between it and the 
position assigned by Captain Fumeaux, which 
is also confirmed by my observation, the proba- 
bility is in favour of the last conjecture. 

After leaving the coast of Van Diemen's Land 
we had much damp, unwholesome weather, and 



IS 



N 

\ 



COASTS OF AUSTRALIA. 225 

a suooession of heavy westerly gales, in which i^ 
the brig was occasionally much pressed ; and it Oct. e. 
was not until the 8th of November that we made Nor. s. 
Bald Island, which is to the eastward of King 
George's Sound. We were now much in need 
of a place to caulk the bends, as well as to 
repair some temporary damage to the rigging, 
and complete our wood and water. I therefore 
seized the opportunity of our being near the 
sound, and, steering into it, anchored off the 
sandy bay within Seal Island, and immediate- 
ly commenced operations. We were, however, 
much delayed by hard westerly gales, which 
not only prevented the carpenter's caulking, but 
also delayed our watering, since the boat could 
not pull to the shore ; but as the anchorage was 
weU sheltered, we suffered no further inconveni- 
ence than the delay. 

A few days after our arrival, we were sur- 
prised by the appearance of a strange vessel 
beating into the sound; she proved to be an 
American schooner on a sealing voyage, and was 
coming in for the purpose of careening and clean- 
ing the vessel's bottom in Oyster Harbour. The 
natives also made their appearance, and some of 
them being our old friends, inmiediately recog- 
nised us. 

As there was no wood convenient to our an- 
VoL. ir. Q 



226 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

im. cfaorage, I moved the vessel to the entrance of 
Wov* «• Prifloess Royal Harbour, near the northern head 
of .whioh» at the south end of the long sandy 
beach, the trees were growing in abundance 
close to the beadi: it was at this place also that 
Captain flinders obtained his wood; and, ex^ 
cepting the entrance of Oyster Harbour, it is the 
mostxxstivenient place in the whde Bound. 

Whilst at this last anchorage, we were visited 
by the natives, many of them strangers ; they 
wne accompanied by our old friend CooUbOn^ 
the native that, upon our former visit, was so 
noisy in explaining to his companions the ef- 
fect of the shot that was fired. On one oc* 
caaion, when they were on board, an imm^ise 
shark was hooked, but broke the hook and 
^Ksaped, which was a great disappointment to 
them, for they evidently anticipated a luxuri* 
ous meal. After this they went on shore, when 
the breeze blew so fre^di as to make some sea* 
sick, very much to the amus^nent of those 
who did not suffer, particularly one of the dder 
men. On this occasion the names of several of 
the natives were obtained, which have been in- 
serted with a few additional words at the end of 
the list obtained ftom them during our former 
visit *. Our friend Jack did not make his ap» 

* See' vol. ii. p. 144, et seq. 



eOkMTB OP AWritALU^ W, 

pMmnoe^ nor did liie iiatiTes at all sewi _ 
undentaad &x whom we wore enquiring. N«?. s. 

As soon as our wood was oomplfitedg the brif 
WM moved to an anchorage off tke watering bay • 
which prored a more convenient j^ace than un* 
der Seal Island* as it was better sheltered aiKl 
nearer to the wateringt-plaoe. After riding out a 
heavy gale from the westward at single andboj(» 
without any aocident, and as soon as our water 
mm oompletadv we again anchored for a day 
undtt Seal Island, but were obliged to msk9 
two attempts before we succeeded in gettjng.out 
to sea. 

Whilst at the anchorage off Princess Royal 
Harbour, I went to Oyster Harbour to procure 
flowering specimens of a tree which had hitherto 
been a subject of much curiosity to botanists: at 
our former visits the season was tog far ad- ^ 
vanced; and Mr. Brown was equally unlbrtUh ^^ 

nate. The {dant resembles xMthorrluKtp both in 
its trunk and leaves^ but beaxa its flower in a 
very different manner ; for, instead of throwing 
out one long flower scape» it produces eighteen 
or twenty short stalks, each terminated by an 
oval head of flowers. I recollected having seen 
a lai^e grove of these trees growing at a short 

distance from the outer beach oa the east side of 

Q 2 



228 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

1^. the entrance of the harbour ; and on going there> 
^w. found the decayed flowers and seeds sufficiently 
perfect to throw a considerable light upon this 
singular plant*; several were procured, and 
brought to Ehgland. A drawing of this tree is 
given in the view of King George's Sound, in 
Captain Flinders's account of the Investigator's 
voyage f. In the list of the plants collected 
l^y me upon this occasion, was a splendid spe- 
cies <2/[ anigosanthus, which proved to be quite 
new, and had escaped the observation both of 
Mr. Brown and of Mr. Cunningham. Living 
plants of various genera were also procured: 
among which were several of the remarkable 
cephalotus folliculans^ (Brown,) which, however, 
alone survived the voyage, and are now growing 
in the royal gardens at Kew. 
[Dec. 1. Having effibcted our departure from King 
Jan. 14^ George's Sound, we proceeded on our way to- 
*®^ wards Simon's Bay at the Cape of Good Hope, 
which we reached on the I4th of January, after 



* More perfect. ipeciinenff were afterwards collected by Mr. 
Baxtert and sent, through Mr. Henchman his employer, to my 
friend Mr. Brovn, the original diftcoverer of the tree in Captain 
Flinderft*g voyag^e, and the author of the paper in the appendix 
at the end of the volutne relating to,it» 

t Flindbrs, voL i.'p^ 00. 



C0A8T& OF AU8TRAUA.* 229 

a passage of forty-six days without encountering im. 
a gale of wind, or the oocurrence of any event Jan. 15. 
worth recording; ^^'^' 

We left Simon's Bay on the 9th of Februaryi Feb. o. 
and after touching at St. Helena, and Ascension, ^P*^ ^' 
crossed the line in 22^ 6' W ; and, on the 7th of 
Aprfl, made the Island of Flores, one of the 
Azores. On the same morning we fell in with 
two French men of war, a frigate and a corvette, 
who bore down, but, upon shewing our colours, 
hauled their wind^ and resumed their cornrse 
without communicating with us. Between this 
and the Channel we were delayed by a suc- 
cession of northerly winds* The Lizard Lights 
were made in the night of the 22d of April, 
and the following day we anchored in Ply- 
mouth Sound ; after an absence of more than six 
years. 

It may not be considered irrelevant here to 
make a few brief observations upon what has 
been effected by these voyages, and what yet 
remains to be done upon the northern coasts of 
Australia. Beginning with the north-eastern 
coast, I have been enabled to lay down a very 
safe and convenient trade for vessels bound 
through Torres' Strait, and to delineate the 
coast line between Cape Hillsborough, in 20"" 
54' S., and Cape York> the north extremity of 



too SURVfeY OP THE YNTERTROnCAL 

New South Wales; a distance of six hundred 
and ninety miles. As my instructions did not 
authorize my delaying to examine any part of 
this coasts I could not penetrate into the many 
numerous and extensive openings that presented 
themselves in this space; partlculariy in the 
neighbourhoods of Capes Gloucester, Upstart, 
and Qeveland ; where the intersected and broken 
appearances of the hills at the back are matters 
of interesting inquiry and research. 

My instructions at first confined me between 
Cape Amhem and the North-west Cape, but 
Were subsequently extended to the western coast. 
Tlie examination of the northern and part of the 
north-western coasts, fliom Wessd Islands to 
Port George the Fburth, a distance of seven 
hundred and ninety miles, has been carefully 
made, and, with a few exceptions, every opening 
has been explored. Those parts in this inter- 
val that yet require examination are some inlets 
on the south side of Clarence Strait, and one 
of more considerable site to the eastward of 
Cambridge Gulf, trending In to the south-east: 
otherways, the coast comprised within these 
limits has been sufficiently examined for all 
the purposes of navigation. 

The coast also between the North-west Cape 
ahd Depuch Ii^d, containing two hundred and 



COASTS OF AU9TRALU. 231 

twenty miles, has also been sufficiently eitdored ; 
but between the latter iabnd and Ton Qtotge 
the Fourth, a distance of five hundred and ten 
miles, it yet remains ahnost unknown. The 
land that is laid down is nothing more than an 
ardntjelaflo cf islands iiontinff the main land, 
the sitttatioQ of whidi is quite uncertain* Our 
examinations of these islands were carried on as 
fkr as Cape ViUaret, but between that and De* 
pack Island the coast has only been seen hy the 
French, who merely occasionally saw smaU do* 
tadied portions oC it At present, however, all 
is ccyEQectttre; but the space is of considerable 
extent, and if there is an caning into the in* 
terior of New Holland, it is in the vicinity of this 
part. OlBTthe Buccaneer's Archipelago, tiie tides 
are stiong, and rise to the heig^ of thirty«six 
feet Whatevw may exist behind these idands, 
whicb we were prevented by our poverty in an» 
diors and other dicumstances fixmi exploring, 
^leate are certainly some openings of importance; 
and It is not at all improbable that there may 
be a communication at this part with the interior 
fiDT a couiderable distance from the coast 

Theexaminatioitof the western eoast was per- 
IcHrmed daring an almost continued gale of wind, 
so that we had no of^rtunity of makmg any 
very caiefiil obstfvation upcxvits shcves. Ther^ 



232 SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL 

can, however, be very little more worth knowing 
of them, as I apprehend the difficulty of landing 
is too great ever to expect to gain much infor- 
mation; for it is only in Shark's Bay that a 
vessel can anchor with safety. 
. With respect to the subjects of natural history 
that have been procured upon the voyage, it is 
much to be lamented that the small size of the 
vessel, and our constant professional duties, 
prevented my extending them. Of quadrupeds 
we saw but few. Birds were very numerous, 
but the operation of skinning and preserving 
them would have taken up more time than could 
be affi)rded. A few insects, some shells, and 
a small series of specimens of the geology of 
the parts we landed at, were among the only 
things obtained, excepting the extensive and 
valuable collection of plants formed by Mr. Cun- 
ningham, which are now in the possession of 
Mr. Alton, of the Royal Gardens at Kew ; for 
which establishment it would seem that they 
were solely procured. It was in fact the only 
department of naJural history iii which any pains 
were taken^ and for which every assistance was 
rendered. A small herbarium was, however, 
collected . by me, containing nearly five hundred 
species : they are in the possession of my re- 
spected friend Ayhner B. Lambert, Esq., whose 



COASTS OP AUSTTRAUA. 233 

scientific attainments in the field of botany are 
wdl and widely known. It is to be hoped, 
however, that the few subjects offered to the 
scientific world in the appendix through the kind- 
ness of my friends, will not be thought un- 
interesting or unimportant; and that they will 
serve to shew how very desirable it is to in- 
crease the comparatively slender knowledge that 
we possess of this extensive country, which in 
this respect might still with propriety retain its 
ancient name of Terra Australis Incognita. 

Whilst this sheet was going through the press; 
accounts were received at the Admiralty from 
Captain J. O. Bremer, C.B. of H. M. Ship 
Tamar, who was despatched by the government 
in the early part of last year, (1824,) to take 
possession of Amhem's Land, upon the north 
coast of the continent, and to form an establish- 
ment upon the most eligible spot that could be 
found for a mercantile dep6t Of the proceedings 
of this expedition, the following particulars have 
been communicated to me by Lieutenant J. S. 
Roe, my former companion and assistant, who 
was appointed lieutenant of the Tamar upon her 
being destined for that service; and which, as 
the sequel of the voyage I have been describing, 
cannot be deemed irrelevant or uninteresting, 
since the place fixed upon by Captain Bremer 



234 SURVEY OP THE INTEBTROPICAL 

was disoorered during the early part of the said 
voyage*. 

The Tamar arrived at Pbrt Jadraon oa thd 
l38th of Jiily» 1834 ; whm every facility was rei> 
dered by the colonial gmeTxausal^ to further the 
object in view. The expedition sailed thence in 
leas than a month, with a detaehioedi of the 3d 
regiment, and forty-five convicts, in addttion to 
the party of Royal Marines that had been em* 
barked before the Tamar left England. The esta- 
blishmesit was placed under the command of Ca{H 
tain Barlow, c^ the 3d regimiait. A merdiaht 
ship, the Countess of Harcourt, was taken up to 
convey the stores and provisions, and the Lady 
Nelson, odonial brig, was also placed at the 
disposal of the conunandant. 

lieut^iant Roe, in describing this voyage to 
me, writes !— " We had a very ftvourable pas* 
sage to the northward^ and in less than tiiree 
weeks cleared Torres* Strait by the route you 
recommended to Captain Bremer, vritbout en* 
coimtering any accident. We nevertheless saw 
several shoals that, in our former voyages in the 
Mermaid and Bathurst, were not noticed; by 
reason of the greater altitude of the Tamar's 
mast-head affimling a much more extenaive view 



COAOTS OP^AUflTRAUA. 339 

on either side of our course/^ The particulars 
of these discoveries of Lieutenant Roe are given 
in the Appendix, under the description of the 
Mwth*East Coast, in the order in which they 
occur. 

Having cleared Torres* Strait, the Tamar an* 
idiored in Pbrt Essington. Lieutenant Roe then 
says, ** Having brought the ship to anchor off 
Table Point in Port Essington, all the boats 
were hoisted out and the marines landed, when^ 
an union-jack being fixed upcxi a conspicuous 
tree near the extremity of the point, formal pos- 
session was taken of the north coast of Australia, 
between the meridians of l^ and 136^ East of 
Greenwich. The marines fired three votteys, 
and the Tamar a royal salute, upon Uie oc« 
casion. 

'' Our first object being to find water, parties 
were despatched in various directions for that 
purpose; but after traversing many miles of 
country, and coasting a great deal of the port, 
only one place was discovered (the low sandy 
east point of entrance to Inner Harbour), where 
any was to be procured, and it was thai tmly 
obtained by digging deep hdes in the sand. A 
large Malay encampment had recently removed 
fcoKQ this spot» leaving their fire-places and tem- 
porary couches, and large piles of fire* wood to 



" . • • • 
* • • •» 
*• • • • 






• • • 



• •• < 



••:••' 



• " • 



••- • 



» • 



• • • • • 



t,^ 



H 

ta 

fo 

St 

th 

"I 



rii 
Mi 



4 
in I 





COAST3 OF AUSTTRAUA. 237 

being discovered near it, the ships were re- 
moved thither on the 2d of October, and parties 
landed to commence immediate operations with 
the axe and saw. The projection of land fixed 
upon for the site of a town, Auras named after the 
commandant (Capjtain Barlow). The cove, in 
which the ships were at anchor, was named King's 
Cove by Captain Bremer, after yourself, as the 
origmal discoverer of the Btrait ; and that part 
cf Apsley Strait, between Luxmoore Head and 
Harris' Island*^ received the name of PorC 
Cockbum, in honour of Vice Admiral Sir George 
Cockbum, G.C.B., one of the Lords of the Adr 
miralty. 

** AU disposable hands being employed on 
shore in clearing Point Barlow of wood and other 
impediments, we were speedily enabled to com- 
mence the erection of a fort, seventy-five yards 
in length* by fifty wide ; to be built of the trunks 
ciihe felled trees, and to be surrounded by a 
ditch ten feet wide and deep. On the memorable 
21st of October, our quarter-deck guns were 
landed and mounted, the colours were hoisted 

* Harris Island was named by me after my friend John Harris, 
Esq«, for^ierly surgeon of the 102d Re^ment, who has served so 
long and so faithfully in various offices under the goromment of 
New South Wales. 



^V:it\nit:9rAnit] 



238 suRVfiir or the DrraRTKOPicAL 

for the iBrst tiiiie» and the work was named Fort 
Dundas» under a royal salute from itself. 

'* From this time the place began to assume the 
appearance of a fortified rilkge ; quarters were 
eonstmcted withm the walls of the fort for the 

of the officers belonging to the 
ishment, and about thirty huts of various 
kinds were erected, and thatched with rushes 
for the soldiers and convicts. A deep well was 
suidc near the fort ; a good substantial wharf ran 
out into the water ; and, as soon as a commis- 
sariat storehouse was finished, all the provisions 
were landed fircwi the Countess of Harcouit and 
secured there. 

'' 'nie soil in the neighbourtiood of the setde- 
ment being exceedingly good, gardens w&e 
cleared and laid out, and soon produced all 
kinds of vegetables. In our stock we were 
rather unfortunate^ for of six sheep that were 
landed for the purpose of breeding, five died^ 
supposed from the efitet produced by eating some 
pernicious herb in the woods : pigs, ducks, and 
fowls seemed, however, in a fidr way of dcHng 
well, and had increased considerably since they 
were landed ; but great inconvenience was ex- 
perienced for want of some horses or draught 
oxen, which would not only have materially ex* 



00A9IB OP AUSntAUA. 239 

pedited the work in hand, but would have spared 
the men much laborious &tigue and exposure 
to the eflbcts of a vertical sun: all difficulties 
and obstacles were, however, met and over'* 
come with the greatest zeal and perseverance, 
and the works proceeded with such spirit and 
alacrity, that we were enabled to sail for Bom^ 
bay on the 13th of November,, without e&po* 
sing the new settlanent either to the jealousy 
of the Malays, or the mischievous attack of the 
natives. No traces of the former people were 
observed at this place, nor any of the trepang, 
that would be their sde inducement for visiting 
it Not one native made his appearance, before 
the early part of November, when, as if by 
signal, a party <^ about eighteen on each shore 
communicated with us on the same day, and 
were very friendly, although exceedingly sus* 
picious and timid. Hiey would not venture 
within the line of the outer hut, and always 
came armed, but laid aside their spears and 
dubs whenever friendly signs w»e made. On 
the second day of their visit, I was greatly asto- 
nished to see amongst them a young man of 
about twenty years of age, not darker in colour 
than a Chinese, but with perfect Malay features, 
and like all the rest, entirely naked: he had 
daubed himself all over with soot and grease, to 



240 SURVEY OP THE INTERTROPICAL 

appear like the others, but the difference was 
plainly perceptible. On perceiving that he was 
the object of our conversation, a certain arch- 
ness and lively expression came over his coun* 
tenance, which a native Australian would have 
strained his features in vain to have produced: 
The natives appeared to be very fond of him. 
It seems probable that he must have been kid- 
napped when very young, or found while astray 
in the woods*. 

'' These Indians made repeated signs for hatch- 
ets, which they called padcS^foajcOf and although 
they had stolen two or tiiree on their first appear- 
ance, it was considered desirable to gain their 
good will by giving them more, and three were 
accordingly presented to individuals among them 
who appeared to be in authority. They were 
of course much pleased, but the next day se- 
veral axes, knives, and sickles were taken by 
force from men employed outside the settlement, 
upon which they were made to understand, that 
until these articles were restored no more would 
be given. This arrangement being persevered 



* At our Vint to this place in 1818, and during: our commani- 
cation with the natives, a boy of the above description was no- 
ticed amon§: them ; he was brought down upon the shoulders of 
one of the Indians, in which position he is represented in the 
view. See vol. i. p. 112. 



COASTS OF AUSTRAUA. 241 

in by us, they determined upon seizing these 
implements on every occasion that presented 
itself; so that it was found necessary to protect 
our working parties in the woods by a guard; 
the result of which was» that the natives threw 
their spears whenever resistance was offered, 
and the guard was obliged to fire upon the 
aggressors. 

" Open acts of hostility having now been com- 
mitted, and the natives increasing daily in num- 
bers to upwards of one hundred round the set- 
tlement, a good look-out was kept upon them ; 
but not sufficiently to prevent about sixty 
of them surprising five of the marines in a 
swamp cutting rushes, and throwing their spears 
amongst them : their salute was immediately re- 
turned, and they disappeared without any da- 
mage having been done on either side ; at the 
same minute, however, reports of musquetry 
were heard at our watering-place and garden, 
and proved to be in repelling an attack that 
about forty natives had made upon our jolly boat 
watering and two men cutting grass. One of 
the natives was shot dead at ten yards' distance, 
while in the act of throwing his spear ; and our 
people thought that several others were wounded^ 
as they disappeared making most strange noises, 
and have not been near us since. One of the 

Vol. U. R 



242 SURVEY OF THE INTBRTROTICilL 

sq^ears thrown upon the last occasion had sixteen 
barbs to iU haU in general, they were merely 
scraped to a sharp point* without even one 
baib» and were not thrown with any thing like 
precisioii or good ahn, which aooounts for none 
of their weapons having taken effects althou^ 
difichaiged at our people at the distance only of 
a few yards." 

Soon after this the Tlsmar left Fort Dundas 
for the India station^ and despatdied the Countesa 
of Harcourt upon her ulterior destination* The 
settlement was left in a very forward state, and 
Qcmsisted altogether of one hundred and twenty- 
six individuals, of whom there were three or 
four w(xnen, and forty-five convicts ; the remain* 
der were ocxnposed of detadiments of the 3d 
regiment (the Bufls) and c^ the xnarineSi the 
latter under the command of Lieutenant William- 
son. The Lady Ndson was left with C(sn- 
mandant Barlow. 

Such is the state of the settlem^t of Fort 
Dundas, which at some future time must become 
a place of considerate consequence the eastern 
world. The soil and climate of Melville and 
Bathurst Islands are capable of growing all the 
valuable productions of the East, particularly 
spices, and many other equally important articles 
of trade : it is conveniently placed for the pro* 



COASTS OF AUSTRAUA. 243 

tection of ships passing to our Indian possessions 
from Port Jackson, and admirably situated for 
the purposes of mercantile speculation. 

Such, then, are the first fruits of the voyages I 
have had the honour to direct. Much, however, 
of the coast yet remains to be examined ; and 
although, for the general purposes of navigation, 
it has been quite sufficiently explored, yet there 
are many spaces upon the chart left blank, that 
would be highly interesting to examine, and 
really important to know. We have but a slight 
knowledge also of the natural history of the conti- 
nent ; slight, however, as it is, no country has ever 
produced a more extraordinary assemblage of 
indigenous productions ; — ^no country has proved 
richer than Australia in every branch of natural 
history ; and it has, besides, this advantage, that 
as the greater part is yet entirely unknown, so 
much the more does it excite the interest of the 
geographer and naturalist. 

The examination of its vast interior can only 
be performed by degrees: want of navigable 
rivers will naturally impede such a task, but all 
these difficulties will be' gradually overcome by 
t^e indefatigable zeal of our countrymen, of 
whose researches in all parts of the world the 
present times teem with such numerous ex- 
amples. 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 



PREVIOffBLT 10 6iiteriiig into tiM detail of the Miowing 
eoatt*dtreelioM, in which it hts been attempted, for the 
wke of A more etey fefevence, to collect all the uimtical 
infonnation under one general head, it may be proper to 
premise, that Captain Flinders, in die aocotmt of h» yoj' 
age*^ has given two very utefnl chapters tipoa the winds 
aad weather that may be experienced apoa the Tarious 
coasts of thisoontittent; as well as information respecting its 
general natigation, and particvlar sailiagKlirections for the 
outer passage Urom Port Jackson through Torres' Strait, 
hy entering the reeh 9X Murray's Island. From these 
ohapters Captain Horsburgh has arranged, in his valuable 
work on the Hydrography ^v* of the Indian Ocean, a set of 
sailhig*direetioii8, and other nautioal information f, that will 
be found useftil for the navigatioa of the southern and 
eastern coasts of this oontiaent. 

• Vol. i. book 1. ch. xi., and vol. IL book d. ch. xi. 

t Hoassumoifs Indian JHreHtiry^ vol.!!, pp. 40& 515. 



248 APPENDIX. 



SECTION I. 

OF THE WINDS AND CURRENTS, AND DESCRIPTION OF 

THE PORTS, ISLANDS, AND COAST BETWEEN 

PORT JACKSON AND BREAKSEA SPIT. 

A. The south-east trade cannot be said to blow home upon 
Seetion I. ^\^^^ p^^ ^f ^^ ^^^ ^f jjew South Wales, which lies be- 

•Bast tween Breaksea Spit and Port Jackson, except during the 
summer months, when winds from that quarter prevail, and 
often blow very hard; they are then accompanied by heavy 
rains, and very thick weather: generally, however, from 
October to April, they assume the character of a sea-breeze, 
and, excepting during their suspension by south-easterly or 
westerly gales, are very regular. In the month of December 
strong south-easterly gales are not uncommon ; and in Fe- 
bruary and March they are very frequent. 

In the month of December, hot winds from the N.W. will 
sometimes last for two or three days, and are almost always 
suddenly terminated by a gust of wind from the southward. 
The most prevailing winds, during all seasons, are from the 
south, and are probably oftener from the eastward of that 
point than from the westward. The current always sets to 
the southward, and has been. found by us, on several occa- 
sions, to set the strongest during a S.E. gale. The general 
course of the current is in the direction of the coast, but 
this is not constant;^ for, between Port Stevens and to the 
southward of Port Jackson, it sometimes sets in towards it. 
In a gale from the S.E., in the month of December, 1820, it 
must have been setting as much to the westward as S.W. 
This should be attended to, particularly in south-easterly 
gales, and an offing preserved to provide against the wiod's 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 249 

reeriog to E.8.E. and E.b.S., which is often the case; and A. 
then the current, settmg upon the weather-bow, will place S^^* 
the Tcssel, in a dark night, in considerable danger. . The £• Cout. 
rate of the current is generally about one mile per hour, 
but it sometimes, though rarely, runs at the rate of nearly 
three knots. 

To the eastward, in the space between New South Wales 
and. New Caledonia, the current sets to the N.W., which 
carries a great body of water into the bight between the 
former and New Guinea ; but, as Torres* Strait offers but a 
very inconsiderable outlet, the stream is turned, and sets to 
the southward until it gradually joins the easterly current, 
which, from the preralence of westerly winds, is constantly 
running between Van Diemen's Land and Cape Horn. 

The tides in this interval are of little consequence, and in 
few places rise higher than six feet at the springs, excepting 
where they are affected by local circumstances. 

There are but few places of shelter upon the east coast, 
between Port Jackson and Breaksea Spit: Captain Flinders 
points out Broken Bay, Port Hunter for small craft, Port 
Stephens, Shoal Bay for vessels not exceeding fifty tons, 
and Glass House (Moreton) 6ay. There are, however, other 
anchorages that might be resorted to in the event of being 
thrown upon a lee shore, which are equally good with Port 
Hunter, Shoal Bay, and Glass House^Bay. 

There is an anchorage behind Black Head to the north of 
Point Stevens, which Lieutenant Oxley discovered to be an 
island; Port Macquarie also affords shelter for small ves- 
sels; and, on the north side of Smoky Cape, there is good 
shelter from southerly or south-easterly winds: but the 
whole of these, excepting Broken Bay, are only attainable 
by small vessels. A large ship must keep an offing ; and, 
as the coast is not at all indented, the wind must blow very 



^50 kWSHMi. 

A, Imtdi &ttd lii« Mp sail t^ry badly^ to te placed te dinger. 
%H^ t Wide Buy! hdref^r, if a very good p6rt» «Ad aibrdi aidfe 
£. Coait. imd secure shaitMr ; the aaoiioiage being pioteotad by a nef 
wMeh ftoau it. 

PORT JACKSON.— The Light-house, or Macquaiie Toin 
er, to iu latitude dS^ 6V 11" Sbutb, and longitada 4!W'S 
Beet of Sir Tho&ias Bmbene't Obeervaeory at Syda^y, <ir 
151^ 19 46" fiaat of Gmnwkh. It is a revolving light, 
and may be aaen at tiie distance of ten leagues. The Inner 
South Head bears ftom it N. 30^ W.% and is distant about 
two thousand ^ft hundred yards. The'North Head bears from 
the Inner South Head N. 63^ £• by compass, about two tho»> 
sand four hundred and forty yards i and the narrowest part 
of the entfnnoe» which is between the Inner North and South 
Heads, is a little more than eight hundred yards, so that 
there is abundance of room to work m should the wind btow 
out of Ae Port On arriving off the lightF*houee, steer in 
between the North and South Heads until you are past the line 
of bearing of the Outer North, and die Inner South Heads: 
tfien haul round the latter, but avoid a reef of roeks that 
extends for two hundred yards off the pomt, and steer for 
Middle Head, a projecting cliff at the bottom of the bay, 
until the harbour opens round the Inner South Head ; yon 
may then pass on either aide of the Sow and Pigs; but the 
eastern channel, although the narrowest, is perhaps the best; 
but this, b a great measure, depends upon the direction of 
the wind* Tbe eastern channel is the dnqiest* Hie Sow 
and Pigs, or Middle Ground, is the only danger in Port 
Jackson :-^t is a bank of sand and rocks, of about eight 
hundred yards in length, by about three hundred and fifty in 

* All the bearings that are used in these directions ere by ton- 
pasB, unless when otherwise described. 



A>; 



8AIUN0 mRBCriONS. 251 

brabdth: Hs lengdi hmq in tke difietion of Uie harbour ; a A* 
wmj tBudl pertioa of it it dry^ and coMisli of a A!ir tockM^ " ^i ^* 
vpott whieh die Ma almoti alwajv braakt i Hmj are silaatid K> CuMt* 
aipdn tha ootar md of the ihoal* and are to die line of bear* 
ing of die Onto Noidi end dia Inner Soadi Headt. The 
iQ«tli*weilem tail ef tlie beak ie ehiefly of eand) widi reeke 
eeattered aboot it; bat, on tha greater portieii of it, there b 
twalva tet waters it gtadnally doepeae 16 tfarea and a 
qaarter Aidiomey whidi ie beyond the reeky limiti of dio 
iheaL To tail thioagh die Western Chaaaeli whidi h ftom 
one<-third to half a mile wide, steer towards George^S Head, 
a high rocky head, about three-quarters of a mile above 
Middle Head, keeping It in right uikm the larboard bow, 
ead the sea horiaon open between the points of eatranoe, • 
■atil you are within the line of bearing between a small 
sandy beach on tha weetem shore and Green Poiat; the 
latter is a grassy moand, the south head of Camp Cote* 
Then steer for George's Head, and gradually round it : when 
yon have past the liae of beariag between it and Green 
Point, and opened the sandy beach of Watson's Bayy steer 
beldly op tlie harbour, la rounding Point Bradley, there is 
a rocky shelf that tans off the point ibr perhaps one hundred 
yerds* Pass on either side of Pineh>«gut Island, and, in 
kaaling into Sydney Core, avoid a rocky reef that ezteode 
off Point Bennilong for rather more than two hundred yards 
into tlie sea. 

To eail throngh tiw Bastem Channel, or to the eastward 
of dia Sow and Pigs,<«»haal round the Inner South Head until 
the enmaiitof the laner North Head ie in a line with the 
inner trend of the fbrmer, bearing by compass N« 23|^ E.; 
then steer 8«S.W. until yon have paued Green Point, when 
the course may be directed at pleasaraup the harbour. 

In turning to wbdwaid, go no nearer to the Sow and Pigs 



252 . APPENDIX. 

A. than three and a quarter fathoms, unless your vessel is 
Sect^L BQiall; nor within two hundred yards of the shore, for d- 
£; Cuaft. though it is bold in most parts close to, yet there are some 
few straggling rocks off the south point of Watson^s JBay» 
and also some round Shark's Island. There is. good an« 
chorage in all parts of the harbour, when within Middle and 
the South Heads. There is also anchorage in North Har- 
bour, but not to be recommended, for the swell sometimes 
rolls into the mouth of the harbour ; no swell can, how- 
ever, affect the anchorage between Middle Head and. the 
Sow and Pigs. 

SYDNEY COVE is nearly half a mile deep, and. four 
hundred yards wide, and will contain more than twenty 
ships swinging at their moorings. The shores are bold to, 
and, excepting the rocky shoals that extend off Point Ben* 
nilong and Point Dawes, ships may approach very near. 

On the eastern side of the cove is a convenient place for 
heaving down : it belongs lo the government, but merchant 
ships may use it, by paying a small sum according t/o the 
length of time it is engaged. Wood and water are easily 
obtained from the north shore of the port; the former 
may be cut close to the beach ; the latter is collected in 
tanks, and, excepting during a very dry season, is always 
abundant. 

The tide rises occasionally at the springs as much as 

eight feet, but six fe^t is the general rise ; it is high water 

at Sydney Cove at half past eight o'clock, but at the heads, 

it precedes this time by a quarter of an hour. The variation 

of the magnetic needle observed on shore by Lieutenant Roe 

at Sydney cove in 1822, to be 8^ 42' East, 

at Garden Island • .96 East, 

at Camp Cove . . . 9 42 East. 



« 

SAILING DIRECTIONS. 253 

As all navigators are, or oiight to be^ supplied with Cap- A. 
tain Horsburgh's Indian Directory, it has not been thought °^^ * 
necessary to descant further upon the nature of the winds £• Coast, 
and currents of the east coast ; since this subject has been 
so fully treated upon, in the above valuable book, in the 
section'that commences at page 501. 

Captain Horsburgh has also described the entrance of 
Botany Bay at page 502, and of Broken Bay, at page 505. 
According to Lieutenant Jefireys, R.N., who commanded the 
hired armed transport Kangaroo, the latter harbour has a 
bar stretching across from the south to the north head, on 
which there is not less than five fathoms water. 

PORT HUNTER is situated fifty-nine miles N. 22^^ E. 
(tme,) from the entrance of Port Jackson. ' There is a light- 
house at its southern entrance, and pilots are established 
who come ofi" to vessels that arrive. The entrance is round 
the Nobby (latitude 32^ 56\ longitude 151^ 43^*% an insu- 
lated rock; and the passage is indicated by keeping two 
lights, that are placed at' a distance from each other at the 
wharf, in a line ; the anchorage is about two hundred yards 
from the wharf in three fathoms. ' The shoals on the west 
side are dangerous, and several vessels have been wrecked 
npon them in going in. The above information is from a 
plan drawn by Lieutenant Jefireys, In the Hydrographical 
Office at the Admiralty; it was drawn in the year 1816; 
since which a portion of the labour of the convicts has been 
employed in building a breakwater, or. pier, from the south 
entrance to the Nobby Rock, which will tend to direct the 
stream of tide through the channel,— -and also protect it 
from the surf and swell, which, during a south-east gale, 
must render the harbour of dangerous access. The town 
was formerly called King's Town, but it has since been 



2S4 Avntam. 

ji, cb«0g«d la Uiiit of New Cattbt and the appellatioti of the 
S^I* Ca«l RW«K bai partly iopeiteded the mere legitiiMte ntme 
S. Cwu*. of Fori Ha«ter« 

PORT STEPHENS ie etty to eateri but aot to 4ail from, 
uDless the wind is fair, on eeeouat of the thoak that aM 
near iti eotraoee. Point Stepheaa is in latitode 38^ 46}', 
loogitude \6V^ V 46^ 



BUCK HBAP ii an islaad, bd»ind whidi theit Js fory 
good aoqhof ag# ; the head 14 ia latitude Z^ 38' W. Between 
Black Head, and the hlUe callQd the Brothert, aw Wai^ 
Lis's Lake, in latitude 32^ IT SO'', Harrington's Lake, in 
32^ (/, and PMOir«AB*s Lake, in Utitude 31^ 54' t they 
were discovered by Lieateaaat Qxley on bis return from hie 
Hod journey in 1819; they ha?e all shoal entranoes, and are 
merely the outlets of extensiTe lagoone, which reeei?e the 
streame from the hiUsy and occupy a considerable space be- 
tween the coast and the aaomitaine. 

In latitude 31^ 4T 6V\ and at the distance of two mtlee 
and a quarter from the shore, is a dangerous reef, on which 
the sea constantly breake ; it was named by Lieutenant 
Odey, who discoyered it, the Mbrmaxd^s Ritv; it is about 
a quarter of a mile in extent, and bears 9. 85^ E. from the 
South Brother ; a smali detaohed portiott of the reef is se« 
parated bi^m the prtncipal rock, irithin which there ap« 
peared to be a narrow navigable cbanneL A quarter of a 
mile without the latter we Ibund sixleeB Miome water. 
Rooad the point under the North Brother Hilt, is 0AM DEN 
HAVKN, the partieulan reepectiag its entrance (in latitude 
3r AV, longitude }&2!*) are not yet known, but it is 
aupposed to be very ehoal. 



SAILING DiEBOnONS. 255 

PORT MACQUARIE h tht tnboodmic of the Riyer A. 
Hastings ; its entrance is about two miles and two-thirds to ^^^* 
the N.N.W. of Tacking Poiot. It it a bar barbo«r, and, Uke E« Coasl< 
Port Hunter, is of dangerous access, on aecomit of tho banks 
of sand that project from the low north sandy point of en- 
tnsce, on wbick tho «ca braaki and forms sand ToUars; 
tfa«sa however serve to indioatft the edge of the cbanneU 
which it abottt nioely yardt wide. The toeth shore extends 
in a N.N.W. direction from Tackieg Potai to Qreea Moondt 
(jk, remerkaUe conical shaped biUodit) nhenoe the sotttb 
shore of the entrance trends in neerly ik west dixeelioo to the 
narrow entrance opposite Pelican Point 

Between Qreen Mound and the next pff((|ectioii the bar 
stretches across towards ike sand roUerSi end is about oat 
hundred and twenty yards in extent. 

The deepest cbanne) over it is within thirty yards of two 
senken rocks^ the outermost of which bears from Green 
Mound N. 4ff' W. (true), or N. BS"" W., nine hnndred 
yards. When Green Momd Point and the next point to 
the southward of it are in a liae» you are within a few yards 
4>f the shoelest part of the bar. After passing the bar, 
there are from twp to foar fathcHBui water. Since the exa- 
mination of this harbour, a penal settlement has been formedi 
and a pilot appointed to coadw^ vesseb in and out. Off 
the entrance is a high rocky islet, the Nobby, within which 
the channel is shoal and dangeroue to pass. There is good 
anchorage in fonr, five, or six fathoms, abont half a mile oetp 
side of the bar, on a bank of sand, which gradnaUy deepens 
for three miles to fourteen fathoms, upon any part of which 
a vessel may anchor to await high water. 

Latitude of iu entrance 3 1^ 25' 32" S. 
Longitude 152 51 25 £. 

Variation of the compass 10 11 E. 



256 APPENDIX. 

» 

A. High water at fall and change 8h 56' 

®^'' Tide rises four to five feet. 

E. Coast. The southeast trend of SMOKY CAPE is in latitude 30^56' 
40", longitude 153^ 4' 30". 

TRIAL BAY, so named by Lieutenant Oxley, who an- 
chored in it on a second expedition to examine Port Mac- 
quarie previous to its being settled, is a convenient roadstead 
during southerly winds : it is situated on the north side of 
Smoky Cape, and affords an anchorage in three fathoms, 
protected from the sea as far as N.E.b.E. Fresh water may 
be procured from a stream that runs over the beach. Four 
miles to the north of Smoky Cape is an inlet having a bar 
harbour, on which there is but eight feet water. 

SHOAL BAY is the next harbour to the northward : the 
following description of it is from Captain Flinders, (Flinders' 
Terra Australis, Introduction, cxcv.) 

^* On the south side of the entrance, which is the deepest, 
there is ten feet at low water ; and within side the depth is 
from two to four fathoms, in a channel near the south shore : 
the rest of the bay is mostly occupied by shoals, over which 
boats can scarcely pass when the tide is out. High water 
appeared to take place about seven hours after the moon's 
passage ; at which time a ship not drawing more than four- 
teen feetf might venture in, if severely pressed. Shoal Bay 
is difficult to be found except by its latitude, which is 29^ 
26i', but there is on the low land about four leagues to the 
southward, a small hill somewhat peaked, which may serve 
as a mark to vessels coming from that direction." 

Cape Byron, in latitude 28^ 38' 10", longitude 153^ 37' 
20". Mount Warnino is in latitude 28^ 24', longitude 
153^ 12'. 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 257 

THE TWEED is a river communicatiDg with the sea by a A. 
bar, on which there is twelve feet water, it is situated about "^ ' 
a mile and a half to the north of a small island off Point ^ Coast, 
Danger, which lies in latitude 28^ 8'. 

In latitude 28^ there is a communication with the inlet at 
the south side of Moretou Bay, insulating the land whose 
north extremity is Pomt Lookout. The entrance of this 
inlet is shoal and only passable for boats. 

MORETON BAY*. In addition to the account of this 
bay by Captain Flinders f, Lieutenant Ozley has lately dis« 
covered the Brisbane, a very fine fresh water river that 
falls into it in 27° 25' latitude, abreast of the strait between 
Moreton Island and Point Lookout. 

WIDE BAY, the entrance of which is in latitude 25^ 49', 
was examined by Mr. Edwardson, the master of one of the 
government colonial vessels ; he found it to be a good port, 
having in its entrance a channel of not less than three fa- 
thoms deep ; and to communicate with Hervey'3 Bay, thus 
making an island of the Great Sandy Peninsula. 

INDIAN HEAD is in latitude 25^" 1', and longitude 
153° 2^. 

• This bay was originally called Glass House Bay, in allusion to 
tiie name given by Captain Cook to three remarkable glass house 
looking hillg near PumiGe-stone River ; but as Captain Cook be- 
stowed the name of Moreton Bay upon the strait to the south of 
Moreton Island, that name has a prior claim, and is now generally 
adopted. A penal settlement has lately been formed at Red Cliff 
Point, which is situated a little to the north of the embouchure of 
the Brisbane River. 

t Flindbrs*s ItUroditc. cxcvi. 

Vol. n. S 



858 APPENDIX. 



SECTION II. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE \¥iNDS ^SD WEATHEB, AND OF 

THE PORTS, ISLANDS, AND COAST BETWEEN 

BREAKSEA SPIT AND CAPE YORK. 

■ 

A. Tas aoudiseist trade is oeoaiioBally swpended ntar the 
^ ' shore by north-easterly wiadt during tka months of J0M9 
^* ^t!* ^^^^^ ^^ August, the only season that I have any expe- 
vieace of the winds and weather upon the north^'Sast coast ; 
the weather is generally thiok and cloudy, and. often aeccwK 
panied with showers of rain^ particularly during the two 
first months. 

In the neighbourhood of Breaksaa Spit in May, 1810| wa 
experienced a fresh gale from the westward, after which 
it veered to 8.E., with thiok rainy weather: and in the 
neighbourhood of Cape Capricorn, in June, 18dl, we had 
a fresh gale from the N.E. Among the Northumberland 
Islands, we have experienced westerly winds, but they blew 
in light breezes with fine weather. Even as far as Oape 
Grafton, the wind canaot be said to be steady. To the 
north of this point, however, the winds are always con- 
stant from the southward, and seldom or ever veer to the 
westward of south, or to the eastward of S.E.b.E. ; they 
generally are from S.S.E. : fresh winds cause the wea- 
ther to be hazy, and sometimes bring rain, which renders 
the navigation amopg the reefs in some degree dangerous. 
I^ my last voyage up the coast, on approapbing Cape York» 
the weather was so thick that we could not see more than ^ 
quarter of a mile a-<head; we, however, ran from reef to 
reef, and always saw them in sufficient time to alter the 
course if we were in error. In such a navigation cloudy 
dull weather is, however, rather an advantage than other- 



SAIUNG MRECnONS. 259 

wise, because the reefs^ from the abeence of the glare of the A. 
sun, are more distinctly seen, particularly in the afternoon, ^^^' ^* 
when the son is to the westward. )Leter in the season (Au- ^^^^^ 
gust, 1820,) we had more settled weather, for the wind 
seldom veered to the southward of S:S.E., or eastward of 
S.S.E. I and this weather accompanied us from BreakseaSpit, 
through Torres' Strait 

The best time for passing up this coast is in April and the 
beginning of May, or between the middle of August and 
latter end of October; in the months of June and July, the pas» 
sage is not apparently so safe, on account of the changeable 
weather that may be encountered, which to a stranger would ^ 
create much anxiety, although no real danger. Strict at* 
tention to these directions and confidence in the chart, with 
a cautious look out will, however, neutraliM all the dangers 
that thick weather may produce in this navigation. 

The tides and currents in this part are not of much con- 
sequence. The rise of tide is trifling, the flood-tide sets to 
the N«W., but at a very slow rate. In the neighbourhood 
of the reefs, the stream sometimes sets at the rate of a knot 
or in some cases at two knots, but for a small distance it is 
scarcely perceptible. There appeared rather to be a gentle 
drain of current to the N.W. 

HERVETS BAY and BUSTARD BAY have been already 
described by Captains Cook and Flinders. We did not enter 
either, so that I have nothing to offer in addition to the 
valuable information of those navigators, (Hawkesworth, 
vol. iii. p. 113 and 117; and Flinders's Iniroduc. cci. and 
vol. ii. p. 9, et seq.) 

LADY ELLIOT'S ISLAND is a low islet, covered with 
shrubs and trees, and surrounded by a coral reef, which 

S 8 



260 APPENDIX. 

A. extends for three-^juarters of a mile from its north-east end ; 
Sect 11. ^Q island is not more than three-quarters of a mile long, 
N. East and about a quarter of a mile broad ; it is dangerous to 
approach at night, from being very low. It ^is situated 
thirty miles N. 53° W. (mag.) from the extremity of Break- 
sea Spit (as laid down in Captain Fljnders's chart) ; its lati- 
tude is 24P 6\ and its longitude 152'' 45' 15^ 

BUNKER'S GROUP consisto of three islets; they are 
low and wooded like Lady Elliot's Island, and lie S*£. and 
N.W. from each other; the south-easternmost (or 1st,) ha9 
a coral reef projecting for two miles and a half to the N.E. : 
four miles and tf half to the N.W. of the north westernmost 
(or 3d islet,) is a large shoal, which, from the heavy breakers 
upon it, is probably a part of the barrier or outer reefs. 
The centre island (or 2d) of the group, is in latitude 23° 51' 
10% and longitude 152° 19' 5". Off the south-west end of 
the 2d island, is a small detached islet connected to it by a 
reef; and off the north-east end of the 3d island^ is another 
islet, also connected by a coral reef. 

The spaces between these islands,^ whicl) are more than a 
league wide, are quite free from danger : we passed within a 
quarter of a mile of the south end of the reef off the 3d 
island, without getting bottom with ten fathoms. 

RODD*S BAY, a small harbour on the west side of the 
point to the northward of Bustard Bay, offers a good shelter 
for vessels of one hundred and fifty tons burden. The 
channel lies between two sand-banks, which communicate 
with either shore. In hauling round the point, steer for 
Middle Head, a projecting rocky point covered with trees, 
keeping the centre of it in the bearing of about South 
(mag.); you wilj then carry first five, then six and seven 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 261 

iathoms ; when you are abreast of the north low sandy point, a. 
you have passed the sand-bank on the eastern side, the Sect. IL 
extremity of which bears from the point W.JN. about one N. East 
mile ; then haul in E.b.S., and anchor at about one-third ■ ^^^ * 
of a mile from the low sandy point bearing North. 

In hauling round this point, you must not shoalen your 
water, on the south side, to less than four fathoms, as the 
sand bank projects for a mile and a quarter from Middle 
Head. In the centre of the channel, between Sandy Point 
and Middle Head, and at about one third of a mile from the 
former, you will have seven, eight, and nine fathoms water, 
until it bears N.b.E. when it shoals to five fathoms, llie 
situation of the extremity of the low sandy point upon Cap- 
tain Flinders's chart (East Coast, sheet III) is in latitude 
23^ 59' 45", and longitude 151® 34' 45". High water takes 
place at eight hours and a half after the moon's transit. 

In standing into Roddls Bay, the water does not shoalen 
until you are in a line with the north points of Facing Island 
and Bustard Bay. 

There is a run of fresh water in the bay to the eastward 
of the low sandy point, but it was not thought to be a du- 
rable stream. Wood may be cut close to the beach, and 
embarked without impediment. 

PORT BOWEN. Captain Flinders, in his account of 
this port, has merely confined himself to the anchorage 
under Entrance Island, (lat. 22° 29', Ion. 150° 45' 30"), 
which is, at best, but an exposed roadstead. The channel 
in, on the north side of the island, is free from danger, but, 
on tlie south side, between it and Cape Clinton, there is an 
extensive shoal on which the sea br'eaks heavily ; it was not 
ascertained whether it is connected with the bank off the » 
south end of the island, but there is every probability of it. 
The inlet round Cape Clinton affords good anchorage ; but, 



262 APPENNX. 

A. in the mid-channel, the depth is as- much as eighteen fa- 
Sect n. tiiQiQs • |;he sands on the western side of the inlet are steep 
N. £asl to. and should be aroided, for the tide sweeps upon them. 
The best anchorage is in the sandy bay roond the inner 
trend of the cape, (latitude 22® 31' 40^ longitude 160° 44',) 
where both wood and water are convenient. In steerhig 
m from sea, haul round the cape, and pass about half to 
three-quarters of a mile to the north of the high round bland, 
in serea fathoms, avoiding the sand-banks on either side, 
tn passing the inner trend of the cape, the water will sboa! 
to three and three-quarter fathoms, but do not approach too 
near the point When you have opened the inlet, steer in, 
and, having passed the inner cape, haul in to a sandy bay 
on the eastern side, where you may anchor in eight or 
nine fathoms at pleasure. 

The centre of the shoal in the middle of the port, bears 
N.|E. by compass, from the high round island, and N.b.W. 
•^W. when in a line with Entrance Island. 

High water appears to take place half an hour later than 
at Entrance Island, or about lOh 40^ after the moon's south- 
ing (the moon's age being thirteen days)* The tide did not 
rise more than six feet, but it wanted three days to the 
springs. Captain Flinders supposes the spring tides to rise 
not less than fifteen feet. The variation of the compass 
was 9^ 5' East, off Cape Clinton, but at Entrance Island, 
according to Captain Flinders, it was 7® 40' East. 

NORTHUMBERLAND ISLANDS. In the direction of 
N. 8® E. (magnetic,) and five miles and a half from the 3d 
Island, is a low rock Wh^ch, at high water, is very little 
above the surface of the sea ; it is very dangerous, because 
it is in the direct track of vessels steering towards the Percy 
Isles. It escaped the observation of Captain Flinders. 

In the direction of S. 42^ "VT. (magnetic), and ten miles 



€!«ist. 



SAILING DrtlECflONS. 263 

from tb^ west end of I^etcy Island, No. 1, ate iHMe ^ocks, A. 
but 1 aili not aware whetber they are covered : tfcey were deeh S«ct^II. 
by Lieutenant Jeffries m 1 8 1 5. It fait 

Another patch of dry tocks Was seen by me hmtt fhe 
Summit df a hitl at the west end of Percy Istand,- Ifo. 1/ 
whence they bcfte S. 6(f W. (magnetic), and were supposed 
to be distant about eight Chr nine miles. Thei rariation df tber 
compasi hete is betWeemr 7* and 8^ ^st. 

The PERCT ISLES hate aUo been delscribed by Captain 
Fliffderar; the bay ^ th« west end of No. 1, is of tery steep 
approach, and tot safe to anchor in, excepting during a 
sdutb-edst wind: the anchorage at Na; 12, inside the' pifter 
islets, is bad, since the bottom is rocky; th« ground is, how* 
e^er, clearer more to the sotrthward ; on the whofe, this an- 
chorage is not h^secure, since there is a safe passage out 
either on the north or south sides of the Pine Islets. Wood 
may be procured with facility, and watet alsoy unlesa the 
atreama fail ia the dry season. Captain Flinders was at these 
islands at the hitter end of September, and found it abun-* 
dant. The flood-tide conea from the northeast; at the 
anchorage in the channel, between the pine islets and No. 2, 
the flood sets to the south, and the ebb 16 the nonh ; the 
Aaxnbuin ratter was one and a quarter knot. High watet oc- 
eurfed it the fattet place two hours and a half before (he 
mooifs |>a8sage; but, on the following day, did not pre* 
cede it more than one hour and a half. Captain Flinders 
mentions higft water f akmg place on shore at eight hours 
after the moon's passage. (Vide fhnieri, v6l. ii. p. Bi,) 
The tide rose tweke feet when the moon was thirteen dayst 
eld. The tfbrth-wcst end of No. 1 is in latitude 21^ 44^ 50", 
longitude 150® 16' 40"; south-west end of No. 2 is m lati- 
tude 21^ 40^ 50", longitude 150*=^ l^. 



264 APPENDIX. 



x 



A. In passing SHOAL POINT, in latitude 21° 0' 5", longi- 

S^II. t^jg 1490 7/ 4Q//^ Captain Cook's ship got into shoal water, 

N« East and at one time had as little as three fathoms (Hawkesworth, 

^^** vol. iii. p. 131); and the merchant ship Lady Elliot, in the 

year 1815, met with a sand bank extending from the island 

off the point in a north-east direction for ten miles, on one 

part of which she found only nine feet water. 

The Mermaid passed the point at the distance of three 
miles, and, when the island bore S. 68^ W., distant two 
miles and a half, had four and three-quarter fathoms, which 
was the least water that was found, but, being then high 
water, five or six feet, if not more, may be deducted, to 
reduce it to* the proper low water souuding. There was no 
appearance of shoaler water near us, and it is probable that 
Captain Cook's and the Lady Elliot's tracks were farther off 
shore. The variation of the compass, six miles east of 
Point Slade, was 7° 1 1' East. 

CAPE HILSBOROUGH is a projection terminating in a 
bluff point in latitude 20° 53' 40", and longitude 149® 0' 
15" : being high land, it may be seen seven or eight leagues 
off. The variation here is 6® 30' E. 

The CUMBERLAND ISLES extend between the parallels 
of 20° and 21° 6\ and consist, generally, of elevated, rocky 
islands ; they are all abundantly wooded, particularly with 
pines, which grow to a larger size than at the Percy Isles. 
We did not land upon any of them ; they appeared to be of 
bold approach, and not dangerous to navigate amongst; 
they are from six to eight hundred feet high, and some of 
the peaks on the northern island are much higher. 

k 1 (latitude 21° 5' 40% longitude 149° 54' 25") is about 
three-quarters of a mile in diameter ; it is of peaked shape ; 
at three-quarters of a mile off its south-east end, there is a 
dry rocky lump. 



Coast. 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 265 

k Gatitude 2P ff, longitude 149" 52' 30^ is nearly a mile a. 
and a quarter in diameter^ and bas a considerable reef ^^^^ 
stretching for more than a mile and a half off both its north- N. East 
west and south-east ends ; on the latter is a small rocky islet. 

k 2 (in latitude 20" 5S\ longitude 149" 44' 55%) is of 
hummocky shape; it has also a reef off its south-east and 
north-west ends, stretching off at least a mile. On the 
south-east reef is a dry rocky islet. 

THREE ROCKS, in latitude 20" 561', are small islets 
of moderate height All these islands are surrounded by 
deep water. The rariation here is about 6^" East 

k 4, in latitude 20" 53' 10", and k 4 1, in lat. 20" 58', 
and the two sandy islets to th6 westward of them, were seen 
only at a distance. 

1, in latitude 20" 5.1' 1 0",— 1 1 , in latitude 20" 54' 10,' con 
taining two islands,— 1 3, in latitude 20" 44' 15",— and 1 4, 
in latitude 20" 45' 30", are also high, but we were not nearer 
to them than six or seven miles ; 1 2, in latitude 20" 45' 40", 
longitude 149" 33' 55*\ is the island on which Captain 
Flmders landed, and describes in vol. ii. p. 94; he says, 
" This littie island is of triangular shape, and each side of it 
is a mile long ; it is surrounded by a coral reef. The time of 
high water took place one hour before the moon's passagCi 
as it had done among the barrier reefs ; from ten to fifteen 
feet seemed to be the rise by the shore, and the flood came 
from the northward." The variation near 1 2 is 6" 17' £. 

m is a high, bluff island, the peaked summit of which, in 
latitude 20" 46' 35*, and longitude 149" 15' 15", is eight 
hundred and seventy-four feet high : there are several islets 
off its south-east end, and one off its north-west end. 

SIR JAMES SMITH'S GROUP consists of ten or twelve 



266 APpimDiK. 

A« distinct istftzi js, and pethdps dft many more, fbr We irete not 

Stict^ll. \ritfaiA twelve ifailes at them. On the prtecipal Uland i$ 

v. fiatt LINME' PEAK, in latitttde 20« 40' 3(f, and Ibngittiae 149* 9* 

Coast, j.^ , .^ j^ ^^^^ ^^ g.g^^ handred feet high. 

SHAW'S PEAK, m lattthde 2(P 28'^ lo!igrttid<$ l^V&dT^ 
h on ft larger Island than any to the south watd ; it is sfatteeftt 
hundred and one feet hrgh. The grdtrp consists of aett^ral 
islands; it is separated from the next to the northward by 
ft cfaanirel fite miles wide. In the Centre is PtlNtEOOST 
ISLAND, ft remarkable rock, rismg abtilptly osl df the 
sea to the height of eleven hundred and fbrty feet Its latl^ 
tude is 2(f 23' 10", a<id longitude 14S^ 59 30*. 

The northern group of the Cumberland Ishnds are high, 
and appear to be better furnished with wood, and tuote fertile 
than the southern groups, particularly on tbetr western sides. 

The principal peak, in latitude 29** 15' 10" and longitude 
148^ 5S\ is fifteen hundred and eighty-fcmr feet high, and is 
situated on the largest island, which is ten miles long, ftiidd 
from three to nine broad : it has several bays on either side, 
and off its south-eastern end are four small islands; be^ 
yond them is a rahge of rocky Islets. The tiorthemmost 
island of this range ia the extremity of the Cumberland 
Islands, as well as the north-eastefn frmit of WMCsundtfjr 
Passage ; it forms ft high, bluff point, in latitude iO^ 0^ and 
longitude 148® 50" SCT, and is of bold approach: on ther 
western side of the island are ^me low islets. 

REPULSE BAT is a deep bight ; its shores are low, but 
the hills rise ta a great height. The extremity of the bay 
was not di^tmctTy traced, but it rs probable, upon examining 
it, that a fresh^water rivulet may be found ; and there may 
be a communication with Edgecumbe Bay. 



8AIUNG DIHECnONS. 267 

Hm Repulse Islet are of small size ; they are surrounded A. 
by rocksy which do not extend more than a quarter of a mile ^^^^** 
from them. The summit of the largest island is in latitude '^ ^^ 
20^ 37' 5", and longitude 148^ 50' 30'. VariaUon 6<> 15" E. "^ ' 

Between Capes Conway and Hilsborougb the flood-tide 
comes from the north-eastward, but is very irregular in the 
direction of the stream. At an anchorage off the island 
near the latter cape the tide rose twelve feet» but close to 
the Repulse Isles, the rise was eighteen feet. At the former 
place, the moon being full, high water took place at about 
tfiree-quarters past ten o*clock ; by an obsenration the next 
day at the latter, it was a quarter of an hour later: the max- 
imum rate was about one and a half knot. 

WHITSUNDAY PASSAGE, formed by the northern 
group of the Cumberland Islands, is from three to six miles 
wide, and, with the exception of a small patch of rocks 
within a quarter of a mile from Cape Conway, and a sand- 
bank (that is probably dry, or nearly so at low water) off 
Round Head, is free from danger. The shores appear to 
be bold to, and the depth, in the fair way, varies between 
twenty and thirty fathoms; the shoal off Round Head 
stretches in a N.N.W. direction, but its extent was not as- 
certained. 

In steering through the strait, particularly during the 
flood-tide, this shoal should be avoided by keeping well over 
to the east shore ; for the tide there sets across the strait ; it 
is about a mile and a half from Round Head, in which 
space the water is ten and fourteen fathoms deep. 

Between Round Head (in latitude 20^ 28' 30") and Cape 
Conway is a bay, where there appeared to be good anchor- 
age out of the strength of the tides ; and to the north of 
Round Head is another bay, the bottom of which is an 



268 APPENDIX. 

A. isthmus of about a mile wide, separating it from an inlet to 
Sect II. ijjg westward of Cape Conway. This bay very probably 

N. East affords good anchorage out of the strength of the tides. 
Coast. 

CAPE CONWAY, in lat 20° 32', and longitude 148° 54', 
is the western limit of the south entrance of Whitsunday 
Passage ; it is a steep point, sloping off to the eastward : 
immediately on its north side is a small shingly beach, a few 
yards behind which there is a hollow, containing a large 
quantity of fresh water. At a shortquarter of a mile from 
the point is a rocky shoal of small size, between which and 
the shore there is deep water. 

PINE HEAD, in lat. 20° 23', and longitude 143° 51' 40', 
is the south-cast extremity of a small island that is separated 
from the main by a passage of about a mile wide, but we did 
not ascertain ivhether it is navigable. The head is a high, 
bluff point, clothed with pine-trees : near it the tide runs 
in strong eddies, and for that reason it ought not to be ap- 
proached nearer than half a mile ; it appeared to be bold to. 
There is a sandy bay on its sputh west side affording a good 
landing-place ; the island is clothed with grass, and thickly 
wooded: we found no water. The variation was 5° 35' 
East 

• 

PORT MOLLE, so named by Lieutenant Jeffreys, ap- 
peared to trend in for four or five miles: and, probably, 
to afford a convenient port, as it is well sheltered from the 
wind, and is protected from the north-east by a group of 
small islands, thickly wooded. Hence the land trends to 
the north-west towards Cape Gloucester; the shore was 
very indistinctly seen, but seemed to be very much in- 
dented, and to possess several bays, if not rivers ; for the 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 26? 

land at the back is very high, and must gire rise to several A. 
mountain, if not navigable, streams. Sect ll, 

N. East 
MOUNT DRYANDER, whose summit is in latitude 20^ ^*^*- 
14' 10", and longitude 148^ 30' 5S\ forms a small peak, and 
is visible from Repulse Bay, as well as from the northern 
extremity of the Cumberland Islands : it is four thousand five 
hundred and sixty^six feet high ; and the hills around it are 
at least from seven hundred to a thousand feet in height. 

The greater part of the water that collects from these hills 
probably empties itself into Repulse and Edgecumbe Bays, 
or it i9&y be distributed in lagoons upon the low land that 
separates them. 

At the back of Point Slade there is a high mountainous 
range extending without interruption to the westward of 
Mount Upstart. In latitude 21^' H', and longitude 148^ 36^' 
is a high-rounded summit, which is visible at the distance of 
twenty leagues : between this range, which is at the distance 
of from five to seven leagues from the sea, and the coast^ are 
several ridges gradually lowering in altitude as they approach 
the shore. In the neighbourhood of Repulse Bay, this moun- 
tainous range recedes, and has a considerable track of low 
land at its base, which is possibly a rich country : from the 
height of the hills, it must be well watered. 

CAPE GLOUCESTER. The point of land that Captain 
Cook took originally for the cape, is an island of about 
five miles long and two broad, separated from the true 
Cape Gloucester by a strait, a mile and a half wide. The 
island is called Gloucester Island ; its summit at the north 
end IS in latitude 19^ 57' 24\ longitude 148® 23' 38"; it is 
eighteen hundred and seventy-four feet high, and its summit 
is a ridge of peaks : its shores are rocky and steep ; and, 



270 APPENDIX. 

A. although the sidea of the hilU are woodedi yet it has a 

^^^* *^* sombre and heavy appearance, andt at least, does not look 

N. East fertile. The cape, in latitude 20^ 1' 50", and longitude 

^^^^* 148^ i& 15', is the extremity of the moontainous range that 

fztends off Mount Dryander, The variation ob6ervie4 off 

the island was y^'lVE. 

EDOECUMBE BAY is a deep indentation of the land, 
the shores of which are very low : its extent was not ascer- 
tained, but, by the bearings of some land at the bottom, it 
is seventeen miles deep; and its greatest breadth, at the 
mouth, is about fourteen miles. It affords excellent shelter; 
and between Middle Island (a small rocky islet of a mile 
and half in extent) and Gloucester Island there is good 
anchorage in seven fathoms muddy bottom, with protection 
from all winds. We did not examine the bay farther than 
passing round Middle Island in six, seven, and eight fathoms, 
mud. The western side is formed by low islands, that ap- 
peared to be swampy, but our distance was too great to 
form the most distant opinion of them : if the main is not 
swampy, it must be a rich and interesting country. 

HOLBORNE ISLAND is a rocky, island, visible about 
seven or eight leagues, and has three small islets near it : it 
is in latitude W AV 6", and longitude Udf" 17' 30''. 

CAPE UPSTART h the extremity of Mount Upstart, 
which is so high as to be visible for more than twenty 
leagues in clear weather : it rises abruptly from ^ low pro- 
jectipn, and forms a long ridge of mountainous land ; the 
north-east end of the summit is in latitude 19^ 41' 50", and 
longitude 147<' 44' 30'. This point separates two deep 
bays, both of which were of very inviting appearance, on 
account of the high and broken character of the gullies on 



SAILINa DIBECTIONS 271 

either side of MiNint Abbott, and it waa almost evident that A« 
tbey both termioate 14 a river. The hills of Mount Upstart ^ectll. 
are of primitive form, and were judged tp be composed of ^ ^^ 
granite. The variation observed off the point was 6^ 16' E. ^* 

CAPE BOWLING-GREEN is very low, and projecU for 
a considerable distance into the sea: its north-east extremity 
is in latitude W W 10', ai^d longitude 147"" dd' ]S. ; the 
mountainous ranges are at least thirty miles in the fear, 
and, were it not for Mounts Upstart and Eliot, both of which 
aie v^ry visible, and serve as an eiceUept goide, this part of 
the cQMt irovld be very dangerous to approach, particularly 
in the night, when these marks oaq^ot be seen, when great 
attention mi^st be paid to the lead. A ship passing this 
projection should not cQu^e into ihoaler watei^ than eleven 
fathoms ; and, in direetiiig a course from abreast of Mount 
Upstart, should be steered sufficiently to the northward 
to provide against the current which sets into the bay on the 
western side of the mount. On approaching the cape, if 
the soundings indicate a less depth than eleven fathoms, the 
vessel should be hauled more off, because she is then either 
a parallel with or to the southward of the cape. 

CAPE CLEVELAND,, (latitude 19P 10' 10^ longitude 
146^ 57' 56",) like Mount Upstart, rises abruptly from a 
projection of low land, separating Cleveland Bay from a 
deep sinuosity that extends under the base of Mount Eliot, 
a high range with a rounded hill and a peak) the latter beii^^ 
at th^ soQtb extremity of its summit. Mount Eliot may 
probably be seen at the distance of 4wenty-five leagues, if 
not farther ; between it and the hills of Cape Cleveland the 
land is low, and is probably much intersected by water. 

A reef extends from the extremity of Cape Cleveland for 



274 APPENDIX. 

A. minated by a hill. Between thit and Goold Island there 

Sect^II. appears to be a navigable strait leading into Rockingham 

N. East Bay. 
Coast, ^ . 

GOOLD ISLAND, the summit of which, formed I7 4 
conical hill covered with wood, in latitude 18^ 9' 35", 
and longitude 146^ 9^, is about two miles long ; the souths 
west point of the island is a long strip ef low land^ with 
a sandy beach; at the eastern end of which there is a 
run of water ; and fuel may be cut close to the shore. High 
water takes fJace at full and change at three quarters past 
ten. 

ROCKINGHAM BAY appears to be a spacious harbour. 
At the bottom there was an appearance of an opening that 
may probably communicate with an inlet on the south side of 
Point Hillock, and insulate the land of Mount Hinchinbrook. 
niere is good anchorage in the bay in four and five fathoms 
mudy near Goold Island. 

The natives are very friendly here> and will come off and 
visit the ship. 

FAMILY ISLES consist of seven small rocky islets, co- 
vered with a stunted vegetation. 

DUNK ISLAND is remarkable for having two peaks on 
its summit; the south-east summit is in latitude. 17** 59^^ 
and longitude 146^ 8' 45'* The variation observed in the 
offing to the N.E. was 5^ 41' East. 

BARNARD ISLES form a group of small rocky islandU 
extending in a straggling direction for six miles to the 
south of Double Point. Three miles to the south of th^ 



SAILING DtltECTIONS. 275 

ftouthenimoit iikad/ but Marer to the shore, is a reef bf A. 
rocks which dry at low water. Scctll. 

N. Ealt 
From DOUBUE POINT, (Utitude of iU iummit 17<* 39' ^^^*" 
SV^ to CAPE GQAFTONi the coast is formed by a suc- 
cession of sandy bays and projecting^ rocky pMots* In 
latitude 17^ 31', in the centre of a sandy bay, is a Umall 
opening like a rivulets and, on the south side of Poitit 
Cooper is another } but nmther appeared to be n^figable for 
boats. Abreast of Frankland's Islands, and near the louth 
end of a sandy bay of six milei in extent, there is another 
opening like a river, that, from the appearance of the land 
behind^ which is low and of a verdant character, may be of 
considerable size. The high mountains to the southward, 
Bellenden Ker's Range must give rise to a considerable 
stream.; and it appears very probable that this may be one 
of the outlets, but the most considerable is, perfaiqps, that 
whkh falls into Trinity Bay round Cape Orafton. 

FRANKLAND'S ISLANDS consist of several low islets 
one of which. is detached and of higher character than 
the others, which are very low, and connected by a reef. 
The largest island may be seen five or six leagues off; it is 
in latitude 17<» 7' 45'. 

The land between this and Cape Grafton is high, and 
towards the north has several remarkable peaks. .The 
land of Cape Grallton may be readily known, when seen 
from the southward, by appearing like three lofty islands; 
the outermost is Fitzroy Island, but th.e othdrs are hillp upon 
the main. The easternmost of the latter. Cape Grafton, i« 
eoospicttotts for having two small peaks, like notches, on 4he 
west extremity of its summit; it is joined to the western^ 
most by low land, which also separates the latter from 

T2 



276 APPENDIX. 

A. the other hills behind it ;'and, as this low land is not seen at 
f!L^'' ^ distance, the hills assume the appearance of islands. 
N. East There is good anchorage in the strait between Cape 
Grafton and Fiuroy Island, but, with a northerly wind, the 
better anchorage would be on the south side of the cape. 
The former is exposed to all wmds between N.W. and N*£. 
In the former case the anchor may be dropped in nine fa- 
thoms, at a quarter to half a mile from the beach of iht 
island. The north extremity of Cape Grafton is in latitude 
16^ 51' 20", longitude 145^ 5^5'; the south-east extreme 
is in latitude iff" 64' 20", longitude 145^ 5ff 15". 

FITZROY ISLAND affords both wood and water ; it has 
a peaked summit. It affords anchorage in the bay on its 
western side, off a coral beach ; the south-west end of which 
is in latitude Iff" 5S 21% and longitude Ud^" 56' 21". Nine 
miles to the eastward of Fitzroy Island is a small bare sandy 
island; and, at about seven miles N.£.b.£. from it, there 
was an appearance of extensive shoals. Variation 5^ 10' £. 

On the west side of Cape Geafton is a bay, in the cen- 
tre of which is an island. The bottom' is very shoal, but 
good anchorage may be had. with the cape bearing' S.E. 
Between Cafe Geaftok and Snappee Island, the centre 
of which is in latitude 16° 17' 35", and longitude 145° 27' 40", 
is TRINITY BAY; the shores of which were not very 
distinctiy seen. At the south side, and about seven miles 
within the cape there is an opening that appeared to be 
extensive, and the mouth. of a considerable stream, trend- 
ing in between high r^mges of land, in a direction towards 
Bellenden Ker's Range. 

In latitude 16° 23^', and longitude 145° 34' is a group 
consisting of three coral islands ; which, being very low, 
are dangerous to pass in the night. 



SAOJli^ DIRECTIONS. 277 

The offing it said to be strewed with extensive reefs ; we a, 
saw none beyond Green Island : those that are laid down on ^^- ^^* 
the chart are from lieutenant Jefirej^s account** N. EaM 

SNAPPER ISLAND lies off the point which forms the 
northern limit of Trinity Bay ; it is small, and does not 
supply any water t. 

The kind behind Cafe Tribulation may be seen at a 
greater distance than twenty leagues. It is here that the 
outer part of the barrier reefs approach the coast* and there 
is reason to believe that, in latitude 16^ 17' 36", longitude 
145^ 27' 40", they are not more than twenty miles from it. 
The cape has a hillock at its extremity, and a small rocky 
islet close to the shore that renders it conspicuous ; it is 
fourteen miles beyond Snapper Island. The shore appears 
to be bold to : at three miles off we had sixteen fathoms. 

Ten miles further to the northward is Blompisld's Ri« 
TULBT in Weary Bay: it is blocked up by a rocky bar, 
having only four feet water over it ; the anchorage off it 
is too much exposed to be safe. The river runs up for four 
or five miles, having soundings within it from three to four 
fathoms, its entrance is in 15^ 55' 5ff'. 

The coast then extends to the north to Endeavour River, 
and forms a few inconsiderable sinuosities; it is backed by 
high land, particularly abreast of the Hope Islands. These 
islands open of each other in a N. 39° E. direction, and ap* 
pear to be connected by a shoal ; it is however very likely 
that a narrow passage may exist between themi but cer- 
tainly not safe to sail through. 

* Much thoal water was seen, to the northward of Green Island, 
from the Tsmafs msst head.— l{oe MS, 

t Ten or eleven miles S. 80^ E. from I'Snapper Island is the 
nortfi-west end of a shoal, extending to the S. 41^ E. for sixteen or 
^venteen miles: the Tamar anchored under it.— Aoe MS* 



278 APPENDIX. 

jl^ Hare Ihe number of the coral reefi begin to increase, ttad 

Sedb^IL gp^ei^t attention must be paid in navigaUng amongst tbem t 
N. East but, with a. careful look out from the mast beadt i(nd ft 
^^*^* quick leadsman in the chains, no danger need be appre- 
hended. 

Between reef a and the shoal off the sonth-west Hop6 
Island there is a passage two miles wide, with twelre 
fathoms : a is about half a mile in diameter, with a few 
rocks above water; its cenO'e is in 15^ 43' 20", two milea 
from the shore, and three milea N. 55^ W. from the south 
west Hope. 

b is about a mile and a quarter long, and has a dry rock 
at its north end, the latitude of which is 15^ 3d' 20^: it is' 
divided from Endeavour Reef by a channel of nearly a mile 
wide, and fifteen fethoms deep : abreast of the south^end of 
by'On the western edge of Endeavour Ree^ there is a dry 
rock, in latitude 15^ 39' 55". 

ENDEAVOUR REEF ia nine milea long; it lies in a 
N.W. direction ; the north end, in 15^ Bd' S., bears due 
from the North-<east Hope. 

C is covered, and not quite half a mile in length ; ita lati- 
tude is 15f 32!: it lies four miles from Ihe shore. 

d is rather larger, and has some dry rocks on its north; 
end, m latitude 15^ 29' 30". Between c and d and the 
shore the passage is from three to four miles wide, and in. 
midrchannel the depth is 9even and eight fathoms^ 
..On* the soutK side of Potat Monkhouae there is a bay 
having a small opening at the .bottom, but not deep enougk 
fpr ships : it was this bay that Captain Cook first e^caipined 
m search of a place to repair his ship. 

On steering along the shore between Point Monkhpuse 
and the entrance of Endeavour River, the bottom is of 
sand and of icregul4if dej^th. A e^it of sand was passed 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 279 

over with only two and a half fathoma on it when the summit A. 
of Mount Cook bore S. 66° W* (magnetic), and the outer Sact^B* 
extreme of Point Monkhouse S. 18° W« (mag:nettc.) One ^ £*^ 
mile offshore the shoal soundings continued with two and a 
half fathoma until it bore S. 59° W, (magnetic), when the 
depth was three, and three and a half fathoms. 

ENDEAVOUR RIVER. The entrance of this river« is 
latitude 15° 97 4"» and longitude 145° 10' 49'*, forms a 
very good port for small vessels; and, in a case of distress, 
might be useful for large ships, as it proved to our cele- 
brated navigator Captain Cook, who, it is well known, re** 
paired hia ship there after having laid twenty*three hours 
upon a coral reef. 

. The entrance is formed on the south side by a steep hill, 
covered with trees growing to the edge of its rocky shore. 
The north side of the entrance is a low sandy beach of two 
miles and a quarter in length : at its north end a range of 
hills rises abruptly, and extends for six or seven miles, when 
it again suddenly terminates, and is separated from the 
rocky prqection of Cape Bedford by a low plain of sand. 

Th^ entrance of Endeavour River is defended by a bar, 

' * The sitaation of the obssrvatoiy at Endeavour River wn 
found byionar dtttances, taken daring inj risits to that piece in 
1819 and 1890, as follows ^— 
Latitude by meridional altitudes of the sua, 
taken in the artificial horizon, being the mean 

of twenty-seTen observations . « . . 15° 27* 4". 

.1 ^ 

Longitude by twenty-fiFC set of distances 
(G W. of D )• containing one hundred and 
seventeen sights, with the sextant • . . 144P SSf IfT. 
• Longitude by thirty set of distances (0 E. of ) )» 
containing one hundred and fifty sights, with 
the sextant • . . ^ . . . 14^ W 98r. 

: Mean, of ffty4ve sets 14£f lOc 40 , 



280 



APPENDIX. 



A. on which, at high water, there is about fourteen feet; but. 

Sect, ir 1 
' at low water, not more than ten feet: the channel over. the 

N. East bar is close to the south side, for the sand-bank extends 
Coast* ^ 

from the low sandy north shore to within one hundred and 

forty yards of the south shore, and at three quarters ebb 
(spring tides) is dry. 

In steering in for the mouth, upon bringing Point Monk- 
house in a line with Point a, (the north point of the bay 
under Mount Cook,) you will be in three fathoms ; steer in 
until the south extremity of the low north sandy point is 
opened of the trend round Point c> when you may haul a 
little more in, and when point d (which is a point where the 
mangroves commence,) bears S. 33^ W. (magnetic,) steer 
directly for it ; this will carry you over the deepest part of 
the bar, which stretches off from point c in a N. 75® W. 
(magnetic,) direction ; another mark is to keep the trend be- 
yond d just in sight, but not open, or you will be too near the 
spit : the best way is, having opened it, haul in a little to the 
southward, and shut it in again: you may pass within ten 
yards of point d; and thel)est anchorage is just within it; 
the vessel may be secured head and stem to trees on. the 
beach, with bow and stem anchors to steady her. No 
vessel of a greater draught than twelve feet should enter 
the harbour; and this vessel may even moor in four fathoms 
within her own length of the shore, with the outer trend just, 
shut in by the mangrove point a* The watering-place is a 
stream that empties itself into the port through the man- 
groves, about two hundred yards to the south: and if this 
should fail, there is a good stream at the north end of the long 
north sandy beach. The latter, although very high coloured, 
is of wholesome quality ; but in bad weather is inconvenient 
to be procured on account of the surf. Water for com- 
mon purposes of cooking may be had on a sandy beach a 
little without 4he entrance, but it is of a mineral quality, and 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 281 

of brackish taste. It is high water at full and change at j^^^ 

eight o'clock, and the tide rises from fife to ten feet» The Sect. If. 

Tariation of the obserratory was 5^ 14' £. NfEast 

Coast 

CAPE BEDFORD (latitude IS"" 16' 19", longitude 
145^ 17' 19",} ishighy and forms a steep slope to the sea: it 
appeared to be bold to *• Between it and Cape Flattery is 
a- bay backed by low land» about five miles deep; but it is 
exposed to the ' wind, unless there is anchorage under the 
north-west end of Cape Bedford* 

CAPE FLATTERY is eighteen miles north of Cape Bed- 
ford : its extremity is high and rocky, and forms two distinct 
hills. The summit of the cape is in latitude 14^ 52' 30", and 
longitude 145<> 16' 10".t 

Eleven miles beyond the cape, in a N» 45^ W* direction, 
is POINT LOOKOUT, forming a peaked hill at the extre- 
mity of a low sandy projection, whence the iai^d trends 
W.b.N4N. for twelve leagues to Cape Bowen. 

e, a reef nearly three miles long and one broad : its north 
end is twelve miles nearly due East from the entrance of 
Endeavour River, in latitude 15^ 26' 50% longitude 146^ 

23' ao'v 

TURTLE REEF was visited by Mr. Bedwdl, it is covered 
at high water, excepting a small spot of sand, about the 
size of the boat, at its north end in latitude 15^ 23', longitude 
145^ 22' 50" : its interior is occupied, like most others, by a 

* Shoal witsr extends for nearly a mile round Ci^ Bedford.-* 
Roe MS. 

t There are some dangerous shoals to- the eastward of Point 
Lookout, and to the northward of Cape Ffaotery, about two miles 
wptat from each other, situated in what was co|isi4ei9d to be the 
bic chaBneU«*-Jlee^ US^ 



282 APPENDIX. 

A. shoal lagoon ; it is entifely of coral, and has abmidsiice of 

*2I!L sh^ll-fish ; it was here that Captain Cook procured turtle 

^J^aS^* during his stay at Endeavour River, from the entrance of 

which it bears N. 76° £., and is distant eleven miles ; its 

south end is separated from e by a channel of a mile wide. 

THREE ISLES, in latitude 15«» 7' 30*', is a group of low 
coral islets covered with shrubs, and encircled by a reef, 
that is not quite two miles in diameter* 

Two miles and three quarters to the N.W. is alow wooded 
^island, about a mile long, also surrounded by a reef ; and 
four miles to the southward of it is a rocky islet 

Reef f is about four or five miles E.S.E. from Three Isles ; 
it appeared to be about three miles long: its western ex- 
treme is in latitude 15^ lO', and in longitude 145° 2S. 

TWO ISLES are also low and woodedt and sunoundad 
by a reef: the largest islet is in latitude 15° I' 20'', and 
longitude 145° 22' 10". 

Reef g appeared to be about a mile broad and two miles 
and a half long : its south end is in latitude 15° 0' 15", 
longitude 145° 26* 45". 

Reef h is an extensive reef, having high breakers on its 
'outer kige^ : it is more than foiir miles long, and separated 
'from the north end of g by a chisel a mile wide. 

Reef i has several detached reefs about it, on the north- 
ernmost are two rocky islands, and to the soiithward> cb 
a detached shoal, there is a bare sandy islet that is pec- 
baps occasionally covered by the tide : - ks smith-wscttnt* 



SAILING mRisefiONs. 



most exfretnity and tlie suminit of Liimfd hfahd are ia ^ X. . 
(he line of bearing of I^. 5^ W. (raagncfic,) hs ialitnde h Sectll 

Reef k, in latitude 14^ 47', has a dry sand upon it; its 
sub-marine extent was not ascertained. 

Reef 1 ; tbe position of this reef is rather uncertain, neai' 
its western side is a dry key in latitude 14^ 47' B(f, 

m is probably unconnected with the shoal off the south 
end of Ea^le Island. In Captain Cook's rough chart there 
is twelve ftuhoms marked between two shoals which must 
ijaean fhe above. 

EAGLE ISLAND is low and wooded, and situated at the 
north end of a considerable shoal ; its latitude is 14*^ 4V W\ 
and longitude 145^ 18' 30". 

DIItECnON ISLANDS are two high rocky islands, so 
called by Captain Cook to direct ships to the opening iit 
the reefs» through which he passed out to sea; they are high 
and of conical shape, and might be seen more than five or 
lix leagues off was it not for the hazy weather that always 
Exists in the neighbourhood of the reefs ; die northernmost 
is in laUtude 14'' 44' 50", longitude 145"^ 36' 25": the 
southernmost is in latitude 14° 50', longitude 145° 26' 45". 

9 

LIZARD ISLAND, about three miles long, is remark** 
aUe far its j^eaked summit, tlie latitude of which te 
}4<» 40^ 20", and longitude 145^ 23^: on its soutk side is an 
txtoiaive veef encon^ssing three islets, of which two are 
Wghaqd vocl^; |lie.best %Qehera||e is on its wesltro side 



• \ 



284 APPENDIX. 

A. under the lummit; with the high northeminost of the Di* 
Sect^II* rection Islands in sight over the low land, bearing about 
N. £asl» S.E. by compass : the depth is six and seven fathoms sandj 
'^^ * bottom. The variation here is 5° 2' East 



TURTLE GROUP is four miles to the north of Point Look- 
out ; the islets are encircled by a horse-shoe shaped coral 
reef| and consist of six islands, all low and bushy« These 
islands are not laid down with sufficient accuracy as to their 
relative positions. 

n is a low wooded island about eleven miles west from 
Lizard Island ; no reef was seen to project from it ; it is in 
the meridian of the observatory of Endeavour River; and 
in latitude W 40'. 

O is a small coral reef; it lies a mile and a half N. 64^ W, 
from the north end of 11. 

p is a coral reef» about a mile iu extent, separated from 
O by a channel of a mile wide. 

q, a reefy on which are two low wooded isles, apparently 
connected with a shoal extending from Point Lookout along 
the shore to the W.N.W. ; the isles are seven miles N« 64^ 
W; from Point Lookout, 

COLES ISLANDS consist of four small bushy isleto 
from a quarter to half a mile in extent; they are from four 
to six miles N.E* from Point Murdoch. This group ap« 
peared to be merely the several dry parts of the shoal that 
extends from Point Lookout to Noble Island; between them 
and the latter islands are two patches of dr^ sandy keys» 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 285 

but it u probable that tbey may be covered by the tide. A. 

The continuation of the shoal between the islands and Point ^^* ^^* 

Lookout was not clearly ascertatoed. N. East 

€«ast« 

At POINT MURDOCH^ which has a peaked hUl at its 
extremity^ the hills again approach the coast; at Cape 
Bowen they project into the sea, and separate two bays, in 
each of which there is possibly a rivulet; that to the east* 
ward of the cape trenda in and forms a deep bight* On the 
western side of the hills of Cape Bowen there is a track of 
low land, separating them from another rocky range. The 
imnmit of die hill at Pomt Murdoch is in latitude 14^ 40', 
and longitude 144^ 46'. 

HOWICK'S GROUP consists of ten or eleven bUnds, of 
which No. 1, remarkable for a hillock at its south-east end, 
ia in latitude W 32' 40% and longitude 144'' 55' 20"; it is 
nearly three miles long ; the rest are all less than half a mile 
in extent, excepting the westernmost, No. 6, which is nearly 
a mile and a half in diameter. 

The passage between 2 and 3 is safe, and has seven and 
eight fathoms: the north-west side of. 3 is of rocky ap- 
proach, but the opposite side of the strait is bold to ; the 
anchorage is tolerably good. The Mermaid drove, but 
it was not considered to be caused by the nature of the bot- 
tom, which is of soft sand, and free from rocks. 

The channel between 1 and 2 appeared to be very rocky, 
and shoal : between 1 and the reef r there is probably a 
clear channel of about a mile wide : the north-east end of 1 
has. a reef which extends off it for half a mile. 

* Many shoals, partly dry, occupy .the space to the northward 
and eastward of Howick's Group.— Aoe MS. 



286 AFPfiNinx. 

A. All the itbnds are low and wooded, and tammiided by il 

^^•^^* coral reef of sraaD extent* 

N. £a«t 4. has a small islet off its west end. 

5. 8. and 9. did not appear to have any reefs projectbg 
from iheni. 7 is probably two islands, with a reef ex- 
tending for half a mile on ita western side. 6 is of largef 
size than the generality of the low islands hereabont^ No. U 
Excepted : iu centre is in latitude 14^ 28', and longitude 
144^ 45'. The position of No. 10. was not correctly ascer* 
tained. 

The peak of CAPE BOWEN is in latitude \A? 34!, and 
longitude 144^ 35' 40". 

NOBLE ISLAND is a rock, having ft sandy, or a coral 
beach at its north-west end ; although small it b very 
conspicuous ; and, when first s6en from the Southward, has 
the appearance of a rock with a double rounded top* 

The RxsFs s, ti and U are unconnected; the north end of 
S, lying six miles and a half due east from Point Barrow, 
wfis dry for a considerable extent ; ti one mile to the north, 
was covered ; but there is a dry sandy key on u» bearing from 
Point Barrow, N. 32^ E., six miles : some rocks shewed them- 
selves above the water off its south end* 

V and w may possibly be connected ; the former was 
noticed to extend for three miled, and the latter for nearly 
ten miles ; there was, however, a space of three miles be* 
tween them, where a channel may possibly exist. The 
channels between t and u, and between^ and W* appeared 
to be clear and deep. 

The RxxFs Xi y» and z, are probably parts of the barrier 



sAiLn«ff nntccTioNs. 287 



Twbt fer the sea was breaking tery heavily upon their M 

outer edge ; there were^ however, considerable spaces where ^^^^^ 

no breakers appeared, some of which, being three or four ^ ^^ 
miles wide, may possibly be as many outlets to sea* 



NINIAN BAY it a bight to the west of Point Barrow * i 
it is about three miles deep, and has a small opening at the 
bottom ; in crossing it we had not more water than four &« 
thoms, and within our course it appeared to be very shoal) 
there is doubtless a diannel leading to the opening; but, to 
the name of harbour or port, it has not the slightest pre^ 
tension: it was named Port Ninian by Lieutenant Jeflfreys} 
off the north end of Point Barrow are two rocky islands. 

Between Ninian Bay and Cape Melville the coast is high 
and rocky, but appeared to be fronted by a reef, which in 
some places extends for a mile and a half from the shore ; 
in this interval there are two or three sandy beaches, but I 
doubt the practicability of landing upon them in a boat* 
The summit and sides of the hills that form the promontory, 
of which Cape Melville is the extreme, are of most remark- 
able appearance, being covered with heaps of rounded 
stones of very large sise (vol. i. p. 229.) 

CAPEl MELVILLE, sloping off into the sea to the north, 
terminates this remarkable promontory in latitude 14^9' 30% 
and longitude 144^ 24' 50": the coast trends round it to 
the S.3*W. and S.W., and forms Bathurst Bay, which is 

• Off Point Barrow, the shoals lie from half to one milf 
nearer the shore» than the j are laid down ; and one ndle and three 
quarters N. 55^ E. from the point are two small patches of coral, 
under water ; they bear N.E. and S.W. from each other and are 
probably one tenth of a mile apart,— /{oe MS. 



288 APPENDIX. 

A* nwe miles and a half deep, and thirteen "wide, the western 
^^^' ^^' side being formed by Flinders's Group. A reef extends for 
K. East more than two miles off Cape Melville in a N.W.b.N. di« 
rection, on which some rounded stones, similar to those 
upon the land, are heaped up above the sea : there is also 
one of these heaps at the extremity of fhe reef, outside, 
and within a quarter of a mile of which we iiad fourteen 
fathoms water: there are two other similar heaps within the 
outer pile, and between them there are possibly dear pas* 
sages, but they should not be attempted -without great 
caution. It was remarked that the breeze always freshened 
on passing round this cape. 

PIPON ISLANDS, two small islets, of which the east- 
ernmost 10 the largest, are in latitude 14° G 40*, \ongi* 
tude 144° 26' 5"; they are surrounded by a reef, lying two 
miles and a half from the cape ; between them and the reef 
that extends from the cape, there is a safe and deep passage 
of more than a mile wide. 

The south-east side of Bathurst Bay is shoal. At the 
bottom are two openings, with some projecting land be- 
tween them, at the extremity of which there is a peak; 
these openings are doubtless rivulets of considerable size, 
and take their rise from the high land at the back of Cape 
Bowen. 

FLINDERS'S GROUP forms the west head of Ba(hurst 
Bay ; they are high and rocky, and consist of four islands, 
two of which are three miles long. The peak of the largest 
island, in laUtude 14° 11' S\ and longitude 144° 12' 5", 
is visible from a distance of twelve or thirteen leagues ; 
and the higher parts of the islands may be seen generally at 
seven or eight leagues. 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 289 

On the easteni side of the northernmost island there a.. 

is a bay fronted by a coral reef, but it is too exposed Sect. II. 

to the prevailing winds to be safe. It is here that the N. East 

Frederick (merchant ship) was wrecked in 1818. Coast. 

CAPE FLINDERS, in latitude 14^ 8', longitude 144^ 10' 
20^, is the north extremity of the island ; it may be passed 
dose to with twelve fathoms : the best anchorage is under 
the flat-topped hill, at a quarter of a mile from the shore, in 
ten fathoms mud. The variation is 5^ 20^ E. It is high 
water at lull, and change at a quarter past nine. 

In the offing is a low wooded island of more than a mile 
in diameter. 

CLACK'S ISLAND is a high rock, situated at the south- 
east end of reef b, in latitude 14° 4' 45^, and longitude 
144^ 11' 45", and, being a bare black rock, with no ap- 
parent vegetation, is a conspicuous object: there is another 
rock on its north-east end. (See vol. ii. p. 25.) The reef is 
of circular shape, and three miles in diameter. 

The shoal marked a was not seen by us. H. M. sloop 
Satellite struck upon it in June, 1822, on her passage to 
India. The following marks for it were obligingly commu- 
nicated to me by Captain M. J. Currie, of H. M. sloop 
Satellite, who sent a boat to examine it upon her second 
voyage the following year : — 

'' In crossing the northern part of Bathurst Bay, and 
nearly in mid-channel, between Cape Flinders and the low 
wooded island, there is a small patch of sunken rocks, lying 
north and south, not more than a cable's length in extent, the 
least water being one fathom. The Satellite grounded on 
them in two fathoms, in June, 1822. I sent a boat to ex- 
amine this shoal in making the same passage in August, 

Vol. II. U 



290 APPENDIX. 

A. 1823, and found it to be under the. following bearings (by 
S«^H. compags): viz, Cape Flinders, S.W.b.W.iW.; the high 
N. East peak on the south-east part of Flinders'* Group, S. ^ W.; 
^^*^*' the highest of Clack's Islands, N.W.^W., and Cape MelvUIe, 
£. •§■ S. It is a dangerous shoal in running for Cape Flin- 
ders, but may be easily avoided by steering near the low 
wooded island, to the north-east of the cape, or by keeping 
the shore of Flinders's Group on board, which is perhaps 
preferable. The variation is 5^ 40' East *." 

PRINCESS CHARI^OTTE'S BAY is an extensive bight 
ifi the coast, twenty-two miles deep, and thirty-one broad ; 
its shores are low, and at the bottom, in latitude 14^ 29", 
there is a mangrove opening. 

JANE'S TABLE LAND, in^Iatitude 14° 2V 15% and lon- 
gitude 144° 4' 45'', is a remarkable flat^topped hill at the 
. bottom of the bay, rising abruptly from the surrounding low 
land : it is about five miles from the coast ; its summit, by 
the angle it subtended, is about a mile in length. Excepting 
this hill, no other high land was seen at the bottom of the 
bay. 

On the western side the land rises to a moderate height, 
and forms a bank of about ten miles in extent, but thi? was 
not visible for more than three or four leagues. To the 
north of this no part of the interior can be seen until in 
latitude 13° 55', when the south end of a ridge of hills com- 
mences at about seven miles behind the beach, which it 
gradually approaches until it reaches the coast in 13° 35', 

* The shoal is in a line with, and half way between, the fiat- 
topped hill on the north island of Flinders^s Group, and the centre 
of the low wooded island, and is nearly joined to some sboal-watcr 
that extends for two miles from the latter island.— jRoe MS. 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 291 

and is tenninated by a round hill; the c6Ut then extends A; 

▼ith a low sandy beach for eleven miles to Cape Sidmoutb^ ^^^^' 

V. East 

Oosit« 
C IS a covered reef of coral, extending M.E.b,E« and 

S.W.b.W« for seventeen miles : its south-west end bears 
N. 75^ W., twelve miles and a half, from Cape FIia« 
ders. 

• d» e» and f, are three coral bankSt having dry sandy keys 
on each; they are of circular shape, and from a mile to a 
third of a mile in diameter: d is the largest, and bears 
nearly due-west from Cape Flinders, from which it is distant 
twelve miles and a half.' 

4 

g and h are two coral reefs; but it vras not ascertained 
whether they are connected to each other or not : they may 
also be joined to c, and indeed this supposition is very 
likely to be correct, for we found the water quite smooth, 
and little or no set of tide on passing them. On the south- 
west extremity of g, in latitude 14^ V 20", longitude Ua"" 
50', there is a dry sandy key, as there is also upon h, but 
on the latter there are also rocks, and the sand is dry for 
four or five miles along its north-west side : the south-west 
^d of h is in latitude \dP 59', longitude US'" 49'. 

i is a circular coral reef, of a mile and a quarter in 
diameter, and has a dry sandy key at its north-west end; it 
is two miles N.N.W. from the south-west end of h. 

. k is a small reef with a sandy key upon it, four milet to 
the east of Pelican Island. 

PELICAN ISLAND is on the north»west side of a reef of 

U 2 



292 APPENDIX. 

A. more than a mile and a half long; it is very small, but 

" remarkable for having two clumps of trees, which at a dis-' 

N. East tance give it the appearance of being two small islets; it 

is lowy and, like the other islands of its character, may^be 

seen at ten xhiles from the deck: its latitude is 13^ 54' 45'', 

and longitude 143^ 46'. (See vol i. p. 379.) 

1 is a long narrow coral reef, extending in a N.N.E. di- 
rection; it is thirteen miles in extent, but generally not more 
than one^third of a mile wide ;-its greatest width is not more 
than a mile and a half; its south-west end is five miles and 
(hree-quarters north from Pelican island. 

m is an extensive coral reef, extending for fifteen miles in 
N.E.b.N. direction, parallel with I, . from which it is se- 
parated by a channel of from one to two miles wide. At its 
south-west end, where there is an extensive dry sandy key, 
and some dry rocks, it is two miles wide ; but towards its 
northern end it tapers away to the breadth of a quarter of 
a mile. The south trend of its south-west end lies seven 
miles N. 44^ W. from Pelican Island, and four miles from 
Island 2 of Claremont Isles. 

n is another extensive reef, which may possibly be con- 
nected with m. At its westernmost end, about four miles 
N.b.£.|£. from the west end of m., is a dry sand of small 
extent. 

It was considered probable that there was a safe passage 
between the reefs I and m. We steered so far as to see the 
termination of the latter, upon which the sea was breakings 
which afforded a proof of its not being connected with the* 
former, which also the dark colour of the water sufficiently 
indicated. 



8A1UNC DIRBCTI0N8. 293 

The Mermaid was nearly lost in attempting to cross the A* 
latter reef. (Vol. i. p. 381.) . S«ct^IL 

N.^Esst 

CLAREMONT ISLES consist of five small isleU, nam- ^^^' 
bered from 1 to 5; they are of coral formation, and are 
covered with small brush-wood ; they are from six to seven 
miles s^art, excepting 4 and 5, which are separated by a 
channel only a mile and a half wide : off the east and south- 
east epd of 5, a coral reef extends for a mile and a half to 
the eastward, having two dry rocks on its north-east end. 

Latitude. Longitude. 

Claremont Isle, No. 1, in 13° 56' 20",' 143° 40' 30* 

2 13 51 30, 143 37 30 

3 13 46 45, 143 33 20 

4 13 40 00, 143 36 20. 

Reef o extends in an. east and west direction for a mile 
and a half, and at a mile farther there is another reef, that 
may be connected to it; O has a dry sand near its western 
extremity, in latitude 13° 34', and longitude 143° 38' 45". 

Islet 6, in latitude 13° 29', longitude 143° 38' 26", is a 
Tery small, low, woody islet, with a reef extending for three- 
quarters of a mile off its north and south ends. 

A reef lies two miles and one-third N. 72^° W. from 
islet 6, and S. 59° E. from the summit of Cape Sidmouth; 
this reef is not more than a quarter of a mile in extent, and 
Jtas a rock in its centre, that is uncovered at half tide ; it is a 
brown looking shoal, and therefore of dangerous approach. 

Off ROUND HILL there is a sand-bank covered by the 
sea; it lies about two miles from the shore, and about 
£.N.£. from Round HiU summitt 



294 APPENDIX. 

A. q is a small, brown, rocky shoal, that is not visible until 

ficct^n. ^i^jgg ^ j^. j^ jjg^j^ § gQo £^ fy^^ n^jigg fj^m |1j3 extremity 

N. Bast of Cape Sidmouth. 
Coast ^ 

CAPE SIDMOUTH is rather an elevated point, having 
higher land behind it ; and at about nine miles in the in- 
terior, to the W.N.W.y there is a rounded summit : at the 
extremity of the cape there are two remarkable lumps on the 
land, in latitude 13^ 24' 20", and longitude 143^ 30'. The 
cape is fronted by several rocky shoals, and ought not to be 
approached within four miles. 

r is a sand-bank, on which we had two and a half fa- 
thoms ; but from the nature of the other neighbouring reefs, 
S and t, it is perhaps rocky also, and may be connected with 
them. It lies four miles and a quarter N. 32^ E. from Cape 
Sidmouth, and W. ^ N. from islet 7. 

6 1 and 7 are two bare sandy islets, situated at the north 
ends of reefs extending in a N.N.W. direction ; the reef off 
the islet 6^ is four miles and a half in length, and that off 
7 is two miles and a half long : 6^ is in latitude 13^ 23' 20% 
longitude 143'' 39' 30'; 7> in latitude W 2V 20% and lo^• 
gitude 143° 36' 10'. 

8 and 9 are two low, woody islets of about a mile and a 
quarter in diameter. Some shoal marks on the water were 
observed opposite these islands, but their existence was not 
ascertained. Both the islets are surrounded by coral reefs^ 

of small extent. 

NIGHT ISLAND, its north end in latitude 13° 13' 8", 
^nd longitude 143° 28' 40", is a low Woody island, two 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 295 

miles long^, but not more than half a mile wide ; it is sur- A. 
rounded by a coral reef, that does not extend more than a ^ 
quarter of a mile from its northern end. On the south side, ^* S<Mt 
and within it, the space seemed to be much occupied by 
reefs, but they were not distinctly made out, on account of 
the thickness of the weather. There was also the appear- 
ance of a covered shoal, bearing N. 55^ E. from the north 
end of the island, distant four miles *. 

U and w are two reefs ; the former, which Kras dry when 
we passed, lies six miles N. 18^ W. from the north end Of 
Night Island ; there is also a small rock detached from it, 
which is not visible until close to it. 

Y is a covered coral reef, of about a mile and a quarter in 
extent; its centre is in 13^ T latitude. 

SHERRARD'S ISLETS are low and bushy, and sur- 
rounded by a rocky shoal extending for a mile to the 
S.E. ; the south- westernmost is in 12° 58' 10" latitude, and 
1429 30' 15' longitude. 

10 is a low wooded islet, in latitude 12° 53' 10", on a 
reef of small extent ; abreast of it is a rocky islet, lying 
about a mile and a half south from CAPE DIRECTION ; 
off its east end is a smaller rock. 

The coast between Cape Sidmouth and Cape Direction is 
rather high, and the shore is formed by a sandy beach. Ten 
miles N.W. from the former cape is an opening in the hills ; 
the high land then continues to the northward to Cape Di- 

* Observed mauy shoals to the N.W. of Night Island ; one 
bore E.N.E., two miles and a half from its north point ; we saw 
much shoal water to seaward. — Roe MS. 



296 APPENDIX. 

A, rectioD, which has a peak near its extremity, close off which 
^!!L. ^® ^^^ small rocks, but the depth at a mile and a half off is 
N. East tbirteeen fathoms. The peak is in latitude 12^ 51' 5&\ and 
' longitude 143^ 26' 10" ♦. 

X ; the position of this reef was not precisely ascertained; 
it appeared to be about two miles to the N.N.W. of the ex- 
tremity of the cape. 

y and z are two covered reefs, of not more than a mile in 
extent ; they are separated from each other by a channel a 
mile wide: y is four miles and a half N. 51^ £. from Cape 
Direction. 

a and b are also covered reefs; the former is a mile and a 

quarter in length ; the latter extends for two miles in an east 

direction, and is a mile broad: a bears nearly east, nine 

. miles, from a peaked hill on the shore, and is five miles to 

the south of Cape Weymouth. 

LLOYD'S BAY was not examined ; it appeared to have a 
considerable opening at ils south-west end, where the land 
was very low ; the hilly country to the south of Cape Direc- 
tion also ceasesy and there is a considerable space of low land 
between them and the south end of Cape Weymouth range. 

CAPE WEYMOUTH is an elevated point, sloping off 

from a high summit; its extreme is in latitude 12^ 37' 15", 

and longitude 143° 20' 35". Restoration Islakd, off 

■ the cape, is high, and of conical shape; about a mile 

£.S.£. from it is a small rocky islet. The coast then ex- 

• Shoal water extends for about six miles round the north side 
of Cape Direction. — Roe MS, 



SAIIiNG DIRECTIONS. 297 

tends towards Bolt Hekd, and fonns several sinnosities, one A. 

of which is Wbtmouth Bat of Captain Cook; the shores ^^*^^' 

of the bay were not well examined*. N. East 

Coast 

FAIR CAPE, so named by Lieutenant Bligh, is a pro- 
jection of high land, in latitude 12^ 25', Ion. 143» 11' 15": 
it has a reef off it according to Lieutenant Jeffrey's ac- 
count, but its situation does not appear to have been cor- 
rectly ascertained : we did not see it. 

• BOLT HEAD is the north-west end of the high land 
at the south end of Temple Bat. It -is here that the high 
land terminates ; the coast to the northward being very low 
and sandy; with the exception of CAPE GRENVILLE, 
which is the rocky projection that forms the north extre- 
mity of Temple Bay. A little to the south of the cape is 
Ikdiah Bat of Lieutenant Bligh. The latitude of Cape 
Orenville's east trend is 11^ ST 30'', its longitude 143^ V. 

C IS a coral reef, with a dry sandy key at its northern 
end, in laUtude 12® 35' 20', longitude 143® 25' 15''; it is 
about two miles long. 

dy a small oval-shaped reef in the channel between q 
and e: it is covered, and has perhaps twelve feet water 
over it 

e is an extensive coral reef, fourteen miles long, com* 
mendng in latitude 12® 32|', and extending to 12® 24'; and 
in longitude 143® 16': it is entirely covered, except a few dry 
rocks at its north-west end : the south-eastern extremity of 

* There is a diy sand four or five miles N.W. from Cape Wey- 
mouth.— ^/{oe MS. 



298 APPENDIX. 

A. the reef is perhaps three or four miles wide, but its eastern 
B eet. I I. termination was not clearly distinguished, 
N. East 

^^^**^ f is a small reef, about three miles S.W. from QUOIN 
ISLAND, which is a small wedge-shaped rock : it is in the 
neighbouriiood of this reef that the merchant ship. Morning 
Star, was lost. Quoin Island is in latitude 12^ 24', and 
longitude 143"" 23' 50\ 

g is a coral reef, ten miles long, and from one to two broad ; 
having a dry rock upon it, (in latitude 12^ 18' 20", and lon- 
gitude 143^ 14' 35%) about three miles from its north end. 

FORBES'S ISLANDS are high and rocky, but appeared 
to be clothed with vegetation ; the group occupies a space 
of about two mileft. The summit of Forbes's Island is in 
latitude 12° 16' 35% and longitude 143® 18' 50". 

h, a coral reef, with some dry rocks near its north end, 
is about one mile long, and separated from i by a narrow 
pass. The south end of h bears from the summit of Forbes's 
Island W. ^ S. seven miles. 

i and k, coral reefs, lying N.W., having a very narrow 
channel between them ; the former is covered, but the lattet 
has a dry sandy key at its north-west end, in lat 12® 12' 20^, 
and longitude 143° 10' 5". 

PIPER'S ISLETS are four low bushy islets upon tw6 
circular reefs, with a passage separating them of a quarter 
of a mile wide ; the reefs have each two islets upon them, 
and a dry rocky key round their western edge: the centre of 
the narrowest part of the channel between them is twelve 



SAIUNG DIRECnONS. 299 

and a half fathoms deep, but abreast the sooth end of the A. 

soutfa-easteromost shoal there is teo and a half fathoms. ^ ^* 

N.£aat 

1, a circular coral reef, a mile and a half in diameter, 
with a dry rock at its east end, in latitude 12^ 9' S\ and 
longitude 143<> 1 r. 

YOUNG ISLAND, a small islet on a coral reef of about 
half a mile in extent, in latitude 12^ 6' 50 "^ and. longitude 
143^7'. (See Vol i. p. 236.) 

m, a coral reef, about two and a half miles long, having a 
dry rock at its north end ; it bears S. 40° W,, three miles 
from the summit of Haggerston's Island. 

n, an extensive, irregular-shaped, coral reef, seven miles 
long, and from one to four broad; it is separated from 
O by a narrow tortuous channel, but not safe to pass 
through : both n and o are covered. There is a safe pas- 
sage between these reefs and Haggerston's Island, of a 
mile and a half wide; but there is a small reef detached 
from the north-west end of n, which should be avoided, 
although there is probably sufficient depth of water over it 
for any ship : it was seen from the summit of the island, 
from whence another coral patch was observed at about one 
mile to the westward, of which we saw no signs. 

p is a small reef, of about a mile and a quarter in extent; 
it was seen from the summit of Haggerston's Island* as was 
also another reef, seven miles S.b.E. from it: the positions 
of these reefs are doubtful. 

HAGGERSTON'S ISLAND is high and rocky ; the sum- 
mit is in latitude 12'' 1' 40'', and longitude 143"^ 12'; it is 
situated at the S.S.\V. extremity of a coral reef, of nearly 



300 APPENDIX. 

A. two miles in length ; its northern side is furnished with some 
Sect^u, ^pggg gQ J ^ sandy beach. At the north end of the reef are 
N. Eitst two dry patches of sand and rocks. It is separated from 
the islands of Sir Everard Home's Groap by a channel 
nearly three miles wide, quite free from danger ; . but in 
passing through it, the tide or current sets to the N.N.W., 
round the reef off Haggerston's Island. (See Vol. i. p. 382.) 

SIR EVERARD HOMES GROUP consisU of six islands : 
the two south-westernmost are rocky, and one of them has 
two peaks upon it, which, from the southward, have the ap- 
pearance of being upon the extremity of Cape Grenville : the 
south-easternmost has a hillock, or clump of trees, at its 
south-east extremity, in latitude 1 1^ 57' 40", and longitude 
143° ir. The outer part of this group is bold to, and the 
islands may be approached, but the space within them ap- 
peared to be rocky : there is a passage between the group 
and Cape Grenyille. The merchant ship Lady Elliot in 
passing through it, found overfalls with eighteen fathoms* 

Round Cape Grenville is MARGARET BAY, fronted by 
Sunday Island, el^ated and rocky, but not so high as 
Haggerston's Island, with good anchorage under its lee. 

q is a covered reef, of about a mile in extent, in latitude 
1 1° 55', five or six miles to the E.N.E. of Sir Everard Home's 
Group. 

SIR CHARLES HARDY'S ISLANDS are high and rocky, 
and. may be seen five or six leagues off;, the summit is in 
latitude 1 1° 53' 2J0", and longitude 143^ 23' 40". 

r is a covered reef; and S, a reef, with a dry sandy key 
upon it« 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 301 

COCKBURN ISLES are rocky, and may be seen four A. 
leagues off*. Seet^II. 

N. East 

t and u are two reefs that were seen at a distancei and 
appeared to be detached from each other. 

BIRD ISLES (the Lagoon Islands of Lieutenant Blig^) 
consist of three low bushy islets encompassed by a reef: the 
islands are at the outer verge of the reef, and may be passed 
within a quarter of a mile; the north-east island is in latitude 
1 1® 44' 15% and longitude 142*» 58' 45". 

Mc. ARTHUR'S ISLES consist of four low bushy islets, 
of which two are very small ; they are encompassed by a 
reef of more than three miles loug, and are separated from 
the Bird Isles by a channel three miles and a half wide. 

HANNIBAL'S ISLBS are three in number, low and co- 
vered with bushes, the easternmost is near the extremity of 
the reef encircling the whole, and is in latitude 11® 34' 15% 
and longitude UV 51' 20 f/' 

y and w ; these shoals are separated by a safe chaoncl of a 
mfle and a quarter wide ; y is circular, and has a dry sand 
at its north-west edge, and a rocky key at its south-west 
end ; the channel between it and Hannibal's Islands is two 
miies and a half wide : w is nearly four miles long» and is 
entirely covered ; the course between them is west, but, by 

* There is a dry sand bearing S.W.b.W.{W., two miles and a 
half from the southernmost Gockbum Island, and there are many 
shoals of great extent to the northward of the group.— /{oe 3fjSf. 

t There is a dry sand at one mile and three-quarters, and another 
at two miles and a half N.N.W, from North Hannibal Island. 



302 AFPENOrX. 

A. hauling close round the east end of v^ a W.b.N^N. course 
^ * will carry a yessel a quarter of a mile to leeward of the 

l^Eafit ^gg^ gQjj Qf ^ . ^jjg north-west extreme of W is three miles 
C/osst. 

and a quarter S. 35^ W. from Islet 1. 

The islets 1 and 2 are contained in a triangular-shaped 
reefy of about a mile and three quarters in extent; they are 
covered with low trees. Islet 1 is in latitude 11^ 28' 45". 
No. 3 is a sandy islet crowned with bushes at the north-west 
end of a coral reef of about a mile and a half in length. fte« 
tween the two latter reefs there appeared to be a channel of 
a mile wide in the direction of about N.W. 4, 5, and 6, are 
sandy islets corered with bushes, on small detached reefs, with, 
apparently, a passage between each : 4 is in lat. 11^ 22' 30'^ 
7, a small bushy island *, is separated from CAIRNCROSS 
ISLAND by a channel two miles wide. The latter is a 
small woody island, situated at the north-west end of a 
coral reef, more than two miles long and one broad; the 
north-west point of the reef runs off with a sharp point for 
about a quarter of a mile from the islet There is 
goo(!f anchorage under it, but the depth is fifteen fathoms, 
and the sea is rather heavy at times with the tide setting 
against the wind ; the latitude of its centre is 1 P 33' 30", and 
its longitude 142** 50' 35". (See vol. i. p. 388, & ii. p. 29.) 

8, 9, and 10, are low, woody islets: 8 is five miles to the 
eastward of Caimcross Island; 9 and 10 are to the north* 
ward of 8. 

1 1 is also low and woody, but its position was not clearly 
ascertained. 

* A rocky reef extends for two miles to the southward of islet 7. 
— /{oe MS. 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 303 

! ORFORDNESS is a sandy projection of the coast under A. 

Pudding-pan Hill (of BUgh), the shape of which> being flat- Sect^ll. 

topped, u very remarkable : the hiU is in latitude ll"" 18' 30^ ^- ^>^ 

and longitude 142^ 43' 35*. ^^ 

The country between Cape Grenrille and Cape York is 
low and sandy, with but few sinuosities in its coast line : 
it is exposed to tlie trade wind, which often blows with 
great strength, from S.E. and S.£.b.E. 

ESCAPE RIVER, in lO"" 57^', is an opening in the land 
of one mile va breadth, trending in for two or three miles, 
when it turns to the north, and is concealed from the view ; 
the land on the north side of the entrance is probably an 
island, for an opening was observed in Newcastle Bay, trend- 
ing to the south, which may communicate with the river. The 
entrance is defended by a bar, on which the Mermaid was 
nearly lost (Vol. i. p. 239.) The deepest channel may 
probably be near the south head, which is rocky. The banks 
on the south side are wooded, and present an inviting aspect. 

NEWCASTLE BAY is nine miles in extent by six deep; 
its shores are low, and apparently of a sandy character ; at 
the bottom there is a considerable opening bearing W.^N* 
eight miles and a half from Turtle Island. 

Off the south head of the bay is TURTLE ISLAND, 
a small rocky islet on the east side of an extensive reef, « 
in latitude lO"" 54', and longitude 142'' 38' 40^^ ; it is sepa- 
rated by a channel three miles wide from reef x,. which has 
a dry sand at its north end, in latitude 10^ 53', and lon« 
gitude 142o 42', it has also some dry rocks and a mangrove 
bush on the inner part of its south end. 



304 APPENDIX. 

X^ Four miles to the north of x are two shoals y and Zt both 

Sect. 11. of which are covered ; y is two miles and a half long, and 
N. East z three miles and a quarter ; neither of them appeared to be 

'^" * a mile in width ; the north-west end of Z» when in a line 
with Mount Adolphus, bears N. 19® W. 

Off the north head of Newcastle Bay, which forms the 
south-east trend of the land of Cape York, is a g^oup of high 
rocky islands, ALBANY ISLES; and immediately off the 
point is a reef, which extends for about a mile ; half a mile 
without its edge, we had ten fathoms. 

The islets 12, 13, and 15, were only seen at a distance. 

THE BROTHERS, so called in Lieutenant Bligh's chart, 
are two high rocks upon a reef. 

ALBANY ISLES contain six islands, of which one only 
is of large size ; the easternmost has a small peak, and a reef 
extends for less than a quarter of a mile from it; the peak is 
in latitude lO"" 43' 45', and longitude 142"" 35' 5". 

YORK ISLES is a group about seven miles from the 
main land ; the principal island, which is not more than two 
miles long, has a very conspicuous flat-topped hill upon 
it, Mount Adolpuus*, in latitude 10° 38' 20'', and 
longitude 142° 36' 25". Off the south-east end of this 
island are two rocky islets, the southernmost of which is 
more than a mile distant ; the northern group of the York 
Isles are laid down from Captain Flinders. 

CAPE YORK, the northernmost land of New Soudi 
Wales, has a conical hill, half a mile within its extremity, 

* There is a bay on the west side of Mount Adolphus, but it ap- 
peared shoal.— J2o« MS* 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 305 

! 

the situation of which is in lO"" 42' 40" S., and 142® 28' 50" A. 

E. of Greenwich. There is also an island close to the point ^^^ ^* ' 

with a conical hill upon it, which has perhaps been hitherto N. East 

taken for the cape ; from which it is separated by a shoal strait 

half a mile wide; the latitude of the sammit is 10® 41' 35", 

and longitude. 142® 28' 26". From this island a considerable 

shoal extends to the westward for six miles towards a peaked 

hill on the extremity of a.pomt. In the centre of this shoal 

are some dry rocks. 

At the distance of nearly five miles from the above island 
is the rocky islet a, in latitude 10® 36' 50", and longitude 
142® 27' 45"; it is of small size, and surrounded by deep 
water; and, being easily seen from the strait between Cape 
York and the York Isles, serves to direct the course. 

POSSESSION ISLES consist of nine or ten islets, of 
which 2 and 7 only are of large size, and neither of these 
are two miles long; they are also higher than the others. 
No. 1 is a small conical hill; 2 is hummocky; 3, 4, and 
6, are very small ; 5 makes with a hollow in its centre, like 
the seat of a saddle. The passage between 2 and the small 
islets 3 and 4 is the best; there is six and seven fathoms 
water ; but in passing this, it must be recollected that the 
tide s^ts towards the islands on the northern side. 

ENDEAVOUR STRAIT is on the south side of Prince 
of Wales's Islands: a shoal extends from Cape Cornwall 
Oatitude 10® 45' 45% longitude 142® 8' 35",) to the west- 
ward, and is probably connected with a strip of sand that 
stretches from Wallis's Isles to Shoal Gape. We crossed 
it with the cape bearing about East, when the least depth 

Vol. II. X 



306 APPENDIX. 

^^ wfts foar fathoms ; but on many parts there are not moR 

Bect^IL than three fathoms. Variation 5^ 38' W. 

N.Eait 

^^•*- PRINCE OF WALES'S ISLANDS are much intersected 
by straits and openings, that are very little known; there 
was an appearance of a good port, a little to the S.W. of 
HoRKKD Hill, (latitude 10"^ 36' 35", longitude 142^ 15',) 
which may probably communicate with Wolfs Bay; the 
strait to the south of Wednesday Island also offers a good 
port in the eastern entrance of some rocky islands and 
Without them is the rock b* with some sunken dangers 
near it 

WEDNESDAY ISLAND ; iU north end, in lat 10» 30' ICT, 
and longitude 143^ 15', may be approached close, but a con* 
siderable shoal stretches off its western side, the greater part 
of which is dry. 

Off Hahhokd's Islakd is a high, conspicuous rock, 
bearing W. j^S., and fire miles and three-quarters from the 
north end of Wednesday Island. Captain Flinders passed 
through the strait separating Wednesday Island from Ham* 
mond's Islands, and had four, five, and six fathoms. 

Abreast of the strait separating Goon's Islakd from the 
latter is the reef C, on which are several dry rocks, but 
abreast of it, and one mile and one quarter from it, it the 
reef d *, which is generally covered ; the latter bears S* 75* W. 

• d consists of three small detached patches, that extend fitrdier 
off than is at first observed. There is also a narrow strip of racks 
extending for a shprt distance off the north-east end of the reef off 
Hammond's IsUnd.— -Roe MS, 



SAIUNO DIRECTIONS* 307 

three miles and a quarter from the rock off Hammond's A. 
Island, and about N. 45® W. two and a quarter miles from Sect^U. 
the openings between Good and Hammond's Island ; the N- £sst 
marks for ayoiding it are giren in the sailing-directions. 

Abreast of Wednesday, Hammond, and Good's Islands, 
is the NoBTH-wEST RsBf , an extensive coral bank, many 
parts of which are dry ; it is ten or eleven miles long; the 
channel between it and the islands is from one mile and 
three-quarters to two miles and a quarter wide. 

BOOBY ISLAND (latitude of its centre 10° 36', lon- 
gitude 141® 52' 500 is ft sinaU rocky islet of scarcely a 
third of a mile in diameter ; its south-west end has a shoal 
projecting from it for half a mile, but its other sides are bold 
to. In a N. 70° £. direction from it, at the distance of two 
miles and three-quarters, is a sand bank with three fathoms ; 
it was discovered by the ships Claudine and Mary, on 
their passage through Torres' Strait, when it was named 
Laepevt's Bakk*. 



SECTION III. 



DESCRIPTION OP THE WINDS AND WEATHER, AND OF 

THE PORTS AND COAST BETWEEN W£SSEL*S 

ISLANDS AND CLARENCE STRAIT. 

IN the |iea that separates the land of New Guinea and the 
islands of Timor Laoet and Arroo from the north coast of 
Australia, the winds are periodical, and are called the east 

• It is near the west end of a shoal of five miles in length, ex- 
tencBng hi an east and west direction, a few feet only below the 
surface of tile waJter.**JIoe MS* 

X s 



308 APPENDIX. 

A. and west moQioODS, for such is their direction in the mid- 
Se ct, i n. jgj^ -^^j ^g Coast of New HoHand the regularity of 

N. CoMt these winds is partly suspended by the rarefied state of 
the atmosphere; this produces land and sea-breezes, but the 
former are principally from the quarter from which the winds 
are blowing in the mid sea. The usual course of the winds 
near the coast in* the months of April, May, and June, is 
as follows: after a calm night, the land-wind springs up 
at daylight from South or S.S.£. ; it then usually freshens, 
but, as the sun gets higher, and the land becomes heated, 
gradually decreases. At noon the sea-wind rushes in to- 
wards the land, and generally blows fresh from £ast; at 
sunset it veers to the N.E., and falls calm, which lasts 
the whole night, so that if a ship, making a course, does 
not keep at a moderate distance from the land, she is 
subject to delay; she would not, however, probably hare 
so fresh a breeze in the day time. Later in the season of 
the easterly monsoon, in August, September, and October, 
. calms are frequent, and the heat is sultry and oppressive; 
this weather sometimes lasts for a fortnight or three weeks 
at a time. The easterly monsoon commences about the ist 
of April, with squally rainy weather, but, in a week or ten 
days, settles to fine weather and steady winds in the ofiing, 
and regular land and sea breezes, as above described, 
near thie coast. It ceases about the latter end of November 
or early part of December; the westerly monsoon may then 
be expected to blow strong, and perhaps with regularity. 

This is the rainy season, and is doubtless an unwhole- 
some time ; Captain Flinders's crew experienced much sick- 
ness in his examination of the Gulf of Carpentaria during 
this monsoon, but, when upon the western side of the gulf, 
he tliought that the fine weather then experienced might be 
occasioned by the monsoon's blowing over the land. In 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 309 

January and February the monsoon is at its strength, bnt A« 
declines towards the end of the latter month, and in Marcl) ^^^' ^^^* 
becomes variable, with dark, cloady, and unsettled weather; ^* Cosst, 
the wind is theti generally from the S.W., but not at all 
regular. 

The current sets with the wind, and seldom exceeds 
a knot or a knot and a half per hour ; between Capes 
Wessel and Van Diemen it is not stronger, and its course 
ID the easterly monsoon, when only we had any experience 
of it, was West : the strength is probably increased or dimi* 
nished by the state of the wind. 

The tides are of trifling consequence ; the flood comes from 
the eastward, but rarely rises more than ten feet, or runs so 
much as a mile and a half per hour. High water takes place 
at full and change at Liverpool River, and Goulbum Island 
at six o'clock, at the entrance of the Alligator Rivers in Van 
Diemen's Gulf, at 8h 15', and at the south end of Apsley 
Strait at 3h 25**. The flood-tide comes from the eastward, 
excepting when its course is altered by local circumstances ; 
the rise is not more than eleven feet at the springs. 

The variation of the compass in this interval is scarcely 
afiected by the ship's local attraction. Off Cape Wessel it 
is between 3^ and 4^ £ast; at Liverpool River about 1|^ 
East, at Goulbum Islands 2o East, and off Cape Van Die* 
men, not more that 1^^ East. 

The dip of the south end of the needle at Goulbum Island 
was 27« 32^'. 

When the survey of the Gulf of Carpentaria was com* 
pleted by Captain Flinders, his vessel proved to be so unfit 

* In St. Asaph's Bay, Lieutenant Roe found high-water take 
place at full and change at Sh 45' ; and in King^s Cove at 5h IJ^ ^ a^ 
the latter plac^ it rose fourteen feet. 



310 APPENDIX. 

A. , for continuing the examination of the north coait» that it was 
Sect III, found necessary to return to Port Jackson ; and as he left 
N. Coast, it at the strait that separates Point Dale from Weasel's 
Islands, \vhich is called in my chart BaowN^s Strait, he 
saw no part of the coast to the westward of that point, nor 
did he even see Cape Wessel, the extremity of the range of 
Wessel's Islands, which terminate in latitude 10^ 59|', and 
longitude 135° 46' 30". The group consists of four islands, 
besides some of smaller size to the southward of the north* 
ernmost, and also a few on the eastern side of Brown's Strait; 
one of which is Cunningham's Island, of Captain Flinders. 
Ct7MBBRLAKD Strait IS in latitude 11^ 25\ longitude 
135° 31'. 

Point Dale, unless it is upon an island, appears to be 
the east extremity of the north coast; its latitude is 11^ 36', 
longitude 135^ 9': there are several rocky islands of small 
size, lying off, encompassed by a reef, which extends for eight 
miles N.N.E.^E. from the point. In Brown's Strait the tide 
setfi at the rate of three and a half and four miles per hour; 
the flood runs to the southward through the strait. To the 
westward of Point Dale the coast extends for about sixty 
miles to the south-west to Castlereagh Bay ; in which space 
there are several openings in the beach, that are probably 
small rivers: one, ten miles to the S.W., may be a strait 
insulating Point Dale, and communicating with Amhem 
Ba. 

CASTLEREAGH BAY is forty miles wide, by about 
eighteen deep ; it is fronted by a group of straggling islands 
of low coral formation, crowned with small trees and bushes; 
the centre of the northernmost islet is in latitude 11^ 41' 50", 
longitude 134<' 10' 5\ To the eastward of Cape Stewart,* 
the western head of the bay, the coast is very much in- 



SAIUNG DIRfXTTIONS. 311 

dtnted, aii4 probably contains iev«ral openings or rivuleto A. 
particularly two at the bottom of the bay. The beach is Sactjll. 
generally sandy, with rocky points, and the shore is wooded N. Coast, 
to the beach ; the interior was in no part visible over the 
coast hills, which are very low and level. 

From the extremity of Cape Stewart, which is in^ lati- 
tude 11^ 56', and longitude 13^ 48', a reef extends to the 
W.b.N.|N. for eight miles and a half; having, at a mile 
within the extremity, a low sandy key, with a small dry 
rock half a mile to the eastward. £very other part of the 
reef is covered. 

To the westward of Cape Stewart is a sandy bay nearly 
eleven leagues in extent, but not more than seven deep; 
near its western end there is a small break in the beach, but 
it did not appear to be of any consequence. 

The extreme point of this bight is the eastern bead of 
LIVERPOOL RIVER, whose entrance is to the westward 
of Haul-round Islet ; which, as well as Entrance Island, is 
connected to the above point by a shoal. Haul-round 
Islet is in latitude 11^ 54', and longitude 134'' 14' ; Entrance 
Island is in latitude 1 1"" 57', and longitude 134"" 14' 50'. 

The entrance is from one and a quarter to two miles 
wide. The reef extends for half a mile from Haul-round 
Islet, close without which the water is deep, the least depth 
in the entrance is five and three-quarter fathoms ; and, in 
some parts tKere are thirteen and fourteen fathoms : at seven 
miles within Haul-round Islet, the depth decreases to four 
fathoms, and then gradually shoals to three ; after which it 
varies in the channel of the river to between nine and twelve 
feet at low water. A bar crosses the river at the low man* 
grove island, over which there is not mure than three feet at 
low water ; but, as the ti^e rises more than eight feet at the 



312 APPENDIX. 

At springs, vessels drawing ten or eleven feet may proceed up 
fiectjn. ^^ ^gj 

N. Co^st. The'stream runs ina very tortuoas course for upwards of 
forty miles, but as our examination was unassisted by b<!ar« 
ings or observations, it is laid down from an eye sketch. 

POINT BRAITHWAITE, in latitude 11^ 45' 50", and 
longitude 133^ 5S 20^ is twenty miles to the westward of 
Haul-round Islet ; to the southward of it is Junction Bay, 
which was not examined. 

For the next thirty miles the coast is very much indented^ 
and has some deep bays on either side of Point Barclay, as 
also one to the eastward of Point Turner, at the bottom of 
which an opening, a mile in width, is probably a river. 
Here alsothe feature of the coast is altered, being low and 
level to the eastward as far as Point Dale, without a hill or 
rising ground in the interior to relieve its monotonous ap- 
pearance. 'At this place, however, a range of rocky hills, 
Wellington Range, commences, of about twenty miles in 
extent: five miles behind it is the Tor, (latitude 11^ 54', 
and longitude 133^ 10' 20^^ a solitary pyramidal rock; and 
seveji miles and a quarter W.b.S. from the latter is a peak- 
topped hill. 

The two latter are apparently unconnected with the range, 
on which there are four remarkable ridges, of which the 
two westernmost are the most remarkable. 

GOULBURN ISLANDS consist of two islands, each 
being about twenty miles in circumference ; they are sepa- 
rated from each other by a rocky strait three miles wide, 
which in most parts is deep enough for a ship of any 
size to pass through ; the latitude of the centre of this strait 
is 11^ 32'. Macqu^rie Strait separates the southernmost 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 313 

from the main, and is nearly two miles across : the depth a* 
in mid-channel being eighteen fathoms : the latitude of Re- "*' . 
taliation Point, which is on the northern side of the strait, N. Gout, 
is in IP ^9^ 

SOUTH WEST BAY affords good anchorage in five and 
six fathoms at a mile from the shore, and vessels may anchor 
at a quarter of a mile off the beach in three fathoms muddy 
bottom. 

At the north end of the bay are the Bottle Rocks sepa- 
rated from the point by a channel two and a quarter fathoms 
deep. The Bottle Rock was on^ of our fixed points, and is 
pkced in latitude IP 37' 24", and longitude Ids'" 19' 40". 
The bay affords a convenient place for wooding and water- 
ing; the latter may be had during the early months of the 
dry season, (as late as August) from a drain at the base 
of the Pipe Clay Cliffs at the north end of the bay. There 
are also some holes on Sims Island that contain water for 
a much later period. The holes have been made by the 
Malays for the purpose of collecting it 

MULLET BAY is on the west side of the north island, 
affording good anchorage in the easterly monsoon in six 
and seven fathoms mud, at a mile from the shore. The 
flood-tide here sets to the eastward, and it is high water 
at full and change in the strait at six o'clock ; the rise of 
the tide is not more than five or six feet. The north-east 
point of North Gonlburn Island is in latitude 11^ 26', lon- 
gitude 133® 26'. 

From Macquarie Strait the land trends to the westward, 
and north-westward to De Courcy Head, and forms but few 
smuosities. Point Broodek, in latitude 11® 30', the only 
projection in this space, is remarkable for being higher than 



314 APPENDIX. 

A. usual, and for having a range of cliffs to the sou&ward of 
Sect IIL. ^^ p^jjj^ . ^^ ^ solitary tree near its extremity, hence the 
N. Coast, land is rocky towards De Courcy Head, which is a difiy 
projection in latitude 1 P 17' 30" ; thence the shore continues 
rocky to Cape Cockbum, a low rocky point, with a conspi- 
cuous tree at its extremity. • The point is wooded to within 
a short distance of the sea, as is generally the case with the 
shores of this coast CapeCockburk is in latitude 11^ 18', 
and longitude 132*^ 63' 5". 

MOUNTNORRIS BAY extends between Cape Cock- 
bum and Cape Croker, it is twenty-eight miles wide, and 
twenty«three deep. It contains several islands, and is also 
iVonted by a group, of which New Year's Island, the lati- 
tude of whose centre is 10^ 55\ and longitude 133^ 0' 36", 
is the outermost; the others are named Oxley, Lawson, 

,M*Cluer, Grant, Templer, and Cowlard. They are straggling, 
and have wide and apparently deep channels between them. 
Between New Year's and M'Cluer's Islands, the channel is 
nearly eight miles wide and eighteen and nineteen fathoms 
deep. A reef extends off the north-west end of the latter 
island for nearly three miles, and the ground is rocky and 
shoal for some distance off the north<»east end of Oxley's 
Island. Grant's Island is higher than the others, which are 
merely small woody islets, the centre is in 11^ 10'. 

At the north-east end of Mountnorris Bay is Malay 
Bat, which is four miles wide and six deep ; it affords good 
anchorage in four and five fathoms in the centre: as it of- 
fered no other inducement, we did not land upon any part 
of it. Between Valentia Island and Point Annesley, the 
channel is more than a mile wide and four fathoms deep. 
Valbktia Island has a reef off its north point, and an* 

. other off its south-east point, each about a mile in extent 



SAIUNG DlftlCriONS. 315^ 

COPELAND ISLAND is small and wedga-sbaped, iu a. 
summit is id latitode 1 1* 28', and longtttide 132^ 43* ; foar SwtJW- 

• * 

miles and a quarter W.N.W. from it is a covered saod-bank N. Coast, 
having nine feet water near its edge ; it was not qaite oertain 
whether it was joined to the land or not, ftom which it is 
distant two miles and a half. 

On the western side of the bay there is a strait two mika 
wide separating Croker's Island from the main ; it is tan or 
eleven miles in length, and is navigable since the Malay 
fleet were observed to pass through it. 

CROKER'S ISLAND is twenty-one miles and a quarter 
from north to south, and from two to five broad, its northern 
extremity is in 10<» 58' 3(r latitude, and ISV" 34' 10'' longi- 
tude ; about three-quarters of a mile within it there is a 
remarkable rocky knob: its south extreme is in 11^ 19^'. 

Palm Bat, on its western side, is an excellent anchorage 
in the easterly monsoon ; it is four miles and a half wide, 
and nearly three deep. The shore is rocky for a mile oflT, 
and the south point has a rocky shoal projecting to the 
W.N.W. for a mile and a quarter. 

D ARCH'S ISLAND is separated from Croker's Island 
by a navigable strait two miles wide; near the reef at the 
north-east end we had six fathoms, but in mid-channel the 
depth was as much as eleven fathoms. A considerable reef 
projects off the east end for more than a mile. The island 
is about two miles and three-quarters long, and is thickly 
wooded; its north point is in latitude 11^ T 30". 

RAFFLES BAY forms a good port during any season ^ 
it is seven miles deep^ and from two to three broad : beyond 



316 



APPENDIX. 



A. High Point the depth is not more than three fathoms and a 
^ il- ' half. The anchorage is however quite safe. 
N. Coast. The ijay to the eastward of Point Smith, which has a reef 
extending from it for nearly a mile, has a shoal opening at 
its bottom of very little importance. At the north-east end 
of the bay, separated from the point by a channel a mile 
wide, and more than five fathoms deep, is a small sandy 
island, with a reef extending for a mile off its north end. 

PORT ESSINGTON, the outer heads of which, Vashon 
Head and Point Smith, are seven miles apart, is an exten* 
sive port, thirteen miles and a quarter deep, and from five 
to three wide; independent of its Inner Harbour, which, with 
a navigable entrance of a mile wide, is five miles deep and 
four wide. The port is not only capacious, but has very 
few shoals or dangers in it. 

On the western side, off Island Point, there are some 
rocks, and also a reef projects for a mile off the bluff 
point that forms the east head of Knocker *s Bay. The 
western side of the entrance to Inner Harbour, is also rocky 
and shoal for two-thirds across, but near the opposite point* 
the depth is thirteen fathoms. 

On the eastern side of the port there is no danger beyond 
a quarter of a mile from the shore, excepting a reef of rocks, 
some of which are dry ; this danger, when in a line with a 
remarkable cliff two miles and a quarter to the south of Table 
Point, bears £.S.E.^£. ; close wiAout them the depth is five 
fathoms. 

The Inner Harbour is divided into two basins which 
extend in for two miles on either side of Middle Head, a 
cliffy projection, surrounded by a rocky shore for a quarter 

* This is Point Record of Captain Bremer, see vol. ii« p. 286^ ' 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 317 

of a mile off. The aDchorage between the entrance and a. 
Middle Head is in five and liz fathoms mud, and in the Sect. III, 
centre of the western basin the depth is five fathoms mud. N. Coast. 
The shores are higher than usual, and are varied by sandy 
beaches and cliffs, some of white and others of a red colour. 
The western side of the port was not visited, and our tracks 
and examinations were made principally on the opposite 
shore. At the bottom o^ Knocker's Bay is a shoal mangrove 
opening, of no importance. See vol. i. p. 87. 

Point Smith is in latitude 11^ 6' 45", and longitude 
132^ 12' 30". 

Vashok Hbad has a considerable shoal projecting from 
it, and extending into the bay to the westward which was 
called Trepahg Bat. This bay has. an opening at the 
bottom, that appeared to be shoal. A small sandy island 
lies at the distance of a mile and three-quarters from the 
shore; the reef projects into the sea for nearly a mile far- 
ther, and apparently extends to the S.W. to the north head 
of PoPHAM Bay, which has a small opening at the bottom, 
but of shoal approadi ; good anchorage may be had in Pop* 
ham Bay in five and six fathoms, a little within the heads, 
and as they bear North and S.S.W., it is well sheltered in 
the easterly monsoon. Hence to Cape Doh is three miles 
and a half. The latter cape is in latitude 11^ 19' 30", 
and longitude 131'' 45' 30". 

VAN DIEM EN'S GULF is seventy miles deep, and more 
than forty broad. It has two outlets to sea; the one to 
the northward, Dundas's Strait, is sixteen miles wide and 
very deep ; the other, Clarence Strait, is seventeen miles 
wide, and communicates with the sea round the south sides 
of Melville and Bathurst Islands : it is probably not so safe 



318 APPENEaX. 

I 

A« «8 Dimdas'8 Strait, od account of Vernon's Isles, which lie in 

•^^^' '"■ mid channel, near its western end* 

JK* Coast. The north eastern side of Van Diemen's Gulf washes the 
south side of Coburg Peninsula. It has several bays, and, 
to the eastward of Mounts Bedwell ' and Roe, the shore 
is fronted by Sir Geo&os Hope's Islakds, forming a 
channel or port within them twenty miles deep and firom 
three to six broad ; the entrance to it is round the north eod 
of Geeenhill Islakd, which is separated from the land 
of the peninsula, by a strait a mile and a half wide: the 
depth in mid-channel, for the shore on either side for half 
a mile is shoal and rocky, is eighteen fathoms, and withii) 
it the bottom is six, seven, and eight fathoms deep, and 
principally of mud. This strait is in latitude 11^ 35'.. 

The eastern side has several openings in it, but the shores 
are very low, and of shoal approach. At its south-east end 
are the two (and probably three) Alligator Rivers; the 
westernmost (or centre) is fronted by Field Islavd, the 
centre of which is in 12^' 6' latitude, and 132^ 25' KT 
longitude. These rivers have been described in the nar- 
rative. See vol. i. p. 100, etseq. The bottom of the gulf is 
very low, and forms two bights, separated by a point that 
projects for seven or eight miles. 

. In the neighbourhood of the rivers tlie country is sprinkled 
with wooded hills, that extend in a straggling chain towards 
Wellington Range, of which they might be considered a 
part; but between the rivers and Clarence Strait the coun- 
try is low and fiat, and only protected from mroads of the 
sea by a barrier of sand hills, beyond which not a vestige 
of the interior could be seen. 

CLARENCE STRAIT separates Bathurst and Mdtille 



SAIUNG IHRECtlONS. dl9 

Islands from the main land: it is seYenty-five miles lonr, A. 

aBd from seventeen to thirty.five wide. 'n>e narrowet part S<ctjn. 
is at about its centre^ between Cape Gambier and Cape El* N. Ceast 
don, and in this space is a group of four low rocky islands, 
<»vered with mangroves (Vernon's Islands), ftom which 
considerable reefs extend towards either shore. 

The best channel is probably on the northern side, near 
Cape Gambier, which is in latitude IT 56' 20"; and therf 
also appeared lo be a wide and safe channel on the south 
Iride ; but the neighbourhood of Vemon*8 Islands is rocky. 
The flood-tide sets to the eastward into the gulf. 

MELVILLE ISLAND is of considerable size, and forms 
the western side of Van Diemen's Gulf; its greatest length 
from Cape Van Diemen to Cape Keith being seventy-two 
miles, and its grektest breadth thirty-eight miles; its cir- 
cumference is two hundred miles. 

We did not land on any part of it, excepting in the en- 
trance of Apsley Strait, at Luxmoore Head, (latitude 1 1^ 2l\ 
longitude 130^ 22'), from which we were driven by the natives. 
It appeared fertile and more elevated than the coast to the 
eastward, and to possess several good harbours, particularly 
Apsley Strait, besides several bays on its north coast; and 
firom the appearance of the land on its east side, and the 
extent and abrupt shape of the hills, it is probable that there 
may be a port there also. 

Beentok Bay is the mouth of a small inlet, which 
may probably prove to be a fresh-water stream; and the 
bottom of Lbthbeidox Bat appeared likely tb yield one 
also. The hills and coast are wooded to the brink of the 
diflb and sandy beaches that vary the northern shores of 
MelvUle Island. 

The most unproductive part appeared to be the narrow 



320 itPPENDIX. 

A. strip that extends towards Cape Van Diemen. On either 
Sect^III. gjjj^ ^f jjjg p^j^^^ ^^^ Karslake Island, is a bay, and at the 

N. Coast bottom of each there is an opening in the land, like those of 
Brenton and Lethbridge Bays. 

The western trend of CAPE VAN DIEMEN is in lalitude 
IP 8' 15", and longitude 130° 20' 30". The coast to the 
south-east of the cape is formed by a range of cliffs, extend- 
ing uninterruptedly for seven miles, of a most remarkable 
white appearance, whiter even than the usual colour of the 
pipe-clay cliffs to the eastward. Cape Van Diemen is a low 
sandy point, with a shoal spit projecting from it for four 
miles, within half a mile of the extremity of which we had 
no bottom with ten fathoms : from this . a very considerable 
shoal (Mermaid's. Shoal) extends to the westward and 
south-westward for seventeen miles ; and, curving round to 
Piper's Head, forms the northern limit of the entrance to 
Apsiey Strait: its western edge is rather steep; we coasted 
along it, and had overfalls between ten and four fathoms 
near its edge. It is not only possible, but very likely, that 
there are channels through it, but the most direct chan- 
nel is round its south side, across the bar, on which there 
is (at low water) five fathoms. To sail into Apslet Strait 
by this channel, if coming from the westward, steer in on 
the parallel of 11° 15', until the northern part of Bathurst 
Island is seen : when the western trend of the island bears 
South, you will be abreast of the west extremity of the shoal 
off Cape Van Diemen. Steering on, you will see Piper's 
Head, a cliffy point, forming the north entrance to the 
strait, which must be kept upon the bearing of Kb.N., until 
the low, sandy, south point of the strait's entrance * is in a 
line with the summit of Luxmoore Head, a remarkable flat- 

* Point Brace of Captain Bremer... . 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 321 

topped hill on the eastern side of the strait, bearing S. 59° £. A. 
Then steer E.b.S., keeping the lead going, and hauling to Sactirf. 
the north if the soundings are less than seven fathoms, N. Coast* 
until the strait is opened bearing S.E.b.S., when you may 
haul in for Luzmoore Head, and anchor at will. 

The narrowest part of the strait is where the low, sandy 
extremity, Point Brace, bears S. 40o E. ; the channel then is 
from seventeen to eighteen fathoms deep, and shoals sud- 
denly on its south, but gradually on its north side : it is 
about a mile and a half wide. 

APSLEY STRAIT is forty miles long, and from one 
to three broad; the widest part being at the north end : the 
southern end, for five or six miles from the outlet, is very 
rocky ; the south entrance is in latitude 1 1° AS ; the flood 
sets to the southward, and the ebb, from Van I)iemen's 
Oulf out of Clarence Strait, runs through the strait to the 
north, which must cause many shoals off the south en- 
trance ; the depth is generally from ten to thirteen fathoms, 
but is very irregular towards the south end; at low water 
many parts are dry, which leave the channels very intricate. 
We passed over it at high water without knowing our 
danger, for the stream of the tide carried us through the ' 
deepest part of the channel. 

BATHURST ISLAND is from thirty to thirty-three miles 
in extent, having a circumference of an hundred and twenty 
miles. GoRDOK Bat, on its western side, affords a good 
shelter in the easterly monsoon ; it is ten miles wide, and 
six deep, and terminated by Port Hurd, the entrance to 
which is fronted by a bar, having twelve or fourteen feet 
on it at bw water. : Near, the south-western head of the - 
bay two projecting cliffy points (Twin Cliffs) terminate a 

Vol. n. Y 



3^ APPENDIX. 

A. MbAj boyi tntik which ^Ood iltad^ prebaUf^ walto May be 

*^^'- obtaiiteiL 
N. GoMt. 

PORT HURD, at ih« bottom of OordoB Bayv in ktitnde 
1 1^ 39' 30% is « mere #ali-water inl^t^ nioatBg up in A S.fiw 
direction for eight teilea; it then Borates into two er^ks 
that Witad nnder each aide of n wooded hill ; tfie enbranee 
ia thnteKiitaiters of a mite >vtde^ and formed bj two low 
poiats. At the back of the port are aome Wooded htlU ; one 
of them, Mount Hurd, kept in the openinf^ between the two 
points of entrance, is the mark for the deepest part of the 
bnr* When within the entrance the pM opena, and faflns a 
basin two miles nnd n quarter broad^ after which it narrows 
and rant np at from hAlf to a quarter of a mile wide^ widi a 
ohasinel four and fire fathoms deep^ 

The country here is thickly Wooded, but very k>w^ ex* 
cepting n few ranges of hills that may rise to the height aH 
two hundred feet The south side of Bathurst bland haa 
no sinuosities. 

Near Cape Fourcroy the coast i« ftNUfted by sand hills i 
but) for the next fifteen miles, it is low and backed by 
wooded hiHa» 



SECTION IV. 

OF THE NATURE OF THE WINDS AND THE DESCRIPTION 

OF THE COAST BETWEEN CLARENCls: STRAIT 

AND THE NORTH-WESt CAPE. 

A. Tfi£ natUife of 4ie Wnnda upon die Koiih^weat Ooast^ that is, 

— ' between Cape Van Icemen and the Kortii<-westCBpe, differs 

^^j^^"^ TUi^ materially fpcm the regularity of the monsoons in the 

aea that divides it f roaa timor and dm islands to the nordi« 



SAILING DlRECnONS. 323 

ward I exGeptiiig in the narrower part bet^en Gape Loli- A« 
doadefty and the Sahal Bank) wkfert, fro* thfe contrtKsted Se^V* 
nature of tbe sea^ more re^lat Wtoda may be expected. N^lfe^ 
The easterly nKMi80(m coilittiebces abbut tbe beginning «f 
Aprils and in the niontlis of May atad June blo^s with great 
strength, and will be found more iregulat thse to the pfb^ 
jecting parts of the <toa8t, but they then rtithA assume Uie 
dharacter of a sea-breeze, for the nights are generally calm» 

After the month of June the Winds to the westward ^ 
Cape Londonderry are very Irregular, and generally blow fhmi 
the southward or south-west ; they are howerelr more constant 
to the Westward of fiuccaneer*s Archipelago, Where the sea- 
breezes blow principally from the N.W. along the land. At 
intetvals, during the east monsoon, the wind blows strong 
from S.E., but only for a short time, perhaps only (of a few 
hours. Ships may creep along the Coast of New Holland 
to the eastward during the easterly moftsoon, when they 
could not make any progress in the mid sea^ without being 
much delayed by calms. Towards the North-west Cape, 
neither the monsoon nor the South East trade are much 
experienced, Ae wind being generally from the S.W. or 
N.W. 

During the strength of the Westerly monsoon, that is, 
in thd months of December and January, the wind is 
regular between W.N.W. and W.S.W., and, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the North-west Cape, sometimes blows hard ; 
but even in these tropical regions, when the weather is very 
bad, the change is predicted by the barometer, which other- 
wise is scarcely affected. 

In February, near the coast of New Holland, the monsbon 
is less constant, and the wind often blows off the land, sO 
that a ship could make her westing, when, if more to the 
northward, it would be impossible Ibr her to gain any 

Y2 



324 APPENPIX. 

A. ground. At the latter end of February the westerly winds 
8ect.iv. ^jjg ji^ay, and are succeeded by light, baffling, easterly 
N. WQst winds, with damp, unwholesome weather, and attended oc- 
casionally by heavy squaDs of wind and rain. 

If a ship is detain^ late in the easterly monsoon, and 
wishes to get to .the westward, she will find the wind more 
regular and strong, from the eastward in the neighbour- 
hood of Timor, where the easterly monsoon lasts until the 
first or second week in November : in the months of Sep- 
tember and October, to the southward of the parallel of 12°, 
the winds are almost constant from S.W. 

The currents are stronger according to the regularity and 
strength of the wind, and generally set at the rate of one 
or one knot and a half. The tides in this part of the coast 
are noticed in the description of the places where they were 
observed. High water at full and change takes place at 
The anchorage off Vansittart Bay at . . 9^ 15' 

In Montagu Sound at 12 00 

In Careening Bay at • . 12 00 

In Prince Regent's River at .... 12 20 
The rise of the tide, to the westward of Cape Van Diemen, 
and particularly to the westward of Cape Bougainville, ap- 
peared gradually to increase : the greatest that we eipe- 
rienced was in the vicinity of Buccaneer's Archipelago; and 
at the anchorage in Camden Bay the tide rose thirty-seven 
feet; occasioned probably by the intersected nature of the 
coast. 

The variation in this interval is almost too trifling to be 
noticed for the purposes of common navigation. Between 
Capes Londonderry and Van Diemen it varies between 
^° and 1° East. Between the former and Careening Bay it 
was between 1° and 1^° East; at Careening Bay the mean 
of the observations gave |° West; but to the westward of 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 325 

that, at for as Cape Viilaret, the resalto of the observations A. 
▼ari6id between 1® East and 1® West Near the NorA-west SecfJV. 
Cape, and to the eastward of it as far as Depuch Island, it 'N. West 
is about 2^ Westerly. 



On the sonth-side of Clarence Strait the land is low, like 
the coast to the eastward. PATERSON BAY appeared to be 
the mouth of a river, but it was not examined. The opening 
to the. eastward of the projecting point that forms the 
eastern side of Paterson Bay, seemed to be a good port; 
and to have an inlet at its bottom trending.to the S.E. 

CAPE GROSE, in latitude 12^ 32' 40", and Ion. 131^ 26', 
is the western head of Paterson Bay: it is fronted by reefs 
that extend for a considerable distance into the sea; their 
extremity is nearly nine miles north from the cape. 

Hence the coast extends low and sandy* to POINT 
BLAZE, to the northward of which there is abay : to the 
south the shore is wooded, and trends for eighteen miles to 
the north entrance of Anson Bay, which is formed by 
Peroh Isi/ands; these are low and sandy; at the extre* 
mity of the northern island, there is a sandy peak in lati- 
tude 13'' & 30", and longitude Ul"" V 20": the south end 
is overrun with mangroves, and it appeared very doubtful 
whether a channel existed between it and the smaller island, 
which IS entirely surrounded by mangroves. This entrance to 
the bay is very intricate, and useless, since that to the south 
of the islands is so much better. Anson's Bay affords good 
anchorage, and probably has. a small rivulet at the bottom. 

CAPE FORD, in latitude 13^ 24' 35", longitude 130^ 52' 
20", has a reef projecting for three miles from it : hence the 



326 AFPCNDIX. 

A. oo«»i tf ^d9 raund to the southward for thirty miloB to » 

"^^*^' bajy which also has a amall opeoiog at the bottom; fire 

JiL Wait oiileg inland there is a ranra of hilU, on which two« of flat* 

topped summits, are conspicuous ; and, at a distance, aaaume 

the appearance of islands. They are the Barthelemy Hills. 

A few miles to the westward is PORT KEATS. Tail 
PoiNT» in latitude Id^" 69' SO", longitnde 130^ 34', the 
eastern head of the port, ia surrounded by a reef, which 
extends from it for more than three miles. The weat side 
has also a reef, but of much more considerable sixe^ 
stretching to the northward of Cape Hay for fifteen miles ; 
near its extremity there is a patch of dry rocks, occupying an 
extent of two miles. The channel within the heads is from 
two to four miles wide, and has anchorage in it between 
six and seven fathoms, mud. The port gradually contracts as 
it approaches the narrow mouth of the inlet to a mile and a 
half; it then trends to the south for six miles, where it ia di- 
Yided into two arms, that run up for six or seven miles more 
to the foot of a range of wooded hills, one of which is Mount 
Goodwin. . The western side of the inlet is occujued by a 
bank of clay, that dries at low water. At about three 
miles within the narrow entrance on the western side, there 
is an inlet, and above this the anchorage is good, the bot-> 
tom being of clay, in which ia mixed a small iron«8tone 
pebUe : between the inlet and the narrows, the bottom is 
deep and rocky. 

Between Cape Hay, in latitude 14^ T 30", and longitude 
130^ 27' 30", and POINT PEARCE, in latitude 14*^ 28' 30% 
longitude 130^ 17' 15", the coast is still low, and was only 
seen at a distance^ Off the latter point there is a reef which 
does not extend to a greater distance than a mile and a half. 



SAILING DIKECfnONS. 327 

To the ftdutli of Point Pearoe there it a very exteotlTe A* 
opening, whieli bad weather and ether circumstances did *^* ^* 



not allow of being eiamined. . It is nearly thirty miles wide, N. WesI 
and the depth across between eight fathoms and twenty. ^^ ' 
The south shore is lined by a considerable reef extending 
Ibr seven miles from the beach. The land was Tory indis* 
tinctly seen at the back, but, in one part, there was a space of 
more than eighteen miles, in which nothing was risible. 'Hie 
strength of the tide, the bottom being sandy instead of mud, 
as in other parts of the neighbourhood, and the rocky orer- 
fUls on either side of the entrance bespeak this opening to 
be of considerable size and importance. 

The shore to CAPE DOMETT was very bdistinctly seen. 
It occupies an extent of forty-fire miles, and is fronted by 
extensive reefs, which project for twenty-three miles ; the 
noith extremity of the shoal water is twenty-six miles, 
nearly due west from Cape Pearce. It terminates with a 
narrow point, and then trends in to the S.W. towards the 
coast. 

The Medusa Bank fronts the entrance of Cambridge 
Qulf ; it projects from the coast, near Cape Domett, to the 
N.W. for seventeen miles, and terminates with a narrow 
spit, thirteen miles north from Lacrosse Island, in latitude ' 
14^ 30|'. Both these banks are of sand, and their edges 
are very steep to. They are covered with large quan- 
tities of mdhiscaf which are also abundant in the sea in their 
vicinity. 

CAlfBRIDOE OULF extends from Lacrosse Island in a 
S.S. Westerly direction for sixty-four miles. The entrance, 
between Cape Domett and Cape Dussejour, is twelve miles 
wide; but Lacrosse Island, under which there 18 good 



328 APPENDIX, 

^ anchorage for vessels going in or oat of the gulf, divides 
Sect. IV. the entrance into two channels. The western. entrance is 
N. West about two miles and a. half wide, and is deepest .near the 
^^ island; but^at a mile from tl^e shore, we had no bottom 
with fourteen, and seventeen fathoms. The reefs project 
from Cape Dussejour for nearly three miles. On the 
eastern side of Lacrosse Island, within half a mile of the 
point, we had seven fathoms, and there was every appear- 
ance of the channel being deep in the neighbourhood of 
ape Domett. Shakspeare Hill, the situation of which is 
in latitude W 47' 55", and ^longitude 128^ 24', is a 
conspicuous object on this promontoiy; it is high and 
rocky, and, at a distance, has the appearance of being insu- 
lated, like Lacrosse Island. 

Having entered the gulf, it trends to the S.S.W. for 
twenty-three miles to Adolphus Island, where it is divided 
into two arms, of which the westernmost is the principal. 
At ten miles from Lacrosse Island, the channel is narrowed 
by shoals to a width of five miles, the shores being twelve 
miles apart. The land on the western side of the gulf is 
high and rocky ; but the opposite shore is very low, and ap- 
parently marshy. The bottom is of sand, as are the banks 
on either side, and affords good anchorage ; the tide stream 
runs with great strength in mid-channel, but is easily 
avoided by anchoring upon the weather shore near the edge 
of the bank. 

The channels on either side of Adolphus Island are 
called the East and West Arms. The East Arm is from 
one to two miles and a half wide, and four or five fathoms 
deep. At ten miles it is joined by an arm that washes the 
south side of Adolphus Island, and. the united streams trend 
together in a S.E. direction, under the foot of Mount Con- 
nexion, for a considerable distance. This inlet wa& not e<- 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 329 

amined. The West Arm extends down the west side of A. 
Adolphus Island for seven miles; it is then divided by a^*^ ^^ 
projecting point under View Hill ; and» whilst one runs to N. West 
the eastward and unites with the East Arm, the other con* 
tinues to trend to the southward, and then opens out to an 
extensive basin eleven miles in length, and from four to 
six in breadth ; and, at seven miles, gradually contracts as 
it winds under the base of the Bastion Hills : before, how- 
ever, you arrive at the basin, the stream is divided by 
several islands and rocky islets, that narrow the channel 
in some parts to the width of half a mile, in which the 
depth is very great, and the tide runs with great strength. 

At the entrance of the basin the high rocky character of 
the west shore is superseded by low mangrove banks, with 
here and there a detached hill rising from a plain of low 
marshy land, that, at the time of our visit, was covered with 
a salt incrustation, occasioned by the evaporation of the 
sea, which, apparently, had lately flooded the low lands to a 
great extent : some of these plains are seven and eight miles in 
diameter. The hills rise abruptly; those we examined are of 
sand-stone formation. The basin is very shoal, but there is 
a narrow channel in the centre, with from five to nine fa- 
thoms water. The shore, opposite the Bastion Hills, is low, 
and the gulf trends gradually round to the S.W. for five 
miles, when it is contracted into a narrow communication, 
called The Gut, leading to an interior shoal basin, 
strewed with low marshy islands, which the tide covers. 
This basin terminates to the southward in a narrow stream, 
winding under the base of Mount Gockburn ; and there also 
appeared to be several others falling into the basin more 
to the westward. The water was salt at the extremity 
of our exploration. The Gut leading to it is two miles 



S30 APPKNDDC. 

i 

'A. loDff, and not so mikek as a quarter of a mile wMe ; in some 

Seot. IV* paitt fpe bad nioeteen fathoms, but in otbers it was deeper; 

K. West it runs through a chasm in the hills, which rise abraptty, 

i^^^*' lyji} occasionally recede and form bights, in which, in the 

wet aeason, the rains fbrm some very considerable mountak 

torrents. No fresh water was seen in any part of the gulf; 

bnt as it was near the end of the dry season when we were 

there, it might probaMy be fovnd in a more advanced season 

In every part of the western side, where the land is high and 

the gnllies numerous : there is, however, no durable ftesh- 

water stream without the Gut. An alligator was observed 

swimming about, but very few fish were noticed. 

The eoast extends lirom Cape Dussejour to Cape London* 
derry, a distance of ninety-five miles, without an opening, 
and with but few sinuosities of any consequence. Tlie ooast 
is chiefly voeky, with here and there a few sandy beaches i 
but the shore generally is open and exposed) there are 
many parts, however, where a boat might land; particularly 
behind Bvcklb Head, and a little fiirther on at Rbvblkt 
Island : at the latter place there is a gully in the hills, at the 
back of the bay, which may probably produce fresh water : 
this bay is near Captain Baudin*s Mount Casuarina, a 
flat-topped hill, that is conspicuous from the sea. The 
mount is only visible between the bearings of South and 
W.S.W., and may be seen at the distance of seven or eight 
leagues* It is situated at six miles from the shore, in 
latitude 14« W l/T, and longitude 127'' 36* 60". 

The coast is here hut slightly wooded, and sufficiently 
elevated to conceal the interior ; no part of which, excepting 
Mount Casuarina, could be seen. It is fronted by rocks. 



SAILING DIltBCTIONS. 331 

but tkey do not auMtr to extaad more than two milei froa A. 
ttio sboro. At Cats RulhibrUv the eoast treads more^^L 
westerly. To the westward of this capo aco two sandy bays, ^' ^^ 
in which boats might effect a landing ; but they are open 
and exposed to the northward. To the eastward of it there 
are some reefls which project for more than two miles firom 
the shore ; and, at the west head of the westernmost of the 
bays» is an island with a reef extending for nearly three 
miles from it: behind the island is another bay, that ap» 
peared to be fronted by the abo¥e reef. In the offing, and 
at the distance of six miles from the shore, is Lesviuh 
IsLAKD ; it is about two miles in circumference, and sur- 
rounded by a coral reef, that extends for one mile and a 
half from its north-east end. At this part the eoast is more 
verdant in appearance than to the eastward of Cape Rnl- 
hieres, particularly for ten miles to the S.E. of Cape Lon* 
donderry ; in which space there are several sandy bays, widi 
the shores wooded to the brink of the beach ; at about fire 
miles from the cape is a small boat harbour, at the back of 
which a gaily in the hills appeared promising for the search 
for fresh water, more particularly on account of the verdant 
appearance of the trees near it. 

CAPE LONDONDERRY is a low rocky point; it is 
easily recognised by the reef that extends from it, and the 
trend of the land, which takes fW>m it a westerly direction ; 
there are also two small sandy islets, Stewart's Islets, at a 
little more than two miles from it, eneompassed by the reef. 
The eape is in l^ 44' S., and 126^ ^3' 50* £. . 

The land then extends to the westward for nearly eleven 
miles, to CAPE TALBOT; it is fronted by the reef that 



332 . APPENDIX. 

A. commences at Cape Londonderry, and projects from the 
Sect. IV, g]xoTe for nearly five miles, but to the eastward of the cape 

N. West a ship may approach it within two miles. 
Coast* 

To the south of Cape Talbot the land uends in and forms 
a bay twelve miles deep, and wide, that was not examined. 
It is fronted by SIR GRAHAM MOORE'S ISLANDS, one 
of which is eight miles long, and low, excepting at the 
east end, where there is a flat-topped hill ; there is also an- 
other remarkable summit on a smaller island, to the north 
of the principal island. 

At twenty miles W.S.W. from Cape Talbot is the east en- 
trance of VANSITTART BAY; it is formed between Mary 
Island and the easternmost of the Eclipse Isl£s, (Long 
Island;) but this space, which is nearly three miles wide, 
is much occupied by rocks, so that it is contracted to the 
width of little more than half a mile. 

The channel to this is between two extensive reefs, the in- 
nermost of which commences at eight miles to the westward 
of Cape Talbot, and extends along Sir Graham Moore's 
Islands to Mary Island. 

The outer reef commences at about twelve miles from the 
cape, and extends to the westward, embracing Jonbs's 
Island (in latitude 13^ 44', and longitude 126^ 23% and 
the fxlipse Isles. The passage is from three and a half to 
five miles wide, and is deep and free from danger. The 
bottom is rocky until within five miles of the Eclipse Islands, 
when good anchorage may be obtained in five and six .fa- 
thoms, upon a muddy bottom. . 

The entrance is between Middle Rock, and a patch of 
dry rocks to the eastward of Long Rocks, the distance 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 333 

across being %bout half a mile. In enteri&g the bay by a. 
this channel, steer so as to pa^s round Middle Rock, sind ^^^ ^^* 
upon bringing the peaked summit of Jar Island, at the N. West 
bottom of the port, between it and Long Rocks, bearing 
S. 29i^ W., steer directly for Jar Island, until you arie abreast 
of Middle Rock, when you may haul close round it, with 
fourteen and sixteen fathoms: when you have passed the 
Long Rocks, a course may be directed at pleasure into the 
bay. There is also a deep passage to the westward of 
Middle Rock; but it is too narrow to be safe. ITie tide 
sets through the channels with great strength; with the 
flood-tide there is no danger, as the stream will carry a 
vessel through the deepest part; with the ebb-tide, however, 
it should not be attempted. 

The western entrance to Vansittart Bay is between the 
land of Cape Bougainville and the Eclipse Islands : it is 
three miles and a half wide, and quite free from danger. 
The approach to it, between Troughtok Island (latitude 
13^ 44' 10^ longitude 126<^ 11') and the reefs in the offing, 
is six miles wide, and probably quite safe. We did not 
ascertain the existence of a channel on the east side of the 
island, but it appeared to be free from danger, and, if so, 
would be the beat approach. Eclipse Hill, being higher 
than the land near it, and conspicuous from its flat tabular 
shape, is a good mark for the port ; it is in lat 13^ 54' 20," 
and longitude 126"^ 18' 40". 

Vansittait Bay is eighteen miles deep, and from Ave 
to ten broad; it offers excellent anchorage. The eastern 
shore is rocky, and should not be approached nearer than a 
mile; but the western shore is steep to, and may be passed 
very close : on this side the port there are many coves and 
bays fit for any purposes. The most secure anchorage is in 



d34 At'peKDDt. 

A. th^ ic^ntit of the bay, where there tl ttWi s«V«ti to nifie 

^^ ^y> ^thonuh mud, (Mid the «ea4>teeee hat free acoen : hut, if 

N. West a liiore ehdttred place h required) «uch may be ftMind at 

^^^^^* the eoathHMst comet of the bottom of the bay ia six aad 

fereti fltthoms, mud« High ^mter at AiH and change lakel 

place in the eastern eutranoe, at a quarter past ahie O*clock} 

the tide rises about ux feet. 

Jar Islakd is surrounded by rocks, biit to Uie «ast« 
ward of it the channel is twelve fathoms deep. Its Bumtnit 
is in latitude W 7' 10^ longitude 126^ 16' 40". 

The western side of Vansittart Bay is formed by a peninsula, 
the extremity of which is Cape Bougtiinville ; the northern 
part of diis land is fronted by a reef, that extends round it for 
three miles from the shore, but the western side appeared to 
be of bold approach. The reef commences at Gape Bou- 
gainville, and trends round to Point Gibson, where it tenni** 
nates. This part of the coast is fronted by extensive reeft, 
which render the approadi to it very dangerous: at sixteen 
miles to tht northward of the cape there is a range, the 
HoLOT&uRtA Bavks, that extend in an east and west di« 
rection for twenty^-three miles ; their north-east extent was 
not ascertained, but the western end, in latitude 13^ 32*, and 
longitude 126^ 46' 45", is narrow, and not more than five or 
six miles broad« 

There is another range Of reefs to the westward of tiie 
cape, that extends in a north and south direction for upwards 
of twenty miles ; and about from three to five miles broad. 
The water breaks on many parts of it. Its north 6xtre* 
mity, in latitude 13^ 41^', is sixteen miles W.|N. from 
Troughton Island: in this space the sea is quite dear, and 
fnom sixteen to twenty fathoms deep. The narrowest part 
of the chanftsl, between the reef and the peninsula, is at 



SAIUNG IHRGeriONS. 335 

Pomt Oibtas^ whtre it is nore than eight miki wide, and A. 

in nid^ohaiMiai about twenty-thrae fcthotitB deep» °"r!l^ ^ * 

K.West 

Between Cape BoagainTille and Cape VoltaiM is the ^^* 
ADMIRALTY OULF. It is twenty^nine miles wide and 
twenty^'two deep, independent of Port Warrenden This 
paii is thickly stiewed widi islands and reeA: a grotep olF 
C^ Voltaire was seen by the Fretaoh^ and named by them 
the INSTITUTE ISLANDS, the three principal nf which, of 
flat-topped shape, are called Descartes, Fenelon, and Cor- 
neille; besides these the Montesquieu Qtoap, and Pascal 
and Condillac Islands, were distinguished. On the eastern 
side of the gulf, near the shore, are Osborn's Islands, 
which are high and rooky : the sOuthefatnost is remarkable 
for its sCeep^ precipitous kma, and for its resemUance to 
Monnt Cockbura in Cambridge Gulf. There is also a con- 
spicuous high Muff on the principal island, which appears 
to ba?e been leen by the Frendi. 

in the offing is CASSINI ISLAND; it is radier low and 
kteli and surrounded by clifis and rocky sho^s: <mi the 
eastern side are four sandy beaches, which are very much 
frequented by turtle : a reef projects off its north end for a 
mile and a half. The anchorage is good near the island, 
bat the water is Tery deep. Tlie situation of its centre is m 
latitude l^ 65' 5% and longitude nff" 42'. 

PORT WARRENDER is an excellent port, and affords 
good andmrage in the bay round Crystal Head, in which a 
vessel is quite laad-locked ; but equally ^secure anchorage 
may be had for fite miles higher up the port, in from 
faer to seven Aithoms, mud. It extends for six miles farther, 
Wt the depth in some parts is not more than two fothoms. 



336 APPENDIX. 

A* At eleven miles from the entrance, the port is separated into 
— . ' two inlets, which wind under the base of a dividing range 
^l^^ of high, steep, and wooded hills ; these run up for five miles 
higher, when they become mere mangrove creeks. There is 
probably another inlet on the east side of Port Warrender 
which we did not examine, since it appeared to be less con- 
siderable in size, and important in appearance, than the arm 
which we had examined. Catstal Head is in latitude 
14° 28', and longitude 125** 55' 30*. 

WALMESLY BAY appeared to be a good port also, but 
it is open to the eastward. We did not enter it 

• » 

CAPE VOLTAIRE is the extremity of a promontory, ex- 
tending for more than twenty miles into the sea, and sepa- 
rating the Admiralty Gulf from Montagu Sound. There is a 
flat-topped hill near its extremity, in latitude 14^ 14' 30', 
and longitude 125° 40' 12"; and, at three miles more to 
the southward, a peaked hill; its shores on either side 
are rocky, and indented by bays. At one part the width 
across to Walmesly Bay cannot be more than a mile and a 
half. 

The MONTALIVET ISLES, about six leagues from the 
main, consist of three rocky islands ; they are visible for six 
or seven leagues from the deck : the north-easternmost is in 
laUtude 14° 13' 40% longitude 126° 19' 30". 

MONTAGU SOUND extends from Cape Voltaire to the 
north end of Bigge's Island, a distance of thirty-one miles, 
and is from eleven to twenty miles deep. It is fronted by a 
range of islands; the outer range, which is eight miles 
within the Montalivet Isles, was called Prudhos Islands; 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 337 

besides which there were several scattered about the sound, A. 
and some of larger size near the main: of the latter are Sect. IV. 
•Kater's and Wollastoh's. They are of a very rocky N^Wcst 
character, and furnished with but a poor and shallow soil, 
although the surface is thickly covered with small trees, grow- 
ing most luxuriantly. Water Isiakd, to the north-east, 
in latitude 14^ 21', and longitude 125^ 32' 25", was visited by 
us, OS was also Capstak Island, in the south-west corner of 
the sound. The latter island is in latitude 14^ 35' 20% and 
longitude 125^ 16' 20 ". They are both rocky, and destitute 
of any soil but what is formed by the decomposition of the 
vegetables that grow upon tlie island. The channels be- 
tween them appeared to be clear and free from hidden 
danger. The depth among the islands is from ten to fifteen 
fethoms on a muddy bottom ; but the anchorage is better be- 
tween Kater Island and the promontory that separates it 
from Walmesly Bay, than any other part. It is a very fine 
port, particularly near the bottom, in Swift*s Bat, where 
the depth is from four to five fathoms at low water. It is 
high water at full and change . in Swift's Bay at twelve 
o'clock, which is two hours and a quarter later than in 
Vansittart Bay : the tide rose eighteen feet, whereas in Port 
•Warrender its rise was only six. The islands off the north- 
east end of Bigge's Island are more numerous than in other 
parts of the sound: they were only seen at a distance, 
and too numerous to give correct positions to. Bigge's 
IsLAKD is fourteen miles long, and from six to seven broad ; 
it is of moderate height, and rocky character : its south end 
appeared to be thickly wooded. A fiat-topped hill near the 
shore of Scott's Strait is a remarkable object, and may be 
seen six or seven leagues off. It is in latitude 14® 39' 20", 
and longitude 125'' 10' 20". 

Vol. II. Z 



340 APPENDIX. 

A'. ward from it for eight miles: its western side is formed by 
^^^^' the CoronafioQ Islands: its width is three miles, wifli good 
N. West anchorage all over it At the bottom is CAEEtwiNG Bat, 
where the Mermaid was repaired. The latitude of the 
beach in Iff" & 18", and longitude 125«* tf 46"* Port 
Nelson commumcates with the sea to the westward of the 
Coronation Islands, which may be considered a strait. At 
the south-west end of the southernmost island, where the 
strait is narrowest, and not more than one mile and a quarter 

* The latitude of. the observatory was taken every day during 
our stay, usins^ the sea-horizoD» but the effect of refraction was 
so great that the daily observations varied as much as 3* 48*. 
The mean of 15 meridional altitudes with 

the sextant made the latitude . . • 15^ 0' 28^.6 
and of fourteen observations with the circle 16 6 IS .8 



Mean for the latitude of the observatory 15 6 18 South. 

The longitude was deduced by the mean of the observations of 
our two visits; viz., in October, 1890, and August, 1821: the 
latter were taken at Sight Point, in Prince Regent's River, the 
difference of the meridians of the two places, by chronometers and 
survey, being 8" SS^'.S 

1890. Sept. 28 and 29. By twenty sets of lunar dis- 
tances with the sun, containing one hundred 
sights with the sextant, the sun being to the east 
of the moon, the longitude is ... . 125^ 1 1' 24".S 

1821. August 2nd and Srd. By seventeen sets of 
lunar distances with the sun, containing eighty- 
five sights with the sextant, the sun being to the 
west of the moon, the longitude of Sight Point, 
in Prince Regent's River, was found to be 
124"* 4r 15^3, or of Careening Bay . . Idi 50 S.l 

The mean is the longitude of the observatory 125" (f 46"£. 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 34t 

wide, there is a patch of rocks in the centre, which always J^ 
shews ; the channel on the north side of these rocks is the ^•^V* 
best: the water is very deep, and the tide sets right through, ^' ^^^ 

The CORONATION ISLANDS separate York Sound 
from Brunswick Bay, and are situated in front of Port 
Nelson. The group consists of seventeen or eighteen islands, 
besides numerous rocky islets. On the largest island are 
two remarkable peaks; the easternmost is in 14^ 59\ and 
longitude 124^ 56' 5\ The island is eight miles long, and 
from four to two wide ; the others are from three to one mile 
in length ; they are covered with vegetation, and the larger 
islands are well clothed with trees. The great rise of the 
tide would render this part of the coast of importance, was 
it liot for the wretched state of the country, and the un« 
productiveness of its soil, which are great drawbacks upon 
the advantage of the tide's unusual rise. It is high water 
at full and change in Port Nelson at twelve o'clock, as it is 
also in Montagu Sound. 

Beyond the Coronation Islands there is a string of small, 
rocky islands extending for sixteen miles: the westernmost 
is Freycinet's Group; the principal island of which Captain 
De Freycinet has described as resembling an inverted bowl; 
and, from this description, we had no difficulty in finding it 
out ; it is in latitude 15° 0' 30^, and longitude 124° 32' 40% 
Among the other islands we distinguished the islets Colbert, 
Keraudren, and Buffon. On the last there is a small, 
grassy, peaked hillock^ in latitude 14° 55' 26", and longi- 
tude 124° 43' 20% 

We passed out to sea between Freycinet's Group and 
Keraudren; and within one mile and half of the latter had 
eighteen fathoms.: it appeared^ from the colour of the water, 
to have a reef projecting to the westward* 



342 APPENDIX. 

A. BRUNSWIOE BAY it at tbe back of these islands, and 

^^* ^^' extends from Oapb BaswsTsn, in latitade 15® 6' 10", and 

N. West loQgitude 124^ 55' 5^, which terminates Port Nelson, to 

* Point Adieu. It is an extensive bay or sound, and is about 

twenty miles in extent, with good anchorage all over it 

Tbe coast is hei^ very much indented by rivers and bays ; 

among which may be partienlariied Prince Regent's River, 

Hanover Bay, and Port George the Fourth. 

PRINCE REGENTS RIVER is, without exception, the 
most remarkable feature of the North^West Ooast, In 
general the inlets of this coast form extensive ports at their 
entrance; and, when they begin to assume the character of 
a river, their course becomes tortuous, and very irregular ; 
of which there cannot be a better instance than the neigh- 
bouring river, Roe's River. Prince Regent's River trends 
into the interior in a S.E.b.B. direction fpr fifty-four miles, 
with scarcely a point to intercept the view, after being 
thirteen miles within it. The entrance is formed by Cape 
Wellington on the east, and High Bluff on the west, a width 
of eight miles, but is so much contracted by islands, that, 
in hauling round Cape Wellington, the width is suddenly 
reduced to little more than a mile : at the branching off of 
Rothsay Water, it is little more than half a mile, and also 
the same width at the entrance of St. George's Basin. In 
this space, however, it is in some parts a little wider, but in 
no part between projecting points is it more than one mile 
and a quarter. For the first nine miles the stream is nar- 
rowed by islands ; beyond this, its boundaries are formed 
by the natural banks of the river. On the eastern side, 
within Cape Wellington, is a deep bay, but of shoal and 
rocky appearance. At six miles ikrther on are two inlets, 
Rothsay and MuiisT£% Waters, near which the tid^ 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 343 

fernit raptd ed'tet and whirlpools, that render its tp* A. 
proach daagerons. In mid-okannel is a group of isles i and, Sect, Iv, 
off the easternmost, a reef projects to the eastward for more ^- ^«t 
than half a mile, round whieh a vessel most pass; here ^^ ' 
the channel is not more than half a mile wide. Munster 
Water, on the western side, communicates with Hanover 
Bay by a narrow strait, with very good anchorage in it 
in four and five fathoms mud; it is, however, an incon- 
venient place to go to, if a vessel is bound any farther 
np the river. Rothtay Water is a very considerable arm ; 
and was conjectured to communicate with Prince Frederic's 
Harbour, and, if so, would insulate the land between 
Capes Torrens and Wellington. We did not enter Rothsay 
Water; and the tides and whirlpools were too rapid and 
dangerous to trust our small boats without running a 
very great risk. At the entrance of this arm, on the south 
shore, there appeared to be a shoal-bank. Half-way Bay 
offers very good anchorage out of the strength of the tides, 
with abundance of room to get under weigh from. The 
northernmost point of the bay, Sight Poiist, has a small islet 
off it (Lammas Islet) where the observations were taken to 
fix the longitude of Careening Bay. (See vol. ii p. 65.) The 
two bays on the opposite, or north-east shore, are shoal, 
and not fit for any vessel drawing more than six or seven 
feet; and the shores are so lined with mangroves, as in most 
parts to defy all attempts at landing. After passing them, 
the shores approach each other within three-quarters of a 
mile, but the south-west shore is fironted by a rocky shoal, 
which narrows it to less than half a mile; here the tide 
runs very strong, and forms whirlpools. On passing the 
point, the rtver opens into a large, spacious reach, which was 
called St. Osobos's Basin ; and two conspicuous islands in it 
were called St. Andrew and St. Pateick's Islands. At the 



344 APPENDIX. 

A. north-east corner are two remarkable hills, Mounts Trafal- 
Sect. IV. ^^^ ^^j Waterloo : the situation of the summit of the 
N. West former is in latitude 16^ 16' 36% and longitude 125^ 4'. The ' 
basin is from eight to nine miles in diameter, but affords 
no safe anchorage until a vessel is above St. Patrick's 
Island. The northern side of the basin is shoaler, and has 
two small inlets, which trend in on either side of the mounts, 
and run in for upwards of five miles, but they are salt. At 
the south side of the basin there are two or three inlets of 
considerable size, that trend in towards a low country. At 
ten miles S.E.b.E. from the narrow entrance to the basin 
the river again resumes its narrow channel, and runs up so 
perfectly straight for fourteen miles in a S.E.b.£. course, 
that the hills, which rise precipitously on either bank, were 
lost in distance, and the river assumed the most exact 
appearance of being a strait; it was from one to one mile 
and a quarter wide, and generally of from four to eight 
fathoms deep on a bottom of yellow sand : the river then 
took a slight bend, and continued to run up for twelve 
or thirteen miles furthe-r, with a few slight curves, and 
gradually to decrease in width until terminated by a bar 
of rocks; which, when the tide rose high enough to fall 
over, was very dangerous to pass: here a considerable gully 
joins the main stream, and, being fresh water, was sup- 
posed to have the same source as Roe's River. The river 
trended up for about three or four miles farther, when it is 
entirely stopped by a rapid formed of stones, beyond which 
we did not persevere in tracing it ; the tide did not reach 
above this^ and the stream was perceived to continue and 
form a very beautiful fresh-water river, about two or three 
hundred yards wide. . As our means did not allow of our 
persevering any further, we gave up our examination. At 
seventeen miles above St. George's Basin, on the south 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 345 

shore, we found a cascade of fresh water falling in a con- ^ 
siderable quantity from the height of one hundred and forty Sect. IV, 
feet; and this, in the rainy season, must be a very large N.'w^st 
fall, for its breadth is at least fifty yards. At the time of ^^^^^ 
our visit it was near the end of the dry season; and 
even then there was a very considerable quantity falling. 
Several small inlets trended in on either side of the river 
above the basin, particularly one upon the north side, which, 
from the height of the hills under which it trended, would 
probably produce a fresh -water stream. In 1821 the Balhurst 
watered from the cascade, but the fatigue was too great, and 
the heat too powerful, for the boats' crew had to pull nearly 
forty miles every trip. High water took place in St George's 
Basin at twenty minutes after twelve o'clock : the tide rose 
twenty-four feet. 

HANOVEH BAY is a very convenient port, about five 
miles deep, but exposed from the N.N.W, ; the anchor- 
age is, however, so good, that no danger need be ap- 
prehended. At the bottom of the bay there is a deep chasm 
in the land, yielding a fresh-water stream ; beyond this the 
bay terminates in a shoal basin. In the offing are several rocky 
islets, particularly one, a high rock, which is very remark- 
able. A little to the north-east of the river is a sandy beach, 
the situation of which is in latitude 15^ 18' 21'', and longi- 
tude 124^ 46' 60". 

High Bluff, the extremity of the promontory sepa- 
rating Hanover Bay from Port George the lourth, speaks 
for itself. It is in latitude W 14' 40", and longitude * 
124^ 41' 35". Between High Bluflf and Point Adieu, in 
latitude W 14' 10% and longitude 124"" 34' 45', is PORT 
GEORGE THE FOURTH, having midway in its entrance a 
high island nearly two miles long; and to the southward, in 



346 APPENDIX. 

A. the centre of the port, a high rocky islet, the Lump, the 
S«cUV. summit of which is situated in latitude 15« 18' 30*, and 
N. West longitude 124** 37' 50*. The western side of the port is an 
extensive island, Augustus Island, eleven miles long; it is 
high and rocky, and has several bays on its eastern side. 
The port affords very good anchorage, particularly between 
Entrance Island and the Lump, in nme fathoms, mud; but 
there is also very good anchorage with the Lump bearmg 
west, in ten fathoms, mud. Port George the Fourth termi- 
nates in a strait, Roger's Sti^ait, communicating with Cam- 
den Bay. The best entrance to the port is on the eastern 
side of Entrance Island ; for the opposite, although practi- 
cable and sufficiently deep for the largest ships, is narrow, 
and must be buoyed before it can be used. 

Point Adieu is the last land seen by us in 1820: 
it is the north-east end of Augustus Island, and is a rocky, 
bluff point. In the offing, at the distance of three miles, 
there is a considerable range of reefs, that extend from the 
peaked island of Jackson's Isles ; and more to the north- 
west is another group of rocky islands. 

To the westward of Augustus Island is a range of islands 
extending for five leagues; on their north side they are 
fronted by considerable coral reefs, which at low water are 
dry; besides which there are several small islets that con- 
tract the channels, and render the navigation intricate and 
difficult. Between Augustus and Byam Martin's Islands 
there is an open strait, of one mile and a half wide; but, 
its communication with the sea to the nqrth, appears to be 
little more than half a mile. Btam Martin's Island is se- 
parated from a range of small islets, extending N.N.E. by a 
strait; and these last are divided from the Champagny Isles 
by another strait, from twenty-eight to thirty fathoms deep, 
through which the tide ruaa with great fbrce. Off the north 



\^ 



SAIUNO DIRB0TION8. 349 

end of Byam Martinis Island are several tmaller islels and a. 
eoral reels ; the latter extend from it for more than six miles: ^^' ^^* 
the north«westemmo8t of these islets is the land seen in 1801 N. W^l 
by Captain Haywood, and was called by him Vulcan Point: *^^^^^ 
Rbd Island, which he also saw, is eight miles to the west* 
ward; it is in latitude Iff^ l^ 15^ and long. 124^ 15' 45" : 
between it and Charapagny Isles the ebbing tide uncovered 
several extensive reefs. Ten miles N. 26^ E. from Red 
Island, and S. 71^ W. from Freycinet's Island, is a dry 
sand-bank surrounded by a reef. 

Deobbavdo Island, so called by the French, is the south- 
ernmost of theCHAMPAONY ISLES: considerable reefs 
extend off Its south end, which are dry at low water ; its 
centre is in latitude 15^ 20' 45", and longitude 124^ 13' 15". 

CAMDEN BAY is formed between Byam Martinis Island 
and Pratt's Islands, and extends to the eastward to Roger's 
Strait} it is twelve miles deep and eight wide. Here the 
tide rose and fell thirty-seven fbet and a half, the rooon*s 
age being nineteen days. High water took place thirteen 
minutes after the moon's transit. 

Between Camden Bay and Point Swan, a distance of 
ninety miles, the main land falls' back, and forms a very 
eonaiderable opening fronted by a multitude of islands, 
islets, and reefs, into which, from our loss of anchors, we 
were not able to penetrate. From Camden Bay the Islands, 
for the noast seemed too irregular to be the main-land, 
extend in a range in a south direction for more than fifty* 
fiv^ milesi to where there appeared to be a deep opening, or 
strait, from three to five miles wide. An irregular line of 
coast then appeared to extend for seven leagues to the 
)I,W.p and afterwards tQ the westward for five or six leagues. 



348 APPENDIX. 

j^ To the westward of this, the land appeared to be less con* 
Sect. TV 4 tinuous, and to be formed by a mass of islands separated 
N. West by deep and narrow straits^ through some of which the tide 
CoasU ^^ observed to rush with considerable strength, foaming 
and curling in its stream, as if it were rushing through a 
bed of rocks: this was particularly observed among the 
islands to the south of Macleay's Islands. After extending 
for thirty miles farther to the S.W., the land terminates 
evidently in islands, which then trend to the S.E* ; and to 
the westward they are separated from Cygnet Bay, and the 
land to the southward of it by a strait five or six leagues 
wide. The narrowest part of this strait is at Point Cun- 
ningham, where it is twelve miles wide ; two-thirds over 
to the islands are two rocky islets, which bear doe south 
from Sunday Strait 

Montgomery Islands, a group of seven islets on the 
eastern side of this extensive range of islands, which are 
named BUCCANEER'S ARCHIPELAGO, are low and of 
small extent, particularly the six easternmost, none of which 
are a mile long : the westernmost, which has an extensive reef 
stretching to the N.W., is more than three miles in dia* 
meter, and appears to be of different formation to the other, 
being low and flat, whilst the rest are scarcely better than a 
heap of stones, slightly clothed with vegetation. Between 
the easternmost islet and the land, there is a strait of « 
league in width. The tide prevented our trying its depth : 
a league and a half to the north-west, at high-water, we had 
irregular soundings between ten and sixteen fathoms, but 
six fathoms must be* deducted from it to reduce it to the' 
depth at low water. 

Three leagues to the north-west of Montgomery's west-* 
emmost island are Cockell's Islss, two in number, low and 



SAILING DmEcnoNs* 349 

flat, but of small sice. A reef extends for more than five A. 
miles to the westward » and it was not thought improbable °^^' *^' 
that it mieht be connected with the reefs that extend to the N. West 
westward of Montgomery Islands. The centre of the largest 
island is in Iff" 48' S., and 124"^ 4' £. To the N.E. of 
CockeU's Islands the f)ood*tide sets to the south ; but to 
the westward with great strength to the S.E., and, at an 
anchorage ten miles to the eastward of Macleay Isles, the 
tide rose and fell thirty-six feet, the moon being twenty- 
one days old. Cockell's Islands are twenty miles from the 
land to the south; and in this interval, but within four 
leagues from the shore, are several small rocky islets, on 
one of which there is a remarkable lump ; nearer the shore 
are two islands^ which have a more fertile and verdant ap- 
pearance than any other part near them : these form the 
western extremity of Collier's Bay. 

Macleay Isles lie in a N.b.W. direction, and are eight 
miles in extent; the principal and highest island is near 
the south end of the group; those to the northward are 
small and straggling. The centre of the highest is in la- 
titude Id'' 57', and longitude 123^' 42'. 

Caffarelli Island was seen by the French. Its sum^ 
mit is in latitude IG"" 2' 25% and longitude 123'' 18' 35^ 
it is the north-westernmost of a range of islands, extending 
in the direction of N. 60^* W. ; among which Cleft Island, 
so named from a remarkable cleft or chasm near its north 
end, and Dampibr's Monument^ are conspicuous : the latter 
is a high lump. This range is separated from one of a similar 
nature, and extending in a like direction to the eastward, 
by a strait from three to four miles wide, and from fifteen 
to twenty deep. 



350 APPBNDIX. 

A. Foarleen miles N. 68^ W. from the lummit of CaAreUi 

^^' ^* Island IB Beub' Rbaf^ a circular patch of rocks of about a milo 

N, Weit in diameter ( three miles to the aorth^^east of \rhich w« had 

Coestk 

irregular soundings^ between thirty-eight and forty-fi^e Ai- 

thoms on a rocky bottom-. The reef is in 15^ 57' S«, and 

123^ 4' 45" E. 

Six miles south of Caffarelli Island^ is a rocky island^ 

surrounded by a reef; and eight miles farther are se?«ral 

small rocky islands^ forming the north extremity of ^ 

range, which, extending to the S.UE. for ten aiilei» form 

the eastern side of Sunday Strait^ which is the best, and in 

fact the only safe communication with the deep opening 

between Point Cunningham and the islands to the eastward. 

Between this strait and Point Swan, a distance of eleyen 

miles, the space is occupied by a multitude of islands and 

islets, separated from each other by narrow and, probaUyi by 

deep channels, through which tlie tide rushes with frightful 

rapidity. Sunday Strait is more than four miles wide, Imd 

appears to be free from danger. The tide sets through it 

at the rate of four or fiye miles an hour, and forms strong 

ripplibgs, which would be, perhaps, dangerous for a boat 

to encounter. The vessel was whirled round several times in 

passing through it ; but a boat, by being able to pull, might 

in a great measure avoid passing through them. 

CYGNET BAY is formed between the islands and Point 
Cunnibgham ; it is fronted by a bank, over which the least 
Water that we found was two fothoms s within this bank 
there is good anchorage, and near the inlets at the bottom 
of the bay, there is a muddy bottom, with eight and nine fa*- 
thoms mud. 

Point Ctiririir^^bAM {nrojects slightly to the eiastwiffd ; its 
easternmost extremity is in latitude 16^ 39' 20S ond loagi<- 



SAILING DmECTIONS. 351 

tilde 133» 10') fnmi tbe north^rard it has the appeamnc^ of A. 
being an island, as the land to the westward is rather lower i 9»^lVt 
two miles and a half soath of it is Caflisle Head, the north N« West 
eitremitj of OooDBVOudH Bat. 

The shore thence extends b a S.S.E. direction for serenteen 
miles, in which space there is It shoal bay, beyond which 
we did not penetrate^ Off the point is an islet, in Utitode 
about l6^ 68', and to the ftonth of it the land Was seeti 
trending to the Sib.E. for four or five miles, when it was 
lost in distance. From this atichorage no land Was dttf- 
tinctlj seen to the eastward; between the bearing^ of E.N.E. 
and 8.8.E., a slight glimmering of land was raised abore 
the horison^ by the effect of ref^'action ; but this, as in a case 
that occurred before in a neighbouring part off Point Gan^ 
theaume, might be at least fifty miles off. 

From all that is at present known of this remarkable 
opening, there is enough to excite the greatest interest; 
since, from the extent of tbe opening, the tepidity of the 
stream, and -the great rise and fall of the tides, thefe ttiust 
be a tery extensire gulf or opening, totally different from 
erefy thing that has been before seen. 

There is also good reason to sUspect that the land be- 
tween Cape L^vique and Point Gantheaume is an iiilalid i 
and if so, the mouth of this opening is eight miles wide ; 
besidei^ Who is to say that the land even of Cape Villaret 
may not also be an island? The French expedition only 
feaw small portions of the coast to the touthWard i but it does 
taot appear probable that the opening extends to the south" 
wafd of Cape Villaret. (See vol. ii. p. 212.) 

Thirty-three miles in a N. 14^ W. direction from the 
•nmmit of Caffhrelli Island is ADELE ISLAND, it is low, 
and merely covered with a few shrubs, and ii about three 



352 APPENDIX. 

A, miles from east to west, and from one to one and a half 
SectJV. broad; its west end is in 15^ 30' S., and 123® 9' 15* E. 
N. West At about a leagnie N.W. from its western end are two bare 
sandy islets, which were uncovered as we passed, but which 
as there was not the slightest appearance of vegetation 
upon it» may be covered at high water. On the western side 
of Adele Island, is an extensive patch of lightHK>lonred 
water, in some parts of which the sea broke upon the rocks, 
which were only just below the surface. The light-coloured 
water extends for fourteen miles N.W.b.W^^W. from Adele 
Island, but there is reason to think that the water is deep 
over the greater part of it; for we crossed over its tail, and 
sounded in forty-five fathoms widiout finding bottom, whilst 
in the darker-coloured water on either side of it, we had 
forty-two and forty-four fathoms. 

POINT SWAN is the north^easternmost point of the land 
of Cape L^y^que ; it has an island close off its extremity, 
round which the tide rushes with great force, and forms a line 
of ripplings.for ten miles to the W.N.W., through which, even 
in the Bathurst, we found it dangerous to pass. Five mUes 
to the north-eastward of the point are two small rocky islets, 
two miles apart from each other. 

CAPE LEVEQUE is low and rocky, with a small islet 
close to its extremity : its extreme is in latitude 16° 21' 60", 
and longitude 122° 56^ 35". Between the cape and Point 
Swan, there is a sandy bay, fronted by a bed of rocks. It 
was in this bay that the Buccaneers anchored, which Dam- 
pier has so well described. 

The coast between Capes Levequb and Borda extend- 
ing S, 40° W. nineteen miles, is low and rocky, and the 



SA1UNG DIRECriONS. 353 

cbaDtry sandy and uoproductife* Between Citge Borda and A. 
Point Emertaa is a bay ten miles deep, backed by very low Sect^IV, 
sandy land ; . and five miles further is another bay, that ap- ^* W^eat 
peared to be very shoal : thence the coast extends to the 
S.W. for twenty-three miles to Cape Baskb&tille; it is 
low and sandy, like that to the northward, but the interior is 
higher, and with some appearance of vegetation. 

Thirteen miles from the shore are the LAGEPEDE 
ISLANDS; they are three in number, and surrounded by 
a reef nine miles long by five wide. They lie in a N.W. 
direction, and are two miles apart: the north- westernmost 
is in latitude 16^ 49^ 40^, and longitude 122^ 7' 20^ they 
are low and slightly clothed with bushes, and seem to be 
little more than the dry parts of the reef, on which a soil 
has been accumulated, and in time produced vegetation^ 
These islands appear to be the haunt of prodigious numbers 
of boobies. The variation is 0^ 12' W. 

In latitude Iff" 46', and longitude 121"^ 50' 30% the French 
have placed a reef, *^ Banc Des Baieihes ;" which we did 
not approach near enough to see. 

Between Capes Baskerville and Berthollet, is CARNOT 
BAY ; it is six miles deep, and backed by low land. The 
bottom of the bay was not distinctly seen, but from the ap- 
pearance of the land behind the beach, it is not improbable 
that there may be a rivulet falling into it. 

At POINT COULOMB, in latitude 17^ 21% where there 
is a range of dark red cliffs, the coast commences to present 
a more verdant and pleasing appearance than to the north : 

Vol. II. 8 A 



354 APPENDIX. 

A. the interior rises to an anusual heigbt^ and forms a round 
Sect.lV» backed hill, covered with trees : it reminded us of the 
N. West appearance of the country of the north coast, and is so 
different from the rugged and barren character of the 
Islands of Buccaneer's Archipelago as to afford an addi- 
tional ground for our conjecture of the insularity of this 
land. The red cliffs ejttend for four miles to the south- 
ward of Point Coulomb, and are then superseded by a low 
coast, composed alternately of rocky shores and sandy 
beaches. 

CAPE BOILEAU is seventeen miles to the south of 
Point Coulomb; here the shore trends in and fonns a bay 
fifteen miles wide, and six deep: the south head is the 
land of Point Qantheaume, which is composed of sand hills 
very bare of vegetation, as was also the character of the in- 
terior. From Point Qantheaume, in latitude 17^ 53', the 
coast trends to the S.E. for about fifteen miles, where it was 
lost to view in distance : the extreme was a low sandy point, 
and appeared to be the south extremity of the land. The 
space to the south of this, which appeared to be a strait, in- 
sulating the land to Ae north as far as Cape L^v^ue, is 
nine miles wide. The south shore trends to the westward 
to Cape Villaret, on which there is a remarkable hillock, in 
latitude IS"" i<^ 5", and longitude 122'' 3' 46". 

The space between the Cape and Point Gantheaume was 
called ROEBUCK BAY. It is here that Captain Dampier 
landed, in the year 1688. 

Three miles to the south of the hillock on Cape Villaret, 
are two lumps, which at a distance appeared like rocks. 
Cape Latottche Treville has a small hummock near ita ex- 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 365 

traaity, in UUtode IS"* 29% and longitude 121'' 50' 50^ to a. 
the eastward of iCt there ia a thallpw bay open to the north- Sect. IV, 
ifaid, N. We»t 

The depth of water in the offing of Roetmck Bay, is be* ^^^* 
tween eight and twelve fathoms; the bottom is sandy, and 
there are in some parte sand banks, on which the depth 
decreased three fathoms at one heave, but the least water 
was eight fathoms. The flood*tide seU to the eastward, 
towards the opening, and at an anchorage, near Cape La* 
tottche Treville, the ebb ran to the N.E, : but the tides were at 
the neaps, and did not rise more than sixteen leet Captain 
Dampier, at the springs, found it flow thirty feet, which 
tends unquestionably to prove the opening behind Roebuck 
Bay to be considerable, even if it does not communicate with 
that behind the Buccaneer's Archipelago. 

The interval between Cape Latouche-Treville and Oepuch 
Island, wa;i not seen by us. The following brief description 
of it is taken from M. De Freycinet's account of Commodore 
Baudia's voyage. 

Laora vol Bay, to the east of Cape Bossut, is a bight, the 
bottom of which was not seen. Cavk Bossvt is low and 
sandy, as well as the neighbouring land ; and, with the ex- 
ception of a small grove of trees a little to the north of Cape 
Duhamel, the country is steril every where. 

The Casuariva Resf is a bank of sand and rocks, parts 
of whidi are dry, on which the sea occasionally breaks. The 
channel between it and the shore is narrow and skoal, the 
depth being two and a half fathoms. The dry part of the 
reef extends from east to west for about two miles. 

Between Capes Duhamel and Missiesst, the coast is 
sandy and steril, with rocky projections: GEpFFRoy and 
Desault Bats are of the same character. 

SA2 



356 APPENDIX. 

A. With the exception of two intervals, one of which is to 

^•*^'^' the west of Cape Missiesty, and the other to the east of the 

N, West « Bancs des Planaires,** the French saw the coast between 

^***' Capes Missiessy and Kcraudren, but at a great distance. 

It appeared low and steril. 

The " Bancs i>es Plakaires" appeared to have a con-^ 
siderable longitudinal extent ; it was not ascertained whe- 
ther they joined the main land : some parts seemed to be 
dry at low water* 

There is a bank with only fourteen feet water over it, 
situated nearly N.E. from Cape Keraudren in 19** 41' la- 
titude. 

North, a little westerly, from Cape Larrbt, between 
which and Cape Keraudren there is a bay with an island 
(Poissonnier) in the entrance, is Bedout Island. It i» 
in latitude 19® 29', longitude 116° 32*, East of Paris, or 
1 18^ 52' East of Greenwich. It is low and sandy. 

The ** Banc des Amphinomes** is very extensive, and* 
appeared to be connected with the main; it is composed 
of coral, rocks, and sand. 

The coast to the S.W. of Cape Larrey is, as well as the 
Cape itself, of a remarkable red colour. The country ap- 
peared to be steril. 

Turtle Islands, two in number, lie W.N.W. from Cape 
Larrey : the south-westernmost is merely a flat sandy islet, 
Q* Plateau de Sable,*') the other is surrounded by a' 
reef of coral, upon which the sea breaks* The Casuarina 
(M. De Freychiet's vessel) had nine fathoms within half a 
mile of it; the reef appeared to be steep, and the island to 
afford a landing in fine weather. 

The land is equally low and sandy as iar as Cape Thouin 
and Cape Cossiovt. 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 357 

The OEooRiiPiiE Reefs extend for more than twelve \. 
iniles, and perhaps are joined to the land. Their soathern °"^' ^^* 
parts dry at low water. The Geographe sailed through N. Wut 
th«n, so that it is probable they are detached in numerous 
jeefs. 

' At FORESTIER ISLANDS we saw the coast again. The 
main is here very low, but from the shoalness of the water 
we were not able to penetrate behind Depuch Island . It 
is very uncertain whether the coast line that is laid down 
upon the chart is correct: it was scarcely visible from the 
decky and was so low that it might have merely been the 
-dry parts of extensive reefs. The high land retires for 
fifteen or twenty miles, and forms an amphitheatre or deep 
bay, with some hills of considerable elevation in the 
distance. 

• All the islands of this group are low and sandy, excepting 
Dbpuch, which is high, and of a very peculiar formation ; 
jt is described in the first volume, at page 145. 

We did not land upon it, but on its north-east side there 
appeared to be a bay, on which the French found a stream 
of water. 

Between Depuch Island and Cape Lambert the coast 
is very shoal. Towards the latter the hills approach the 
.sea» and the bottom is deeper. Bezoi/t Island is connected 
to the cape by a reef, on which there are several dry rocks ; 
we passed close round its north-east edge, and had eleven 
fathoms. 

To the westward of Cape Lambert, in latitude 20^ 24' 30 ', 
and longitude 117^ 7', there are two deep openings, which 
appeared to be merely bays, but their bottom was not dis* 
tinctly seen. On the top of the hill of the projecting point 
that separates tbem» there are three remarkable rocky sum* 



358 APPENDIX. 

A, niits. The next point has several round«backed hills upon 

Sect. IV. it; it is the east head of Nickoll's Bay, into which there 

N. West may possibly fall one or more streams ; its shores are low, 

^^^^ and appeared to be lined with mangroves. NiokoU's Bay 

affords good anchorage in six and seven fathoms, and is 

only exposed to the N.E. It is protected from westerly 

winds by high land : it is, however, rather exposed to the 

S.W. winds, from the little elevation of the land in that 

direction ; but if a vessel should drive, the passage betweeft 

Bezout and Delambre Island is clear and, as fer as we know, 

free from danger. 

« 

Delahbre Island has very extensive reefs stretching 
to the northward, and also to the eastward, but on its 
w^st^m side did not appear to extend for more than half 
a mile : the hill at the north end of the island is in latitade 
20** 23' 35", and longitude 1 17** 1' W ; the passage between 
it and the reef off Haiit Island, is about two miles and 
a half wide, and from nine to ten fathoms deep. The edge 
of the reef off the latter island is not well defined, for we 
passed several straggling rocks. 

LEGENDRE ISLAND is the northernmost of Dampier's 
Archipelago ; it is nine miles long, and from half to one and 
a half mile broad : near its south-east end, which is con* 
nected to HaUy Island, there are several rocky islets, and 
near its extremity it has three remarkable hillocks ; its N.W. 
point is in latitude 20" 13' 45', and longitude 116^ 46'; iU 
north-east coast and north-west extremity are of bold 
approach: the latter has a reef that fronts its shores, ex* 
tending for about a quarter of a mile into the sea; the 
ground under its lee is rocky, and not safe to anchor near. 
Our cable booked a rock; fortunately however it was rotten. 



SAILING MBfiCTiONS. 359 

and broke away^ to diat the cable* being a chains was not A. 
damaged. Se«tJV. 

The islands of DAMPIER'S ARCHIPELAGO, are of N. Wert 
high rocky character, and very different from either the coast 
or the iilaads in their vicinity. It consists of abont twenty 
islands, besides smaller ones, scattered over a space of 
forty miles in extent : Delambre is the easternmost island, 
and a small sandy island to the S.W. of Enderby Island is 
the westernmost. 

GIDLEY ISLAND, and two others to the eastward, 
extend in a north and south direction ; they are high and 
rocky* The west shore of Gldley Island appeared to be 
fronted by a continuous reef, on which some patches of dry 
rocks were observed. Oidley Island is separated from 
Legendre Island by a very shoal and rocky strait* apparently 
impassable for any thing larger than boats. It has several 
small sandy islets scattered about it, and at low water the 
greater part is dry. There is doubdess a deep passage 
through, but it must be intricate and dangerous, and only 
to be attempted in a case of the most pressing emergency* 
On the island to the southward, are two sandy bays. The 
land to the southward is doubtless a part of the main ; and 
is, like the other islands, high and rocky. It forms the 
eastern shore of MaaMiiD's Stbait, which is an excel* 
lent port, affording safe and secure anchorage at all 
seasons. 

The islands on the western side of the strait, are Lewis 
and Malus. The north-east point of the latter island, 
CouBTEHAY Head, is, without doubt, Captain Dampiefs 
Bluff Head. It is a very remarkable point ; its summit is in 
20^29' 6" S., and 116^ 36' 35" E. On its west side is a 
sandy bay with good anchorage in four and five fathoms. 



360 APPENDIX* 

X, Malaft Island is separated from Lewia Island by a strait a 

Sect. IV. mile wide ; it is probably deep. 

N. West 

^^^^^* The north-east point of LEWIS ISLAND is a narrow 
projecting tongue of land, terminating in a high rocky lamp; 
and to the southward of it, are two high rocky islets of 
similar appearance. There is also another, but of smaller 
size, off the south->ea&t point of Malus Island. In the centre 
of Lewis Island there is a valley, that stretches across to the 
opposite sides of the island, forming a bay on either side. 

To th6 south of Lewis Island is a group of islands, which, 
from the circumstance of our communicating with the na- 
tives, was called Intercourse - Islahds* They are all 
small. The largest has a remarkable summit upon it, in 
latitude 20^ 37' 50", and longitude lie"" 36' 45'': it is from 
this island that the natives drove us, and would not allow us 
to land *• The channel between them and Lewis Island is 
more than a mile wide, and is seven and eight fathoms deep. 
• 

ENDERBY ISLAND is separated from Lewis' Island 
by a channel one mile and a half wide, apparently clear and 
free from danger. Its south-west point is Rockt Head, 
the summit of which was found to be in latitude ^(fi 35' 25', 
and longitude 116^ 23' 5\ To the north is Goodwtv 
^Island; and further north, and W.N.W. from Mains 
Island, from which it is separated by a strait two. miles 
and a half wide, is Rosemary Island, which, when 
viewed from the N.N.E. or S.S.W., has three hummocks 
bearing from each other W.b.N. and £.b.S. The centre 
hummock is in latitude 20^ 27' 30% and longitude 
116^ 31'. In the vicinity of Rosemary and Goodwyn 

• VidevoI,Lp,47, 



Coast. 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 361 

Islands, are several small rocky islands, particularly on the j^^ 
north-east side of the former ; and at the distance of three SectJvL 
miles, to the north of the centre of Mains Island, is a patch N. West 
of flat rocks, which are those seen and noticed by Dampier, 
(Dampier» voL iii. p. 81, tab. iv. No. 10), but from his 
vague account, it is not at all certain what island he saw ; 
and, was it not for the peculiarity and remarkable appearance 
of Courtenay Head, it might have been any of the others. 
There is good anchorage in all parts about the Archipelago, 
particularly within Lewis Island, where the Intercourse 
Islands will shelter a ship from whatever point the wind 
may blow. 

. There is no wood of any size to be procured among the 
islands, which is a great drawback upon its utility as a port. 
In the rainy season water is doubUess abundant, but must 
be soon evaporated. We saw no rivulet or any fresh water, 
excepting a few gallons that. were protected from the heat of 
the sun by being under the shade of a fig, but from the 
number of natives seen by us, it is probable that there must 
be a large quantity not far off. The natives of this part use 
logs to convey them from and to the islands. A small 
sandy island, with a reef extending for two miles from its 
north-west end, and one mile and a half from its south-east 
end, lies off the south-west end of Enderby Island, and 
would serve as a good protection from the sea in aS.W. 
wind, for the anchorage on the south side of Enderby Island. 
The main land is high and rocky behind the islands, but 
at the bottom of. the bay. again assumes a low charac- 
ter : more to the westward, a range of hills rises abruptly 
and advances for fourteea miles in a N.W. direction from 
the interior, and reaches the shores of the bay, when it ex- 
tends for eleven miles to the westward, and is then termi- 
nated by a valley, or an opening of one mile and a half wide. 



3612 APPENDIX. 

A. that separates it from the rocky hills of Capb PaBSTov. 
Sect, iv t fjijjg cape j«ts out into the sea, and is connected by reeft to 
N. West some low sandy islands to the N.E. ; it is in lat. 30^ 49' 45^ 
and long. 116^ 5'. In the centre of the bay, at eight miles 
N. 64^ £. from the extremity of the cape, is a low, sandy 
islet, of about one-third of a mile in diameter ; and behind 
it, near the shores of the bay, there appeared to be odier 
islands of the same size and character, the particular form 
and situation of which could not be distinguished. 

There is a small rocky islet off Cape Preston, and some 
to the S.S.W.y in which direction the shore trends in and 
forms a bay, the shores of which were not seen. 

From Cape Preston the coast assumes a very different 
character from that to the eastward, being less sinuous, 
very low, and either fronted by mangroves, or by a range of 
sand hills, both of which conceal the interior. The coast, 
at from three to seven miles, Is fronted by a range of 
low, sandy islets, from one quarter to two-thirds of a mile in 
diameter: there are, however, two or three near Cape Pres* 
ton of larger size, particularly one bearing 8. 66^ W., fifteen 
miles from the extremity of the cape, of rocky character, 
but very level, and apparently steril; it is nearly circular, 
and about two miles in diameter. It is visible for about five 
leagues. 

Thirty miles S.W.b.S. from Cape Preston is a mangrove 
bight, with several openings communicating with a large 
lagoon, or body of water, at the base of a small range of 
hills. The bight is shoal and thickly studded with sandy 
islets. Hence the coast extends -to the S.W.b.W., fronted 
by mangroves for about forty miles, and then for about 
sixteen miles S.W. to the entrance of Curlew River. 

Between Curlew River and Cape Preston, a spaoa of 
eigbty*five milest there are not less than thiity sandy islets 



8AIUNG DIRECTIONS. 363 

in sight from the coast, separated from each other by chan* A. 
nels, generally navigable, between one to five miles wide. J^ * 
Ctood anchorage may be found among these islandSf for ^' ^^ 
the sea cannot fail of being smooth in the strongest winds. 
The depth among these islands is from four to six fathoms^ 
and the bottom generally of gravel or sand. 

CURLEW RIVER is defended by a shoal entrance, and 
is merely a creek running through a low country for thre^ 
miles ; its banks are overrun with mangrovesi and it afibrds 
no inducement whatever for vessels to visit it The country 
behind is low, and, at spring tides, or during the rainy 
season, is inundated. 

The coast continues low and sandy to Capb Loccia, a 
distance of thirteen miles, and with the same barren cha- 
racter for twenty miles further, forming the east side of Ex- 
mouth Gulf. Rosily, and Thevbnard Isles are low and 
sandy ; they were seen by us at a considerable distance. 

BARROW'S ISLAND, of about forty miles in cirtum- 
fierence, is of moderate height and level aspect, but of 
very steril and barren appearance. A considerable reef 
extends towards the main from its 8outh*east side, where 
there is also a small islet : on the north-east side are three 
islets ; the two outermost of which are low and rocky. The 
west coast of Barrow's Island was seen by the French, who 
thought it was part of the main ; they named its north-west 
end. Cape Dupuy; and its south end. Cape PoiVrb. At ten 
miles S. 25^ W. from the last cape, the French charts have 
assigned a position to a reef: and four miles N. 10^ £. from 
Cape Dupuy is another. Neither were noticed by us, since 
we did not approach this part sufllcieqUy near to see tliem 



364 APPENDIX. 

A. if they do exist; of which, from the account of the Frendi, 
Sect. IV. jhg^ ^5^ ^ ^^^ mj^ douht. 

N. West Low£VDAL IsLAKD End TuiMOUiLLE IsLAND Were seen 
by vf » but not any vestige of Heemite Islavd, which the 
French hare placed in their chart From M. de Freycinet's 
account, the two. latter islands were seen at different times; 
and since Trimouille Island has a reef extending, for five 
miles from its north-western extremity, as Hermite Island 
is described to have, tliere seems to be good reason to sup- 
pose that there is but one; had there been two, we should 
have seen it on passing this part in 1822 *. 

From the reasons mentioned in the narrative, there re- 
mains no doubt in my mind that Barrow's Island, and Low- 
endal and Trimouille Islands, (which the French called the 
Montebello Islands), are the long lost Tetal Rocks. The 
latitude and description answer very exactly ; the longitude 
alone raises the doubt, but the reckonings of former navi- 
gators cannot be depended upon, and errors of ten or twelve 
degrees of longitude were not rare, of which many proofs 
might be found, by comparing the situations of places for- 
merly determined with their position on the charts of the 
present time. Many old navigators were not very particular; 
and never gave the error of their account upon arriving at 
their destined port, either from shame or from carelessness 
and indifference. 

A reef of rocks is said to exist in latitude 2(f 17' 40", and 
longitude 114^ 46" 6'. They were seen by Lieut. Ritchie, 
R. N., in the command of a merchant brig, as appears by an 
account published in the Sydney Gazette. 

EXMOUTH GULF termmates the North-west Coast of 

• Vide vol. L p. I9A» 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 365 

Australia ; it h thirty-four miles wide at its entrance, (be- A. 
tween the North-west Cape and Cape Locker,) and forty- Sect. IV. 
five miles deep. Its eastern side ia formed by a very low N. finest 
€!oa8t, the particulars of which were not distinguished, for it 
is lined by an intricate cluster of islands that we could not, 
baving but one anchor, penetrate among. In the entrance 
is Mttiron Island, and two others, h and i ; and within the 
gulf they are too numerous to distinguish: all the outer 
ones have been assigned correct positions to, as have all be- 
tween Exmouth Gulf and Dampier*s Archipelago. The 
islets y and z are the outer ones of the group; between 
which and the western shore there is a space of fourteen 
miles in extent, quite free from danger, with regular sound- 
ings between nine and twelve fathoms on a sandy bottom. 
Under the western shore, which is the deepest, there are 
some bays which will afford anchorage; but the bottom is 
generally very rocky. In the neighbourhood of the Bay of 
Rest, the shore is more sinuous, and in the bay there is good 
anchorage in three and four fathoms, mud. Here the gulf is 
twelve miles across, and from three to six fathoms deep; 
bot the eastern side is shoal and very low. The gulf then 
shoalens and narrows very much ; and at fifteen miles farther 
terminates in an inlet, or, as has been subsequently conjee- 
tured, a strait communicating with the sea at the south end 
of the high land that forms the western side of the gulf, and 
which is doubtless the identical Cloates Island that has 
puzzled navigators for the last eighty years. It perfectly 
answers the descriptions that have been given ; and the only 
thing against it is the longitude ; but this, like that of the 
Tryal RockSf is not to be attended to. 
The south-west point of this land has been named Point 

• Vide page 867. 



366 APPENDIX* 

A. Cloatea .until its insularity shall be determined, when, for 
^^^* the sake of Geography, the name of Cloates Islavd should 
N. Wett be restored. At the bottom of the soath-eastem side off 
* Exmouth Gulf die land is so low and the islands so nu* 
merotts, that it Was in vain that we attempted to examine 
its shores, which was also rendered still more difficult and 
dang;eroas to persevere in doing, from our losses of an- 
chors, Imd the strong winds which blew every night from 
the S.W. 

The NoRTH-WKST Cape is a low, sandy point, projecting 
for full two miles to the E.N.E. from the fall of the land, 
which was called Vlamikg Head. There is a reef of smsdl 
extent off the cape, but separated from it by a channel half a 
mile wide, and six fathoms deep ; a sandy spit extends also 
from the cape for about a quarter of a mile* 

The extremity of the North-West Cape is in latitudo 
210 47' 40^/^ ^j longitude U4P 3' 40"; and Vlaming Head 
in latitude 21'' 48' 40^ and longitude lU'' 1' 40". 



SECTION V. 



OP THE WINDS AND WEATHER, AND DEfiCRIPTION OF 
THE WESTERN COAST BETWEEN THE NORTH- 
WEST CAPE AND CAPE LEEUWIN. 

We did not obtain much experience of the winds upon this 
coast, having only been upon it during the months of January 
and February, when they prevailed between S.S.E. and 
S.S.W., veering sometimes, though rarely, to S.W. In the 
whiter season (June, ly, and August), hard gales of wind 
have been experienced from the N.W., even as high as 
Shark's Bay ; and at this season the coast ought not to be 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 367 

approached. The South-east Trade is suspended in the A. 

xieigfaboarhood of the coast in the summer season, and the ^^^^* 

winds are almost constant from S.S.W. N. West 

CosMt. 

Between the North-west Cape and Point Cloatss, which 
is in 22^ 33' 5" S., a space of about fifty-two miles, the shore 
is defended by a reef of rocks, extending from three to fi?e 
miles from it. The land is high and lerel, and of most 
Bteril appearance: nearer the north end there is a low, 
sandy plain at the foot of the hills ; but to the southward 
the coast appeared to be steep and precipitous. This is 
eyidently the land that has been taken for Cloates Island ; 
and, in fact, it is not at all unlikely to be an island, 
for, to the southward of the latter point, the shore trends 
in, and was so indistinctly seen, that it probably commu- 
nicates with the bottom of Exmouth Gulf*. At latitude 
23^ 10' the coast slightly projects, and is fronted by a reef, 
on which the sea was breaking heavily. 

■ 

Caps Farquhar, in latitude 23^ 35'» and longitude 
113^ 35' 35% is a low, sandy point. To the northward of it 
the coast trends in and forms a bay, but not deep enough 
to offer shelter from the prevailing winds. 

Between Cape Farquhar and Cape Cuyier the coast is low 
and sandy; the land has a level outline, and the shore is 
formed by a sandy beach, which did not appear to be 
fronted by rocks. The land of Cape Cuvier is high, level^ 
and rocky, and, rising abruptly from the sea, forms a bluff 
point, in latitude 24'' (V 30", and longitude 113^ 21' 48". 
This promontory is the northern head of Shark's Bay. The 
land was not seen by us to the S.E., and is laid down, as is 

• Vide vol. 1. p. 443. 



368 APPENDIX. 

A. indeed. the whole of Sharks Bay, from M. De Freyciners 
Sect^v, ^jjj^rt, which was drawn from the survey mad^ of it in Com- 
N. Wcat modore Baudin's voyage. 

The western coast of Bervier and Dorre Islands are 
bold to, and are composed of a high, precipitous cliff, with a 
level summit. The only irregularity upon, them is a slight' 
elevation on the south end of the . latter. . Off the north 
end of Bemier Island is the small islet called Koks. The 
channel between Bemier and. Dorre is about a mile and a half 
wide, but is so blocked up by rocks as to be impassable. 

DIRK HARTOG'S ISLAND extends from Cape Inscrip- 
tion, in latitude 25^ 28' 20%' to 26^ 6'; it is here separated 
from Point Escarp6e (Bluff Point) by a strait, which has a 
shoal communication * with Shark*s Bay. . Dirk Hartog*s 
Island is high, and of similar appearance to Bernier and 
Dorre ; it is fronted by a line of breakers. Dirk Hartoo's 
Road, at the nortli. end of the island, is a commodious 
roadstead, sheltered from all winds to the southward of 
eftst and' west; and, since they are; the prevailing and al- 
most constant winds of this part, may be considered a 
very secure anchorage. There is a reef extending off Cape 
Inscription for half a mile, j^hich will also afford pro- 
tection from the sea, even should the wind blow hard 
from the west. The beach of the bay is fronted by coral 
rocks, but affords easy landing in all parts, particularly 
at high water. This beach is covered with turtles' nests; 
and at daylight thirty to fifty might be turned and embarked 
without any difficulty or delay. The animals are easily 
taken, since the rocks prevent their escaping into the sea; 
and it is only at high water that they can return. M. De 
Freycinet says (p. 189), that there is a passage between the 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 369 

reefi off .tbe east point of the bay, and the shore with ten A* 
lathoms. .Sect^V, 

The following account of Shark's Bay is taken from M. De ^* Cosst. 
Freycinet's account (p. 189, et seq.) 

In the fair way of the entrance to Shark's Bay, be- 
tween Dorre and Dirk Hartog's Islands, is Dampier's 
RsKF ; it is two miles in extent from east to west, and about 
one mile wide. It has but two and a half and three fathoms 
water over it, and should be approached with care, on ac- 
count of the swell. Proceeding southerly from Cape Levil- 
lain, which is the east head of Dirk Hartog's Road, at the dis- 
tance of five or six miles is a cove (barachais)^ formed by 
reefs, where boats might obtain shelter. Hence to Quoin 
Point, (Com-de»Mire) the coast has no sinuosities. Tetro- 
DON Bat is seven miles wide and very shallow ; it has two 
or three sandy islets in it, and can only be entered by small 
boats. Near Refuge Point is a safe and convenient creek. 
To the southward of this there are several shoal bays. To 
the eastward of Cape Ransonnet, which is peaked and of 
a moderate elevation, there are several little creeks well 
adapted for boats; and, to the westward, a sandy plain 
extends to the south extremity of the island. That part of 
Shark's Bay, between Dirk Hartog's Island and Peron's 
Peninsula, is formed by Le Passage Epineux^ Useless Har- 
bour {Havre Inutile)^ and Henry Freycinet's Harbour : to 
the southward of the line of bearing between Quoin Point 
and Cape Lesueur, the sea is shoal and studded with banks, 
but to the north it is quite open. 

The Passage Epineux, which separates Dirk Hartog^s Island 
from the main, is about two miles wide ; but the reefs and 
rocks, which protrude from either shore, reduce the passage 
to half that width. The depth upon the rocky bar which 
stretches across the entrance is six fathoms, but imme- 

Vol. II. 2 B 



370 APPENDIX. 

A. ^ difltely without it the depth is twefity-two fathoms, M. De 
-^ Freycinet says, that a ship upon a lee shore in the vicinity 
W» Coasl. of Point £scarp4e may enter this opening with confidence ; 
she will find a good shelter and excellent anchorage in five 
and six fisithoms fine sand. To enter it^ pass in mid-channel, 
if any things borrowing upon Point Escarp^e, and steer fot 
the '* Mondfcan de Directum^** and pass over the bat without 
fearing the breakers upon it, which are caused by the sud- 
den decrease of depth, from twenty-two to six fathoms; 
after this the depth will continue without altering more than 
one fathom. The best anchorage is to the S.W, of Cape 
Ransonnet, for within it the passage is blocked up by 
•hoals, over which a boat cannot without difficulty pass. 

Useless Harbour is so shoal as to bcs accordmg to 
its name, quite unserviceable ; since boats can with difficulty 
penetrate to the bottom, although its length is twenty-one 
miles: HfliTRy Fretcinrt Harbour is twenty-two league 
long in a S.E. direction; and from three to six leagues 
wide. Its entrance is blocked up by a bar; and, although 
the depth within is in some parts considerable^ it is very 
doubtful whether ships can enter it. The shores are dif- 
ficult to land upon, from the shoals extending fto far 
off. 

On the western side of this harbour there are several 
inlets and deep bays, but too shoal to be of any service. 
The eastern shore of the harbour is formed by Perok's 
Peninsula, which separates it from Hahelin's Harbour. 
It is sixteen leagues long and five leagues wide. Dahi- 
]?ier's BaT| at the north-west end, contains several sandy 
bays, where boats may almost always land. It is here that 
the French had their observatory. 

From the northern point of the peniusuk, *' PoinU dss 



8AIIJNG DmtCflONS. 3? I 

JXtiil»*Aficb/* the reefii extend fof thre^ ieagtieft to the A. 
North and N.N.W. Tliey were then suppoted to extend Sect^V. 
to the N.11 W. CoMk; 

The French only examined the weetern shores of Hamrifai 
Harbour. The opposite coast was leen only at a distance^ 
and the shoalnest of the water prevented their boats from 
approaching it. M. De Freyciftet says—'' Ces terres, basses 
tt stMleSt ne eontiennent iiacune coupure; runifbrmitl y 
est par-tout complete." p. 194. 

Although Hamelin Harbour is not so deep as that of 
Henry Freycinet, on the opposite side of Peron^s Petihisalay 
it ift nerertheless of larger sise. The centre is much oc* 
cupied by banksy which entirely surround FAVRfelstAND; 
the diameter of which is about two leagues* 

Although many sandy beaches were seen at a distance 
upon the eastern shore of Shark's Bay, yet the boats of 
die French ships could not reach the shore on account of 
the reefs which front it Here and there they disttn* 
guished red cliffs^ and some signs of a scanty and burnt up 
yegetation. 

Of the anchorages in Shark's Bay, the most convenient 
appears to be that in Dampier's Bay, at the north-west end 
of Peron's Peninsula, as well on account of the excel- 
lency of the holding ground, as the facility of procuring 
fuel. The Naturaliste remained a long time at this an- 
chorage, and never experienced any ill effect from the 
winds. The distance from the shore was six miles, and the 
depth six fathoms, fine sandy bottom. The sea was so 
clear, that the anchor was easily distinguished. The Na- 
turaliste found only occasion to moor with a kedge, merely 
to keep the cable clear of the anchor. As the strongest 
winds were the South and East, the bower anchor was laid 

b the latter direction. 

2 B 2 



372 APPENDIX. 

A. The above seeniB to be all that is worth taking from M. De 

Sect. V. Freydnet's account as regards the navigation of Shark's 
W. Coast. Bay. The coasts of the harbours of Henry Freycinet and 
Hamelin are much more detailed by him, and there is also 
much valuable information upon various heads, particu- 
larly as to meteorological observations, and the productions 
of the land and sea, and a curious example of the effect of 
>' mirage;^' but as these subjects are irrelevant to the matter 
of this paper, they have been disregarded. 

From Point Esca&pe'e to Gahthsaume Bat, die 
coast is formed by a precipitous range of rocky cliffs, rising 
abruptly from the sea, to the height perhaps of three or four • 
hundred feet. The coast is fringed with an uninterrupted 
Ibe of breakers. The summit of the land is so level, and 
the coast so uniform, that no summits or points could be set 
with any chance of recogbizing them. The depth at ten 
miles off the shore, was between fifty and seventy fathoms, 
.decreasing to thirty-four in the neighbourhood qf Gan- 
theaume Bay. 

GANTHEAUME BAY probably affords shelter on iU 
south side from S.W. winds : there was some appearance of 
an opening in it, but Vlaming, who sent a boat on shore 
here, has not mentioned it; and if there is one, it is of very 
;5mall size, and unimportant. The shores of the bay are low 
and of steril appearance. 

RED POINT, a steep cliffy projection, is the north ex« 
tremity of a range of reddish-coloured clifTs, of about two 
hundred feet high, that extends to the southward for eight 
miles, when a sandy shore commences and continues with 
little variation, except occasional rocky projections and 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 373 

sometimes rocky bays, as far as Cape Barney. The coast is A. 
moderately high, and, in the interior, some hiils of an un- Sgct. V> 
usual height for this part of the coast are seen. Mount W. CoasL 
Natu&aliste is in latitude 28^ IB', and between the la- 
titudes 28^ 25' and 28*^ 55', is Moresby's Flat-toppeo 
Rakge. It is terminated at the north end by three hills, 
called Mekai Hills ; and at the southern end, by the 
WizA&D Hills. Mount Fairfax is in latitude 28^ 45' 30", 
and longitude 1 14^ 38' 45". The coast in front of this range 
is of pleasing and verdant appearance ; two or three small 
openings in the sandy beach, with an evident separation in' 
the hills behind, particularly one in latitude 28^ 36', bore 
indications of rivulets ; and the smokes of natives' fires, and 
the more wooded character of the coast, shewed that the 
country was evidently more fertile and productive than any 
other part between Cape Leeuwin and the North-west Cape. 
The bojttom at from ten to twelve miles off, is from twenty 
to twenty-five fathoms deep, and composed of a fine sand, 
of a d|rk gray colour. 

CAPE BURNEY is in latitude 28"" 56' : four miles to 
the southward is a reef, apparently detached from the 
shore. « 

HOUTMAN'S ABROHLOS. The old Dutch charts give 
a very considerable extent to this reef; Van Keulen makes 
it cover a space of sea, forty-seven miles long, and twenty 
five broad. . We only saw the islands at the south end, with 
three detached reefs between them and the shore; one of 
which (the southernmost) may probably be the Turtle 
Dove. The islands lie W. 4^ N. true, forty-one miles from 
Cape Bumey, but the channel (Geelvikk Channel) be- 
tween the shore and the reefs, is not more than twenty-six 



374 APPE?IDIX. 

A. miles wide. The scmth-efti^fflmmcMit reef that we taw is about 
°^^ ^* three miles long, and lies nearly ten mites S. 5S^ £. from 
W. Coast the islands ; it appeared to be covered, bat the sea^ was 
breaking high over it- In passing this part of the coast. 
Captain Hamelin, who commanded the Natnraliste under* 
Commodore Baodin's orders, must have steered within the 
reefs^ as th« Geelvink (Vlaming's ship) did. The reef that 
is laid down upon the chart, in latitude 29^ 10' is from Van 
Eeulen. We did not see it* (See Horsburgh, vol. i, 
p. 98.) 

From Cape Bumey the coast is rather low and sandy ; 
in 29^ 16' is a reef; and seven miles more to the south is 
another; they lie from five to seven miles from the shore. 

In latitude 29^ & 30'', there is a small peaked hillock ; 
and in 29^ 17' 50", a small sandy patch upon the land. 

Between latitudes 29^ 25' and 29^ 55\ we did not aee Uie 
coast, having passed it in the night It is laid down from 
Van Keulen's chart. Hence to Island Point, which is low 
and rocky, the shore is lined with reeft, extending off shore 
for two to four miles. At the back of this, and at about 
eif ht miles from the coast* is a rocky rangct of three leagues 
in lengthi on which are Mounts Peron and Lesubuk. 

To the south of Island Point, are two bays fronted 
by reeft; the aouthemmost, JURIEN BAY, has three or 
more small islets in it. Tlie coast to the south of the 
bay is sandy. In latitude 30^ 37', ar<e three small rocky 
lumps, rery remaikably placed; the middle one is in lati«> 
tnde 30^ 37' 40" : fourteen miles to the south of these are 
two others, the north-easternmost is in latitude 30^ 51' 50", 
they are very conspicuously placed upon a ridge of bare white 
sand. Hctice the coast winds to the S.S.E. for eighty miles 
as far as the entrance of Swan ftiven The coast is low and 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 375 

iiightly woBieif aad lined with meft, that in tome places . A. 
extend for two milfee from the shore. Off Cape Lbscre* ^^^' ^* 
VAULT (in latitude 31^ SI') is a reef, lying six miles and ^-^^nt. 
a half from the shore ; it appeared to be connected with the 
vodcs that line the coast 

The following account of SWAN RIVER is taken from 
Captain De Freyeinefs account of Baudin's voyage (p. 175, 
et seq.) 

«' The mouth of Swan River is in latitude 32« 4' 31", and 
longitude liy* 26' 28" East of Paris, or (115® 46' 43" East 
of Greenwich.) The channel is obstructed by a bar of rocks, 
which it is rery difficult to pass over, and, indeed, impractica- 
ble if the wind blows from the sea. On entering, t6e passage 
is on the starboard side : it is narrow and shoal, and divided 
Into two channels, in each of which there is from fi?e to 
six feet of water; after passing this, there is seven and 
eight feet : the course must then be towards the west, to 
avoid two shoals, which are upon the right bank: after half 
a mile the navigation is free, and in mid-chaanel the depth is 
not less than seven, eight, and nine feet. The river then 
trends in a northerly direction for seven miles, widiout any 
sinuosity of consequence. On the eastern bank, are two 
shoals ; the passage is then on the opposite side of the nver, 
the depth of which is eight feet: beyond these banks the course 
of &e river trends to the eastward towards a low point, upon 
which there is a solitary tree ; an extensive bank fronts this 
point, and the channel continues on the western sbofOi Urn 
feet deep. Here the river is a mile broad ; it then increases 
it^ width, and forms spacious bays on either side, l^t 
were not examined. To the S.E. is an opening, which may 
probably be an arm of the river ; it was called Mohea v 
Jmlet; it was not examined. Opposite to it is a sharp 



376 APPENDIX. 

A. pointy fronted by ^ thoal, and the channel is on the eastern 
^'^ • side of the river, with thirteen feet water. Here the river 
W. Coast, widens and forms a basin, two miles and a half wide : a 
little above this the river is blocked up by shoals and islets 
(Heirisson Isles,) between which the depth is not more 
than two or three feet, but afterwards deepens gradually 
from five to fifteen feet ; the banks of the river are then 
not more than one*third of a mile wide, and then continue 
in a serpentine course, with a channel from seven to ten feet 
.deep, and free from shoals, as far as the French boats ex- 
amined it. The stream of the river ran very slowly, and 
winds through a valley, one side of which is abrupt and 
precipitous, and when it ceases to be so on one side, the 
heights immediately appear on the other." 

In front of this river is a group of islands, of which two 
only are of large size, viz.* Rottnest and Buache. We an- 
chored on the north side of the former, but broke the fluke, 
from the rocky nature of the bottom. On the N.E. side 
of the island, the anchorage is better, since it is more 
sheltered. Rottnest Island is five miles long : it was dis« 
covered by Vlaming in 1696. Its shores are very rocky 
and difficult to land upon, particularly those of its northern 
side, which is fronted by rocks. OS* its north point there 
are some rocky islets, and on the north-east side a con- 
venient landing place in a sandy bay, where boats may put 
ashore with great facility. The island is covered with a 
pine-like tree, which is very good for fire-wood, but no 
fresh water was found in any part; the French were equally 
unsuccessful in their search. The nortb*east point of Rett* 
nest Island is in 31'' 59' 30'' &, and IIS^" 31' 12' £. ; and 
the variation 4^ 50' W. 



8AIUNG DIRfiCnONS. 377 

BUACHE ISLAND, according to Captain De Freycinet's A. 
account (p. 170) is equally difficult to land upon ; it is well ^Ll 
wooded, but destitute of fresh water. ^' ^^^^'^ 

To the south of Cape Pbron is a long range of sandy 
coast, for serenty miles, toGBooiiAPHE Bat, which is open 
and exposed to the northward and north-west ; its western 
head is formed by Cape Naturaliste, a rocky point, in lati^ 
tude 33"^ 27' 30% and longitude 114" ST 53', beyond which 
the coast extends to the southward, without any bays to 
Cape Leeuwin. Off the cape is Naturaliste Reef, in latitude 
33" 12\ and longitude 114" 59' 8"; it was seen by the 
French expedition* The land is here of a moderate height, 
but of lerel aspect. There is a remarkable patch of bare 
sand, in latitude 34" 12', and longitude 114" 57'. It is the 
'^ Tache blanche remarquabU^* of De Freycinet's chart It 
lies about seren miles from the south extreme of the island. 



SECTION VI. 



OF THE WINDS AND WEATHER UPON THE SOUTH COAST. 

DIRECTIONS FOR KING GEORGE THE THIRD'S 

SOUND, AND HYDROGRAPHICAL REMARKS 

RELATING TO BASS' STRArr. 

BxTWKXN the meridians of Cape Leenwin and Bass* Strait, 
the weather is generally very unsettled and tempestuous; 
and, at certain seasons, very much ^;ainst a ship making 
the western passage from Port Jackson, which is by passing 
through Bass* Strait, and along the south coast ; but it so 
happens that at the time when ships cannot proceed through 



378 ^ APPENDIX. 

A. Tones* Strait* by reason of the Westerly Honsoon, viz.. 
Sect. vL f^^ ii^^ montli of December to that of March, easterly 
S. Ooast. winds prevail upon the south coast, and are more regular and 
strong in that space between the land and «tke parallel of 
Bass' Strait \ I have been told that the south-westerly gales 
Uiat sometimes occur during that season, seldom, if ever, 
blow home upon the coast; and that when they do reaeh 
die land, they partake more of the character of the sea 
breese; be that as it may, a ship steering to the westward 
should keep to the nortk of 40^, in order to benefit by the 
regularity of die wind, which to the south of that parallel 
generally blows from some western quarter. Prom April to 
October the westerly gales are very constant, and veer be-« 
tween 8.b.W« and N.b.E.; but, in the months of June and 
July, seldom veer to the southward of S.W. or nor&ward 
ef N.W. ; they are then accompanied by a deep and heavy 
sea. The wind, in the summer season, generally revolves 
with the sun, and, as the atmosphere becomes more dense, 
veers to the S.E., with fine weather. 

The marine barometer is here of considerable importance, 
as its rise always precedes a south-east wind, and its fall 
a change from the N.W. s it seldom, however, stands lower 
than twenty-nine and a half inches. The currents generally 
set to the north, and seldom run with any velocity either 
to the east or west, A ship steering along this coast to 
the eastward, bound tp Port Jackson through Torres' Strait, 
should steer upon the parallel of 41^, to avoid being thrown 
into the bight to the west of Cape Northumberland, where 
with a S.E. wind, that would otherwise be lair Ibr carrying 
her through Bass* Strait, she would be detained probably a 
week. 
Upon making Van Diemen's Land, she is ready for either 

« Horsbibrgh, vol. ii. p. 509% 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 379 

a northerly or a southerly wind; since, with the former, A. 
the can round Van Dienen's Land, without suffering nuch ^^^« "> 
4eteatioQ| or materially lengthening her voyage. ^« Coast, 

KINO GEORGE THE THIRD'S SOUND was disco- 
Tered by Captain VuicouTer in the year 1791, on his cele« 
tncated voyage to the North-west Coast bf America. It 
oCsrs an excellent resort for vessels, and is conTcmeat for 
all the purposes of refitting, wooding, and watering. The 
aatives are friendly ; the banks of Oyster Harbour aflfaffd 
a luge abundance of oysters and other shell-fish, and the 
harbours and rivers are well-stocked with fish and birde. 

There are many convenient anchorages in the sound; the 
best place for a large ship, when it is necessary to refit the 
rigging at the same time that she is completing her wood 
and water, is Paxvciss Rotal Haebour; but for a small 
vessel, not drawing more than eleven feet, Otsteh Hasi* 
»oua is preferable, because she is secured to within os» 
hoodred yards of the shore, and therefore better situated for 
tha protection of her people at their ooenpations from the 
natives, who are numerous, and will daily visit them. But, 
for a ship only wanting fuel and water, there is a sandy imy 
in the south-west comer of the sound, in whidi two or three 
streams of excellent water run into the sea over the sand, 
from fAich a ship might complete her hold in a day or two, 
^ digging a well to collect it. Wood may also be procuved 
at diis place, bilt not of so large a siae, or perhaps at so 
good a quality as at other parts. This bay is readily foimd^ 
by its being the first to the westward of a rocky paint, that 
projects from some remarkable bare sand hillocks, as also 
from its being the second sandy beach to the wostwakl <of 
the low flat rocky islet at the back of Seal Island* 

The andrarage is good, baing a bottom of aand and 



380 APPENDIX. 

A. weeds, and is safiiciently protected from easterly winds by 

Ofiff Iff * 

^_ Bebaksea and Michaelmas Islands. The anchorage 
S. CiMst. between Seal Islakd and the first sandy beach to the 
westward of Bald Head, with the low flat rocky islet 
bearing west, in six or seven fathoms sand and weeds, should 
be preferred daring the summer months; for the easterly 
winds then prevail, and sometimes blow strong, even as late 
as March; the anchorage is landlocked, excepting in the 
direction of £.b.N.^ the only quarter to which it is ex- 
posed, and even in that direction the angle subtending the 
sea horizon is not greater than ten degrees of the circle, 
which is of insignificant consequence. 

There is no water nearer to this anchorage than in the sandy 
bay above mentioned, but the distance is trifling for a ship 
that can send boats with men enough to protect themselves 
while employed in filling the casks, for notwithstanding the 
friendly communication we have had with the inhabitants of 
this sound, they are not to be trusted, unless their character is 
different from the rest of their countrymen that we have seen. 
Water is procored at Princess Royal and Oyster Har- 
bours by digging holes at the edge of the sand under the 
hills; but» at the latter plaoe> the stream that we used out- 
side t^e bar affords plenty, of excellent quality, without the 
trouble of digging. 

Over the bar of Oyster Harbour there is not more than ten 
and a half feet at low water, and in the neaps twelve feet at 
high water; but it is likely that, at spring-tides, there may 
be fourteen feet, or perhaps more if the wind is blowing into 
the harbour ; but during the springs high water always takes 
place at night, and it would not, therefore, be prudent to at- 
tempt to pass the bar at that time. 

A vessel intending to go to Oyster Harbour should anchor 
off* the sandy beach immediately to the eastward of the en- 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 381 

trance, thftt is, between the breakers off the point and the _ 'A. 
bar, in three fathoms sand, bringing the summit of Green JL 
Island, in the harbour, on with the extremity of the bashes of °' ^oi^* 
the west point of entrance, and the highest part of Breaksea- 
Island in a line with the outer point of the bay : a boat 
should then be sent to sound the bar. The mark for the 
deepest part is when the western summit of some flat- 
topped land, at the back of Oyster Harbour, is a little open 
of the rocks off the east side of the entrance. 

After the bar is passed, the channel is deepest when the 
centre of the flat land is kept midway between the points of 
entrance, avoiding a spit of rocks that projects from the 
rocky point at the west end of the watering beach. .The 
strongest winds are from the westward, and therefore bower 
anchors should be placed to the south-west and north-west : 
warps and the stream cable will be sufficient to secure her 
from easterly winds, as the hills rise immediately over the 
vessel on that shore. If the run of water outside the bar 
should fail, holes may be dug at the edge of the grass, about 
three feet deep, which will yield a sufficient quantity in two 
or three days for any vessel that can pass over it. 

The flood-tide in the entrance generally ran sixteen hours, 
and ebbed eight hours. High water at full and change took 
place at 10^ IC/ at night; but on the bar the rise and fall 
was very irregular, and a vessel going in should pay great 
attention to the depth, if her draught is more than ten feet, 
for it sometimes rises suddenly two feeU The spring-tides 
take place about the third or fourth day after new or full 
moon. The variation here is about 7^ East. The situation 
of Seal Island, from Captain Flinders's observations, is in 
latitude 35^4' 55'\ and longitude 117° 58' 7". 

A small island was reported in the Sydney Gazette to have 
been seen in latitude 36° 27', and longitude 127° 2' East; 



982 APPENDIX. 

A. but as the account says, that Kangaroo Island was Men 
fleet. VI. i^g gj^mg ^^j^ which is not less than one hundred and fifty 
•6. Coast. leagues from the above position, it appears too vague to 
be correct (See Horsburgh, Supp. page 32.) 

Black Ptramid, off the north-west end of Van Die- 
men's Land, in Bass' Strait, is situated about 4* too much 
to the southward on Captain Flinders's chart. 

Bell's Rock. The following account of a rock, seen by 
Mr. Bell, the Commander of the ship Minerra, on her 
outward-bound passage to New South Wales, appeared in 
a Sydney (New South Wales) Gazette, of the 16th of De- 
cember, 1824. 

*^ On the 14th of November the Minerva very narrowly 
escaped striking on a rock, in the fair way of the west 
entrance to Bass' Strait, on the south side of Kind's Island. 
Raid's rocks bearing North six miles, and the Black Pyra* 
mid E.S.E. : firom this situation the danger was about half 
a mile off (to the southward); but as the water broke 
only at intervals of three or four minutes, although the 
swell was very heavy, it is probable there may be sufficient 
depth of water to carry a ship over it. An indifferent ob- 
servation made the latitude of the ship at the time 40^ 26'." 

In M. De Freycinet's chart of Bass* Strait, some rocky 
islets are placed forty miles east of Sea-Elephant Bay. I 
did not succeed in finding them, although the Mermaid 
sailed close to their position. (See Vol. i. page 446.) 

The PYRAMID, at the east end of Bass' Strait, is placed 
five miles too much to the northward : its true situation is 
in latitude 39° 52' 40", and longitude 147° 11' 30". 

A reef of rocks were seen by Lieutenant John Lamb, R.N., 
off Cape Albany Otway» (See Horsburgh, vol. ii. p. 499.) 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 383 

There appears to be a considerable difference in the a. 
positions assigned to Albatross Island, by the French ^cct. Vt. 
expedition and Captain Flinders; the former made the dif- S; Coasts 
ference between the meridian of Albatross Island» and that 
of the rock in Sea-Elephant Bay, 24' 45" ; whilst by the 
latter it is 32' 30". But at Captain Flinders only saw the 
north end of King's Island, the error seems to originate 
in his haying laid down its eastern side from other autho- 
rities, for his difference of longitude between its north-west 
point and the centre of Albatross Island only differs 2' 30" 
from the French, who Purveyed that island with great care. 

Several sunken rocks have been discovered froih time to 
time near the north end of Gesat Island, so that ships, 
bound through Bass' Strait to the eastward, should not 
pass within Craggy Island without using great caution. 
The best passage is on the south side of Kent's Group, 
between it and the rocky islet (Wjiight's Rock) to the 
south-east. 

In a line between thie above rocky islet and Craggy Island, 
and about two miles from the former, is a reef with two 
small rocks upon it. (See Horsburgh, Supp. p. 32.) 

There are some considerable errors in Captain Flinders's 
chart of Van Diemen's Land, with respect to the latitudes 
of the South-west Cape, the Mewstone, the South cape* 
and the land between them. Tlie first is laid down 8' too 
much to the N. 30^ W, (true), and the other places in pro« 
portion. The corrected situations are given at page 223, of 
the second volume of this work. 



384 APPENDIX 



A. 
Sect. VII. 

Raeft. 

£.Coait 



SECTION VII. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE SHOALS AND REEFS IN THE 
NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE COASTS OF 

AUSTRAUA. 

ELIZABETH'S REEF, (see Horsburgh's Supp. p. 52,) ia 
latitude 30^ 5', and longitude 159^, was discovered by tiie 
ships Claudine and Marquis of Hastings, on the 16th of 
May, 1820. Within two cables' length of the reef, they 
found fourteen fathoms; at a quarter of a mile off the depth 
was twenty-five fathoms, but beyond that the bottom was 
not reached. It is about three miles in. circuit, with deep 
water in the centre : the edge is covered, but some straggling 
rocky lumps shew at intervals above the surface of the water. 
The east side of the reef extends about N.N.E. and S.S.W. 
for one mile, but the greatest extent seemed to be W.N.W. 
and E.S.E. 

r 

MIDDLETON'S SHOAL is in latitude 29^ 14', and Ion- 
gitude 158^ 53'. (See Horsburgh, vol. ii. p. 508.) 

CATO'S BANK is in lat. 23° 6', and long. 155*^ 23'. 
(Flinders, vol. ii. p. 298, and Horsburgh, vol. ii. p. 509.) 

WRECK REEF is in latitude 22"" 1 1' 23", and longitude 
155'' 18' 60\ (Flinders, vol. ii. p. 330, and Horsburgh, 
vol. ii. p. 509.) 

CARNS', or MID-DAY REEF, was discovered by Mr. 
Cams, the master of the ship Neptune, on the 21st of June, 
1818,' having taken a departure jthe day before from Sandy 
Cape. It extends east and west for a considerable dis- 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 385 

tance : the ship passed round the western extremity at two A. 
miles off, and found its bearing from Sandy Cape to be Sect^VIl, 
N. 21® E., one hundred and serenty-six miles, and to be ^^•' 
ia latitude 21® 58; and longitude 154® 20'. lU eastern ^*^^ 
limit was not seen : it consists of a string of sand-banks and 
rocks, from five to twenty feet high, with passages between 
them. (Horsburgh, Supp. p. 35.) 

SIR JAMES SAUMAREZ'S SHOAL was seen by Mr. 
Lihou; it is in latitude 21® 40', and longitude 153® 46^ 
by .chronometer, which was found correct on making Sandy 
Cape a day or two afterwards. There is reason to suppose 
that many other reefs exist to the N. W« of this position* 

KENN*S REEF, discovered by Mr. Alexander Kenn, Mas- 
ter of the ship William Shand, on her passage from Syd- 
ney to Batavia, extends in the direction of N.W.b.N.^N. 
for ten miles, and is composed of sand and rocks, some of 
which, at the south end, were six or eight feet out of the 
water: it is six miles broad; the centre of the edge (? north) 
is in latitude 21® 9', and longitude ' 155® 49^ (by chronometer 
and lunars): it was found to bear S. 67® W., six miles from 
Bird Islet, of Wreck Reef. 

BOOBY and BELLONA SHOALS. In the neighbour- 
hood of these reefs, Lieutenant John Lamb, R.N., Com* 
mander of the ship Baring, was embarrassed for three days, 
in which interval he was sounding in between nineteen and 
forty-five fathoms, and frequently passed shoal parts, 
upon which the sea was breaking. The limits assigned 
by this officer to the extent of the rocky ground, are the 
parallels of 20® 40', and 21® 50', and the meridians of 
J 58® 15' and 159® 30'^ A sandy islet was also seen by 
him, surrounded by a <ima of rocks in 21® 24^^' S,, and 

Vol. II. 2 C 



386 AI>PEND1X. 

A. 158^ 30' B. The ship Minetta also stmck toundingfl in 
Scct.Vn. ^{g|,| A||||0iQg^ ^th the appearance of shoaler water to thfe 
Iteeft. S.W. ; this last danger ts in a line between the two shoals in 
Ei Coast. ^^^^ longitude 159** 20'. (See Hotsburgh, Snpp. p. 35.) 

BAMPTON'S SHOAL is laid down in the shape of a 
horse-shoe, of not less thad ft>rty»fite iniies in extent; on 
the north-east end are two islets with trees. The Avon 
tsLES ate probably ne^ its south-west extremity! they 
were seen by Mr. Sttmkier, Master of the ship Aton, Sep^ 
lumber IS, 1823 ; and are described by him as being thfe^- 
quarters of a mile tn circlimference, twenty feet high, and 
the sea between them twenty fttthoms deep.* At ibttr mileA 
N.E.b.N. from them the yessel sounded in twelve fathoms, 
and at the same time saw a reef ten or fifteen miles to the 
S.E., with deep water between it and the islets. A boat 
landed on the south-westernmost islet, and found it inha- 
bited only by birds, but clothed with shrubs and wild grapes. 
By observation, these islands were found to lie in latitude 
IQ*" 40', and longitude 158^ 6'. 

A reef is laid down in M. Krusenstem's Atlas of the 
Pacific Ocean (1824) in latitude 17% and longitude 156^, 
and is there called Mellish Reef. 

A Res? was seen by the ship FaEDEEiCK, the north- 
east extremity of which is laid down in latitude 20^ 44^ 
and longitude 150^ 32'; it is of semi-circular shape, and 
extends as far south as 21^ 2', and appears to be nearly 
twenty miles wide. 

MNE'S RORSE-SHOE SHOAL; its nordiemaost end 
is in latitude 20^ 5', and longitude 151^ 50' : it presents ita 
convex, or outer edge, to the Southwardi tmd totends aa 
ht n» fifteen miles to the South and Bait 



SAIUfIG mneGTioNs. 3S7 

DIANA'S BANK ii placed in latitude 16<> 8^, ahd loa* A. 
gitude 150^ ^V. (Horaborgh, td. ii. p. 5«9.) ScctVIt 

Reefii. 

BETWEEN the parallels df 16^ 60' and 17« 46', and the ** ^'**^' 
meridians of 150^ 30' and 152* dO', there are several very 
^atensive ree6, various parts of trhich hare heeh teen, ac* 
cording to the following acconnts. 

Lieutenant Vine saw a dry bavk in latitude 17* 46', and 
longitude 151® 40^. See the account of the shoal described 
by M. Tregrosse. 

Mr. Brodiei Commander of the brig Alert, in October, 
1817, saw A REEF extending for a considehible distance in 
a N.B. and S,W. direction. The Alert ran along the reef 
for twenty-five miles : about the centre Mr. Brodie saw two 
sand tsleto in latitude 17® V, and longitude 151® 49^. 

LiHou's Shoal, probably a part of the above reefs seen 
by Lieutenant Vine and from the Alert, lies in latitude 
17® %B\ and longitude 151® 45': it is forty-six miles in 
length, and lies N.N.E. and S.S.W. 

A very extensive ravob ov shoals and islets was seen 
by M. Tregrosse, of the French brig Les Trois Freres, in 
company with the brig Jessie, in 1821, according to the 
subjoined account. 

On the 19th June, the two brigs in company fell in with 
a range of reefs, terminated to the eastward by two sandy 
islets, the easternmost of which is in 151® 47' (149® 27' 
East of Paris); the vessels hauled to the wind immediately, 
but finding they could not pass to windward, bore up, and 
ran along the shoal from eight a.m. to four p.m., at the dis- 
tance of a league and a half. Altogether they counted seven 
islets, three of which were covered with shrubs, and the 
whole connected by a reef, on the edge of which the sea 
VrolEe heavBy: they were called GovxRiroR Farqubah's 

S C 8 



388 APPENDIX; 

A. Group: the westeromost islet is in 17^ 39^, and 15 P 27' 

Sertoli. ^|4go 7/ £j^^ ^f Paris), and appeared to terminate the 

Reefir. group. As it was near sunset, the vessels hauled to the 

' ' wind for the night, and at daylight bore up on a north 

course : soon afterwards they saw an islet W.N.W. ; they, 

however, continued to steer North until eight o'clock^ and 

then, having run nine miles, saw another island N.N.E. On 

attempting to steer between the isles, they were found to be 

connected, and having sounded in eleven fathoms, the vessels 

bore up, and steered between the westernmost islet and two 

extensive reefs, through a passage five or six miles wide, 

that appeared to be clear. 

The westernmost islet is in 17^ 42' S., and 15QP 43' E«, 
(148^ 23' East of Paris), and the westernmost reef, in 
17® 44' S., and 150° 32' E., (148° 12' East of Paris). A 
space of ten or twelve leagues between Governor Farquhar's 
Group and that seen the preceding day was passed in the 
night, and probably may contain other reefs. The last group 
was named Tregrosse's Islets. 
North The Alert struck on a shoal to the westward of Torres' 
Coast, g(f|^^ in 1817 ; it seemed to be about two hundred fathoms 
in length, and about fifty yards broad: it is in latitude 
9° 52', and longitude 140° 50'. 

In the vicinity of Cape Van Diemen there are many sub- 
marine coral banks, that are not yet shoal enough to be 
called reefs ; that which Captain Flinders saw, and sounded 
upon in seven fathoms, lies in 9° 56' latitude, and 1 29° 28' 
longitude. The Alert also passed over a shoal patch with 
nine fathotais in 10° 1' S., and 129° 8' E. 

N. West SAHUL BANK is but very imperfectly known, and ita 

Coast extent by no means so large as is laid down upon the 

chart. In that interval) however, there are probably many 



SAIUNG DIRECTIONS. 389 

raefSy which have been occasionally seen. Captain Heywood A. 
saw a dry part, m latitude ll*' 36', and lonptnde 124° itf^Sv£Vlt 

and there are shoal soundings in crossing it on the following Reeft* 

^«.^- . • N, West 

P«t8; mz., C^ 



Fathonu. Latitude. 


Longitude. 


12 coral, in 11° 21' 


125° 23' 


16 „ 11 10 


27 


12 „ 11 7 


30 


15 „ 10 57 


34 



All of which are detached and separated by deep water. 
(See*Hor8burgh, vol. i. p. 103.) 

CARTIER ISLAND, seen in 1800 by the ship Cartier, is 
a dry sand bank surrounded by a shoal extending for four 
miles to the northward. It is in 12° 29' S., and 123° 56' £., 
by chronometer. 

Captain Heywood in 1801 saw the following reefs. Hie 
centre of one in latitude 12° 48', and longitude 124° 25'; 
and the other in 13° 29', and 124° 5'. 

HIBERNIA SHOAL, seen by Mr. Samnel Ashmore, 
Commander of the ship Hibemia, consists of two small 
sand banks in the centre of a shoal, four miles in extenty 
lying in an east and west direction. It is in latitude 11° 56\ 
and longitude 123° 28', by chronometers. 

Mr. Ashmore also saw another shoal in 1811, the par- 
ticulars of which are detailed in the following letter. 

** The north-east end of the shoal, fell in with on the 11th 
June, 1811, by a good noon observation, is in 12° 11' Sn 
longitude by chronometer 122° 58' 30" (allowing the. south 
head of Port Jackson to be in 151° 25' 25*^. To the west* 
ward of the barrier of black rocks, that presented themselves 
to our view, were several sand banks, the highest of whicbt 



390 APPENDIX*. 

j^^ on the east endy appeartd to have Bome vegetation : tke rc^k» 

Sect^U* in general were six or eight feet above the water, and tbo 

lUefii. tarf broke violently on the N.E. and 8.E. pointf in view* 

Q^^ The shoal trends in a W.b.N. direction for six or sevw 

miles.*' It is distinguished on the chart by the name of 

ASHMORFS SHOAL. 

SCOTT'S REEF (see Horsburgh, vol. i. p. 102) was dis- 
covered by Captain Hey wood, R. N., in 1811: the north- 
west end is in latitude 13^ 52^', and longitude 121^59'; 
thence it extends S. 16^ £• for eighteen or nineteen mOes 
to the north-east point, in latitude 14^ 1', and longitude 
}32^ 16'; the south extent was not ascertained. It is 
ninety-seven miles due East from the situation assigned to 
D^piei^s Rocks. The Car tier also struck upon a shoal 
hereabouts, and Captain Horsburgh seems to think that there 
is little doubt of Scott's Reef being the same that Dampier 
saW| as well as thi^t on which the Cartier struck. 

ROWLEY'S SHOALS consist of three separate reefs, 
the westernmost is the Imperiense, the middle Glerkfi*s» and 
llie north-easternmost the Mermaid's. The Imperieuse is 
ten miles m length from north to south, and its greatest 
breadUi A^e miles: it is surrounded by very deep water, 
and near the eastern edg^, in latitude 17^ 35', and longi« 
tad^ 118^ 5\\ are some dry rocks. Clerke*s Shoal (south 
end in latitude l?"" 28', longitude 119"^ ISO extends to 
dM noith«*we8t, and probably joins Ihe Minstrel's Shoal 
which is described below, and, if this is the case, trends 
N.N.W4W. for seventeen miles. The south end of Mer- 
maid's Shoal is in l?"" 12' S., and 119^ 35' E., and extends 
to the northward for seven milts; but its termination in 
thai dilteten was not sen. The edges of all these mefr 



SAUMQ 01RCCT1ONS. 391 

are steep to; and no bottom was obtained with one hondred a. 
and eighty fathoms. Within the reefs, howerer, there is S«5t^yiL 
a bank of soundings of the depth of finpm one hundred and Reeft. 
seventy to one hundred and twenty fathoms. (See Hors- CouL 
burjpiif vol. i. p. 101.) 

MiN8TR£L*s Sbo4|. («ee Hprsbiirgh'i ^«ipp* p- 52), its 
north-east end ia in 17^ 14' S., and 118<* 67' E., or 6® 28' 
IJiSt by cbrooometar, firem the coast of New Holland in 
latitude 23^ lO' 8. Thf longitude of that part of th^ iio««l 
by my saryey, is 113^ 42'; this will make the Mipstrel'4 
UmaI in 119^ 10^, which agrees Tery woll with Clf roll's 
Eeef» the centra reef of Rowley's 8hoal9, of whioh k if qftr 
Uualy the north end ; so Captain Horibiifgh %\%p svppftsep, 

A ship ctlled tb« I^ivELT was wrapped Qn 9, ooi^l f«^ 
in 4)out 16'' 30' $.» and 119'' 35' ^. 

. RITCHIE'S REEF,- or the Greyhound's Shoal. Tli^fit«|r 
^^p pf this reef is recorded by C^ptaiq Horfborgb (s^ 
S^p. p. 88) to be in latitude 19^ 58', and longitude 114* 
40i' i l)ut, by a letter published in the Sydney G^Eett^ 1^ 
Lieiit^napt Ritchie, R-N., the compiaLndf r,it would ^pp^^r |p 
bp in 20"" 17' 40% tcmgitude by lun^s 1 U"" 46' 6". 

The {lussian ship HuaicKi in 1822, 9»w a dry r(M^ Rock oif 
%|M)ye w^ter off the noiith-east coast of Van Di^m^'s l^^^ V.DJUnd 
14 Itfitndfi 44^ «a4 longitude 147<' 45'. 
. A f^k we# ^«9 fO^ hy the ship I^uo 8i9¥07Tq4|| 
l«19t in latitad^ 43'' 49S Ka4 long^add 147'' 15'. 



392 APPENDIX* 



SECTION VIIL 

DIRECTIONS FOR THE PASSAGE WITHIN THE REEFS 
THROUGH TORRES' STRAIT. 

A. The passage xecommended by Captain Flinders for passing 
VIII through Torres' Strait is by entering the reefs at Murray's 
. — Island ; by which route a two-days' passage will carry a, 
Route. *b>P P^t all danger: but, as the space between Wreck Reef 
and Murray's Island is strewed with dangers, many of which 
have been discovered 3ince the publication of his charts, 
and of which the greater number have only been recently 
seen, it cannot be called a safe navigation. The dangers 
consist of low coral islands, surrounded by extensive reefs, 
upon which in long and dark nights a vessel is in mo* 
mentary danger of -striking; the result of which roust be 
the certain destruction of the -vessel, and the probable loss 
of the crew. The Inner Route was first pursued by Mr. 
Cripps in the brig Cyclops, bound from Port Jackson to 
Bengal,- in 1812. It was subsequently followed by Lieu- 
tenant C. Jeffreys, B.N., in the command of the hired armed 
vessel Kangaroo, on her passage from Port Jackson to 
Ceylon, in IS 15** This ofiBcer drew a chart, with a track 
of his voyage up the coast; which, -considering the ahorU 
nes» of his tifne, und other circumstances that prevented 
his obtaining the necessary data to lay down with accuracy 
so intricate and dangerous a passage, does him very great 
credit ; he 611ed up the space between Endeavour River and 
Cape Direction, which Captain Cook did not see ; the only 
part that had previously been left a blank upon the chart 

* flossBuaoH's Indian Directary^ vol. ii. p. 514. 



SAILING DiREeriONS. 



393 



of New Sonth Wales ; his outline was foaad to be tole- 
Kably correct, and my alterations have only been caused by 
better opportunities, and by the greater detail of my ope* 
ntions. The general feature of the coast has scarcely re- 
quired correction ; the principal corrections have been in the 
number,, size, and relative bearings of the coral reefs and 
islands that front it. 

In describing this route, the whole of the bearings are 
magnetic; and the courses are freed from the effect of tide 
or current, since they are only temporary, and often of 
trifling importance *. 

DIRECTIONS. 

Having hauled round Breaksea Spit (see Flinders's charts 
sheet in.) in the evening, it would perhaps be dangerous to 
steer on through the night ; after running, therefore, to the 
W.N.W. for five or six leagues, bring to until daylight: 
but,, if the day is before you, the course from the extremity 
of the spit is W.N.W^W. for about a hundred miles. You 
will then be about twenty miles from Cape Capricorn : on 
your way to which you should pass about three miles within 
Lady Elliot's Island, and also within the southernmost islet 
of Bunker's Group, by which you will see how the current 
has effected your course, and you can act accordingly : if it 
has set you to the northward, you may pass on either side 
of or through the islands without danger. After making 
Cape Capricorn, you- may leave it at a convenient distance, 
and, directing your course about N.W.b.N., pass either within 
or without the Peaked and Flat Islands off Port Bowen ; 
then, steering for the Percy Group, pass between the 2d 
and dd Northumberland Islands. 

^ In following these directions, reference should be made to the 
description of the coast, contuned in this Appendiz« between 
pBgies258andA>7« 



A. 

Section 

Inner 
RoBte# 



394 AfPSIfDIX. 

4. ~ Alter p(li»iDg %h^ latter, ^vpid a low daiverpaa fo^^, Aft 

^^^ bear^ from it N. 9^ E. five mileg and tbr^e-qaarterf, iMid 

-^' firpm let Pealp S. 95^ W, To avoid this ia tba nigbt> PV9 

H^^l^^ close fouDd No. 3, when, its situs^tioo being known, ypu can 

easily ^Yoid it 

The c^anael i^ safe on either side of the P^cy IsIeSi 
but that to the westward of them, being better known, is 
therefore recommended as the safest. Then steer either OTer 
tbp Mermaid*s or Bathurst's tracks, which will carry a ship 
round the projections of the coast as far as Cape Graftpii, 
as far as which, if the weather is fine, there can be no danger 
of proceeding through the night; but it must be recollected, 
that at Cape Grafton the coral reefs approach the coast, 
and, consequently, great care must be used. 

Ob reaching Fitaroy Island, round it at a mile off show, 
and, when its north end bears West, steer N.W.^N. tot 
thirty*five miles ; ypu will then be a league to Uie S.E. of a 
group of low isles; if it should be nig^t when you paaa 
Aem, oome no nearer to them than fourteen fathoms, (a 
steering this course, great eare should be ts^en, opt to go 
too much to the eastward to avoid the reef which the Taioar 
saw. (See Appendix, Note, p. 277.) 

If the moon is up the islets will be readily distinguished^ 
but otherwise it would be more prudent to wait for 4ayligbt> 
This course will cariy a ship over two of my tracks^ and 
the soundings will be in seventeen, eighteen, aAd ninetaof^fiin 
thorns. From the low isles direct your course for the Hop9 
Islands, which bear from the former N. 18^ W. thirty^ight 
miles, but the course had better be within that lipe, to avoid 
some reefs in latitude 15° 6V : pas^, therefore, within #?o 
miles of Cape Tribulation, when a direct couri^e may b« 
steered either to the eastward or westward ief th# Hope 
bdM. T^ b^Mr roote wiil be within ^^ wai^e^ Hpsif^ 
and along its reef at the distance of thrQ^^qaMitaiia. of % 



SAILING .DIRBCnONS. 39A 

allft, by whidi y<m will avoid r^if a. When yon ara 4. 
abreait of iu north end, steer N.b.W. westerly for tweoly* ^fr?^ 
eight miles; this will carry you to Cape Bedford, which — ' 
you may round at from one to three or four milea. You | |^ ^ 
will see in your way, at three miles and a half from tha 
Qorth end of the Hope Reef, reef b ; and at fifteen milaa 
from it you will be abreast of e ; and five miles farther 
on you will pass Captain Cook's Turtle Reef, which has a 
dry sand at its north end. These three reefs will be to the 
eastward of your course. 

. The current sets to the N.W., so that your course must ba 
directed accordingly. In coasting along the shore, you will 
discern the summits which are marked on the chart The - 
high conical hill, on the south side of the entrance of En* 
deavour River, is Mount Cook, bearings of which, crossed 
with the summit of Cape Bedford, or any of the particulacv 
ized summits or points will give the vessel's place, by which 
the efiects of the current, which is generally very slight, 
will be perceived : on one occasion we found a current in 
the space between the Endeavour Reef and Turtle Reef, of 
two miles an hour to the N.W. 

Being off Cape Bedford, and steering to the N. j-^m you 
will see the Three Isles a-head : steer between them and the 
low wooded island; and direct your course round Cape 
Flattery aud Point Lookout, to anchor under the Turtle 
Group, unless you have time before dark to reach the 
islands 4, 6, or 6, of Howick's Group, imder which an* 
ohorage may be found. In rounding Point Lookout, da 
not come within two miles and a half of it, lo avoid a reef 
that is on Captain Cook*s chart, but which we did not see; 
it lies a mile and a half north from the peidced hill at the 
«9tramity of the point. You. may pass witfaoutihe Turtle 
Ofoop, OP you will ind anchorage under Liiavd hiand. 



396 APPENDIX. 

A# but this is not recommended^ both because the wind is 

%!^j^ generally fresher as you increase your distance from the 

. — shore, and because it lengthens the distance. 

InDSf 

]^,^Mite# From the Turtle Group steer N.W.b.W.JW. until you 

see the hillock at the south-east end of No. 1 of Howick's 

Group : then pass inside and within a mile of 2 and 3, 

and between islet 4 and Cole's Islands, and inshore of 

6 and the dry sands s, t, and U. The Mermaid's track 

will direct the course to Cape Melville. If the day is late 

when abreast of 6, of Howick's Group, anchorage had better 

be secured under it, as there is none to be recommended 

between it and Cape Flinders. 

Upon rounding Cape Melville, the Islands of Flinders^s 
Group will be seen ; and as soon as you have passed round 
the stony reef that projects off the Cape, (the extremity of 
which bears from it by compass N.W^b.N., and from Pipon's 
Island S.W.b.W.|W. nearly,) in doing which steer within the 
reef that surrounds Pipon Island, direct the course for the 
extremity of the islands, which is Cape Flinders; the course 
and distance being W.^S. nearly thirteen miles: on this a 
low woody island will be left on the starboard hand. 

His Majesty's sloop Satellite, in 1822, grounded upon a 
small reef, bearing >I.b.£. (easterly) from the extremity of 
the cape« distant about two miles ; but, as a ship may pass 
within a stone*s throw of the cape, this danger may be 
easily avoided. The best anchorage here is under the flat* 
topped hill, at a third of a mile from the shore, in ten 
fathoms, muddy bottom. In hauling round the cape, avoid 
A shoal which extends for a short distance from tlie shore 
on its western side. 

If the day is not far advanced, and you have time to run 
fifteen miles further, the ship may proceed to the reef d; 
buty iodeeds anchorage may be obtained under any of the 



SAILING DIRECTIONS. 



397 



reefs or islets between this part and Cape GrenTille, for thd 
bottom is universally of mud ; and by anchoring' with the 
body of a reefy bearing S.E., the vemelis sufficiently shel- 
tered from the sea, which is generally smooth. 

On leaving Cape Flinders, steer W.f N« for about twenty- 
three miles, leaving the reefs C and g to seaward, and d, Cf 
and f to the southward, of the course ; then haul up about 
N.W..|N., and steer within the reef 1 and Pelican Islandi 
and to seaward of the Claremont Islands 1 and 2^ which are 
low and woody. 

When abreast of 2, the south-west end of the reef m will 
be seen, which should be passed at from one to two milesi 
and the course N.b.W.JW. will carry you to 4 and 5, 
which you may pass on either side of, the channel between 
them being quite safe. If you take the latter course^ steefr 
north, within the reef O9 and then close within 6, to avoid 
the low rock that covers with the tide. Having passed this 
rock, steer for 7, and pass within one mile of it, to avoid the 
shoals that extend off Cape Sidmouth. Hence the course 
is N.N.W. towards Night Island ; and, when abreast of it, 
steer N.^W, until near the covered shoal V, when the 
course may be directed within Sherrard*s Islets and reef 10 
(on which there is a sandy islet covered with some bushes), 
and then steer round Cape Direction. 

Hence the course N.N.W.-^Wr will carry you within the 
reefs y, z, a, b, and C, and without the rocky islet that 
lies off Restoration Island : continuing this course you will, 
at about five miles beyond the cape, see the long reef e ; 
steer N.W. parallel with its edge, which extends until you 
are abreast of Fair Cape, where it terminates with. a very 
narrow point. Then steer N.W.JN., and pass between 
the two easternmost Piper*s Islands and the reefs fa, i, 
and k; then pass on either side of I and niy inshore of 



A. 

Section 

yui. 

Inner 
Route. 



398 APPENDIX. 

A. Huggerston^l blabd, and round tb6 butemidst of Sir Bvenrd 
«^^J« Home's Group. 

— ' The anchorages between Cape Flinders and this are so 
Rente "i'l™®'*^^* ** ^ot to require particular mention : the norths 
weit fend of every reef will afford shelter; but the anchor 
should not be dropped too near, because the tide sweepft 
round the edge with greater strength than it does at half a 
mile off, within which distance the bottom is generally 
deeper. If the day is advanced and the breeze fresh, 
Night Island should not be passed: because the anchor* 
ages between it and Piper's Islands are rather exposed; 
and a vessel getting underweigh from Night Island at day* 
light will easily reach Piper's Islands, or Margaret Bay, 
before dark. 

The latter bay is round Gape Grenville; it is fronted by 
Sunday Island, which affords good shelter from the wind: it 
is a safe place to stop at. 

In passing round Sir Everard Home's Islands, steer wide 
from them, to avoid the tide drifting you towards the group, 
for it sets to the N.W. across the course. The course is 
then about N.W.^W. to tiie Bird Isles, and thence, to the 
reef v, about N.W.b.N. ; the better and more direct plan is 
to pass within y and W, (there is, however, a safe channel 
between them,) and when abreast of the west end of the 
latter, the course to Cidrncross Island is N.b.W.JW., and 
the distance about eighteen miles. 

There not being any very good anchorage between this 
and Cape York, it would be perhaps better to anchor under 
it for the night, in about fourteen or fifteen fathoms, mud, 
the island bearing S.E., but not nearer than half a mile, be* 
cause, within that distance, the bottom is rocky. 

Leaving Cairncrf)ss Island, steer N.N.W.^W. until Escape 
River Is abreast of you, when look out for reef X: steer 



SAILING DIHECtlONS. ^^ 

within it about N.W.b.N., which will take ypu inside the a. 
covered r^ef z. Yonr course then must be round the Albany ^S*/?'^ 
Islands, and hence N.W.b.N. for a» which is a rocky islet — •' 

w ' 

that may be seen from abreast the Albany Isles. Route. 

The passage through the Possession Isles and Endeavour 
Strait is not to be recommended for a large ship, on account 
of the shoal water that extends from Wallis's Isles towards 
Shoal Cape ; but the route round the north end of Wednes- 
day and Hammond's Islands is preferable. Upon passing 
reef a, Wednesday Island will be seen: in steering towards it, 
avoid standing too close to the rocky islet that is abreast of 
the strait between it and Horded Hill, as fiotte dnnken rocks 
stretch odPit for about a quarter of a mile: steer round the 
iiorth point of Wednesday Island at half a mile, and then 
W.b.S.^S., which will carry you to the northward of the rock 
off Hammond's Island. Having passed this rock, steer 
S.W.b.W. ; and when abreast of the 80udi*west end of 
Hammond's Island, haul towards a reef, to the southward 
of the course, on which you will see some dry rocks, which 
you may pass within half a mile of: you will then avoid 
itef d, which is generally, if not always, oovered : the fair 
way of this channel is seven and eight fathoms deep« 

When the summit of Good's Island bears S.W.b.W., steer 
W.b.S. southerly for Booby Island, by which you will avoid 
Larpent's bank, and when you have passed it, you are clear 
of the strait. Hence yon may steer W.JS. through the 
night, on which course you will very gradually deepen your 
wstet* 



400 



APPENDIX. 



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Vol. II. 



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404 APPENDIX. 



SECTION IX, 

UPON THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONS OP THE FIXED 

POINTS OF THE SURVEY. 

j^^ The observations for determining the longitudes of the va- 
Sect. iX. rions parts of the coast were taken with a circle and a 
sextant by Troughton: besides these yalnable instruments 
we had three chronometers of Arnold's make, viz., 413 (box)» 
2054 (pocket), and 394 (pocket) ; of which the two first 
were supplied by the Admiralty. At the end of the fourth 
year, in consequence of 394 having stopped, a fourth chro* 
nometer, made by Parkinson and Frodsham (No* 287 box)i 
was purchased in the colony, and proved to be a most excel- 
lent watch. 

The situations of the following places, which were either 
fixed by us, or adapted from other authorities, served as 
the basis of the chronometrical determination of the lopgi* 
tudes of the intermediate parts. 

The flag-staff of FORT MACQUARIC, on the nOrth*east 
head of Sydney Cove in PORT JACKSON, (the Catde 
Point of Flinders, and otherwise fiennilong Point,) is in 
latitude 33® 51' 28" S., and longitude 151^ 15' 26 E., being, 
ficcording to the ensuing table, the mean of all the observa* 
tions that have been taken. 



GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONS. 405 



ijBmnae ooiervoa Dy uapiaiii Minders, in 1795 and i«» 


9^ 


1 51 45.6 J^^ 


06 Freycinet in 180a 




51 81 Sect. IX. 


King (reduced) 1817 




51 IS 


Sir T. Brifbnne (reduced) 1889 




51 80 


McMi LftUtade of Fort Macquarie « • * 


99 51 88 




o 




Loogitode obierved by Captain Cook, reduced from hia 


/ «r 


obiervationi at Botany Bay, 1770 


151 


11 98 


Captain Hunter, 1788 




19 48 


Lieutenant Dawes „ « « 




18 50 


Lieutenant Bradley , 




80 38 


Malespina 




17 58 


Meaars. Broughton and Crosley, 






1795 




9 S 


Captain Flinders, 1795-6 




17 18 


Ditto 1808 




11 49 


Captain De Freycinet, 1808 




8 88 


M. D*Espinosa by an eclipse of 






O and occult, of V Ist and 






8nd Satellites, 1793 




18 45 


Governor Bligb, 1806, eclipse 






ofO 




17 49 


Captain P. P. King, ISH^eclipse 






of 0, calculated by Mr. Rum- 






ker . • • 




17 89 


Sir Tbomas Brisbane, 1888, (the 






mean of six eclipses places his 






«b8ervatoryinl5loi5'80^ . 




15 38 


Mr. Rumker, eclipse of At 






Panama'tta, leduc^'to Fort 






Macquarie 




17 80 


Mean Longitude of Fort Macquarie • • 1 


fsT 


15 86 



PERCY ISLAND (No. 2). The longitude of the south- 
west end of this island is by Captain Flinders's observation 
iuWOMS'Et 



406 APPENDIX. 

A. : ENDEAVOUR RIVER. The obsmatory, which wai 
pw . &A^ placed within a few yards of the shore on the south side of 
the entrance, (the summit of the highest bush near the 
extremity of the opposite sandy beach, bearing by compass 
W. 3^40'S.), was found to be situated in latitude 15^2^4", 
and longitude 145^ 10' 49". (See note. Appendix A, 
p. 279.) 

G0UL6URN ISLANDS. The obaervations were taken 
upon Bottle Rock, the largest of two rocky islets at the 
north end of South -west Bay ; but the results were so doubt* 
ful and unsatisfactory, that the longitude determined by the 
chjronpmeters was preferred. The following are the obser* 
vatioas that were taken to fix its situation, viz. : 

latitude by fourteen meridional altitudes 
of the !• 1. on the sea«horison, taken in 
various parts of the bay, aad reduced by ^ ^ ^ 
• survey to Bottle Rock . . . . 1 1 37 24 

The diflference of longitude between Bottle 

Rock and Cassini Island by chronometers, ^ , „ 

taken in 1819 7 40 47 

1820 7 40 00 

1821 7 38 28 

Meaih difference between Cassini Island and 

Bottle Rock 7 39 45 

JjOBgitude of Cassini Island from Careening 

: Bay, by survey 125 38 46 

Longitude of Bottle Rock, by chronometer, 
from Cassini Island • • . , 133 18 31 

* « 

• The mean of the results of the lunar distances that were 
taken during the years 1818 and 1819, gaVe for the- 



GEOGRAPHICAL PCMSITIONS. 407 

longitude of the rock 133^ 31' 58" £. On our last a. 
voyage the mean of the Bathurst's and Dick's watches ^^** '^' 
made it 133^ 19' 40\ which was finally adapted, since it 
accorded better with the chroQOQietrical difference between 
its meridian and that of Cassini Island. I have never been 
abl^ to account for thi» ^t^aordiiA^f y dieiigreemeot betifj^en 
the resiiltm 9f the lunM di»t«iiGe» wi thechroneroelcTi, since 
the former waie taken with the sun on bodi sides of the 
moon, and seemed to be very good. 

CAREENING BAY. This place was fixed by a series of 
ohMrTations, b latitude 15^ 6' 18" S., and 195<^ 0* 46" Ba«t 
{See Appendix A., in a note, p. 340.) 

KINO OEORQE THE THIRD'S SOUND* The longitude 
of this place was adapted from the observatioiit and tarvey 
of Captain Flinders, as follows ivi».s 

Tb% tent on the east shore of the entrance^ of Oyster 
Harbour. Latitude 35'' 0' 1 7', and longitude 1 17^ 66* 22". 

The sandy beach under the low part of the land of Bald 
Head (the firet sandy bay round the head) is in latitude 
dBP 6V and longitude 1 V 68' 6". 

COEPANO, in the Island of Timor. The situation of ike 
4ig*stafirof Fort CouooauA, where our ekroaometera watt 
xetad, i« in UUiude lO^' 9' 6'\ tad longitude U3^ 3i' 46% 
aecording IQ the obscrvatioiui of Captaia FUndert. 



408 APPENDIX. 



B. 



CONTAINING A U8T AND DESCRIFnON OF THE SUBJECTS OF 

NATVBAL HISTORY COLLECTED DURING CAPTAIN 

KING'S SURVEY OF THE INTERTROPICAL AND 

WESTERN COASTS OF AUSTRALIA. 



Previously tp tha establishment of the British Colony 
at Port Jackson, in the year 1787, the shores of this ex* 
tensive continent had been visited by very few navigators 
vho have recorded any account of the productions of its 
Animal Kingdom. The first authentic report that we 
have, is that of Vlaming, who is celebrated as the first 
discoverer of that '' rara aviSy' the black swan : next to 
him followed Dampier, who has handed down to us in his 
intelligent, although quaint, style, the account of several of 
the productions of the North-western and Western Coasts ; 
but the harvest was reserved for Banks and Solander, the 
companions of Cook, whose names are so well and widely 
known in the fields of science. These distinguished na- 
turalists were the first collectors upon the Coast of New 
South Wales; and although their labours were not con« 
fined to any particular branch of Natural History, yet 
Botany appeared to be their chief object, of which the 
Banksian Herbarium yields ample proof. 

Among the collectors of Natural History, in the neighbour- 
hood of the colony, since the year 1787, may be recorded 
the names of White, Paterson, Collins, Brown, Caley, Lewin, 
Humphreys, and Jamison ; and in this interval the coasts 



NATURAL HiOTORY. 409 

have been visited by two English and two French expe- 
ditions of discovery ; namdyy those commanded by Admiral 
D'Entrecasteanz, Captains Vancouver and Flinders^ and 
Commodore Baudin. The first merely touched upon the 
south coast at the Recherche's Archipelago, and on the 
south shores of Van Diemen's Land ; and the second only 
at King Geoi^ the Third's Sound, near the South-west 
Cape ; but these opportunities were sufficient to celebrate 
the names of Labillardiere and Menzies as Australian Beta* 
nistSy notwithstanding they have been since eclipsed by the 
more extensive discoveries of Mr. Brown, whose collections 
of Natural History upon the voyage of Captain Flinders, 
and his pre-eminent qualifications, have justly raised him to 
the pinnacle of botanical science upon which he is so firmly 
and deservedly elevated. 

P6ron and Lesueur, in Baudin's voyage, extended their 
inquiries chiefly among the branches of zoological research ; 
but in that expedition each department of Natural History 
had its separate collector, and the names of Leschenault de la 
Tour, Riedl^, Depuch, and Bailly, will not be forgotten. Un- 
fortunately, the Natural History of this voyage has never yet 
been given to the world, the death of M. P^ron having put 
a stop to its publicadon; a few of the subjects, however, 
have been taken up by MM. Lac^p^de and Cuvier, and 
other French naturalists, in the form of monographs, in 
their various scientific journals ; but the greater part is yet 
untouched, probably from the want of the valuable in« 
formation which died with its collector. M. P6ron, in his 
historical account of that expedition, notices a few subjects 
of zoology that were collected by him, but in so vague a 
manner, that it is with very great doubt that the specimens 
which we procured, and suspect to be his discoveries, can 
b$ compared with his descriptions.^ 



410 APPENDIX. 

Of the Natural History colleotions of Captain Flinders and 
Mr. Brown, no account has been published, excepting the 
valuable botanioal works of the latter gentleman. 

With respecl to ^ the collection which has been fonned 
upon this expedition, it is to be regretted that the gleanings 
of the Animal Ktngdon, particularly of qoadmpeda and 
birds, should have been so trifling in number; and that the 
students of Natural History should have suffered disappoint^ 
nent in what mighty at first viewt h® fairly considered to have 
arisen from neglect and careless attention to the subject ; but 
as the priocipaU and almost the only^ object of the voyage 
was the survey of the coast, for which purpose a small 
vessel was justly considered the most advantageous, accom? 
modation for a zoological collection was out of the question. 
The very few specimens that are now ofihred to the world 
were procured as leisure and opportunity offered ; but many 
interesting and extremely curious subjects were in fact 
obliged to be left behind from want of room, and from 
our not possessing apparatus for collectbg and preservbg 
them. 

A botanical collector for the Royal Garden, Mr. Allan 
Cunningham, was attached to the expedition ; and this gen<* 
tleman did not fail to make a very extensive and valuable 
collection in his department, the whole of which is pre* 
served at Kew. 

In making out the Appendix, every species brought home 
(excepting three or four fishes) has been mentioned, for the 
sake of furnishing materials for the students of Geographical 
Zoology. The distribution of animals is a branch of study 
that has been very much neglected, which is to be lamented^ 
as it appears likely to offer a very great assistance to the 
systemaitic Physiologist; and for this reason the species 
found at the Isle of France have been added to the list. 



NATURAL HiarORY. 411 

For the catalogue and descriptions of the quadrupeds^ 
reptiles, and shells, I am under obligation to Mr. J. £. Gray, 
of the British Museum. Mr. Vigors has kindly assisted me 
with the use of his collection, and his valuable advice with 
respect to the few -specimens of birds that were preserved ; 
and Mr. W. S. Mac Leay has furnished me with a very va- 
luable description of my entomological collection. I am 
also indebted to Mr. Cunningham for his remarks upon the 
botany of the country ; to Mr. Brown, for his description 
of a new tree from King George the Third's Sound ; and 
lastly to Dr. Fitton, for his kindness in drawing up for me 
a very interesting geological notice from the specimens that 
have been presented to the Geological Society of Londos, of 
which he is one of the most active and scientific menbers. 



412 APPENDIX. [B. 



VERTEBRATA. 



MAMMALIA. 



By JOHN BDWAED GRAY, Esq., M.G.S., &c. 



I. Ptbropus EdwarD81i» Detm. Matim. 109. 
Madagascar Bat» JEdwards's Birdst 1. 108^ 
Vespertilio Vampyrus, Lin. Sy»t. Nat, i. 45* 
Flying^ Fox, Colonists of Port Jackson, 

This specimen, caught at Point CiinniDgham on the North- 
west Coast, appeals to agree with Edwards's figare, and 
with the specimen preserved in the British Museum. There 
is also one in the collection of the Linnean Society from 
Port Jackson. Large flights of these animals were observed 
at Port Keats and in Cambridge Gulf, on the North-west 
Coast Tliis bat seems also to be very abundant on the 
Friendly Islands, for Forster describes having seen five l^un- 
dred hanging upon one catuarina tree. — ^Forster, p. 187. 

8. Canis Australia. 

Canis familiaris Australasia, Desmarestt Mamm, 191. 
Australasian Dog, or Dingo, Shaw's Zooi, L 278, t. 76* 

This animal is common in the neighbourhood of Port Jackson, 
and dogs, to all appearance of the same species, are found on 
all parts of the coast. Captain King presented a living spe- 
cimen to Sir Everard Home, Bart., who sent it to Exeter 
Change. 



Mammalia.] NATURAL fflSTORY. 413 

Id considering fhis species as distinct from the common 
dog, 1 am supported by the opinion of Mr* William Mac 
Leay. (See Linn. Trans, xiii.) 

Captain King infonns me that these dogs never bark, in 
Which particular they agree with the Linnean account of 
the American dog; that^ in their appearance and cunning 
disposition, they resemble the fox ; and although occasion^ 
ally domesticated in New South Wales, they never lose the 
sly habits peculiar to their breed, nor can be prevented 
from killing poultry or biting sheep. 

This dog, however, seems to be quite a distinct species 
from that found in the South Sea Islands, which Forster 
describes as being '' of a lingular race : they mostly re« 
semble the common cur, but have prodigious large heads, 
remarkably little eyes, prick ears, long hair, and a short 
bushy tail. They are chiefly fed with fruit at the Society 
Isles ; but in the Low Isles and New Zealand, where they 
are the only domestic animals, they live upon fish. They 
are exceedingly stupid, and seldom or never bark, only howl 
now and then." — Forstee's Observations^ p. 189. 

3. Otaria cinbrba, P6ron et Lesaeur, Foy. aux Terres Aus- 
tral, ij. 75. 

The head of a species, agreeing with the short description of 
P^ron, was brought home by the expedition, but that it is the 
one intended by these authors, there is great room to doubt. 
I am informed that specimens of Pcron*s animal are in 
the Paris Museum, but Desmarest and Fr6d^ric Cuvier, who 
have both lately written upon seals, have only copied the 
very short specific character given by Peron^ The head of 
our specimen is gray, covered with rather short, rigid, hairs, 
and without any woolly fur. The ears are short,' conical. 
It is very disijnct from the Otaria FalMandica of Desma* 



414 APPENDIX. tt. 

rest (the Pkoea Falkkmdka* of Shftw)» by tlie want of the 
woollj sabitanctt vnd^ the hftir, (called fiir by the smI* 
fishers,) and by the length of the ear, which intheJatter 
species, described by Shaw, is long and awl«shaped. 

Captain King in his MS. observes, that this seal is found 
at Aottnast Island on the West Coast* and at King George 
the Third's Sound. It appeared also to be die same species 
that frequenU Shark's Bay ; and, if it is M. Peron's Oimria 
dnerea, it is also found as far to the eastward as Kangaroo 
Island. 

The head is deposited in the Linnean Society's collection. 

4. Pbtaurista 6C1URBA, Dami. N. JHcLH, N, zxy. 408. 

Didelphis sciurea, Shaw's Zool, i. t. US. 
Sugar Squirrel, CoioniiU of Port Jackson. 

A well preserred natural skeleton of this animal was brought 
home and deposited in the British Museum. 

5. AcROBATA PTOHAA, Desm. Mamm, 270. 

DidelpUs pygmtea, Shawns Gen, Zod. i. t. 114u 
Phalang^ista pygmns, (reojfr, MSS* 
Petaurus pygmaeus, Desm, N. Diet. H, N* zxr. 406. 
Opossum Mouse, CoionisU at Port Jaekson. 

This little animal, the smallest and most beautiful of the 
opossum tribe, is exceedingly numerous in the vicinity of 
Port Jackson. It was first described by Dr. Shaw in his 
Zoology of New Holland. There are several specimens in 
the Linnean Society's collection. The above is placed in 
the Bridsh Museum. 

* Tlie specimen in the Museum, which I take for this species, 
was brought by Captain Peake from New Soutfi Shetland: it 
dyfeii ftom Peaaaafs, and cottse<iuently from all s aces e d in g ds^ 
scriptiotts that an taken firom him, in having live instead of fioor 
flaws and toss to the hind foot. ^ 



itAVKALfA.] NATURAL HisrtroRY. 415 

6* Dklfhinorhtnchdb Pernbttbnsib ? 
Delphinus Pernettensig, BlainviUe, 
Delphinus Delphis, var, Bonnaterre, Ency, Cetd, 21 • 
Daupbin, Pemetty, Voy. aux Ides Malouines, 99. t. 2. f . 1. 

A head, apparently belonging to. this species, was brought 
home and deposited in the collection of the British Maseum. 
This animal is very common upon the northern coasts of 
New Holland. 

, Captaia King, in his MS^ remarks, that the coasts <»f 
New South Wales, and the north-weslern side of New 
Holland, abomid in cetaceous animals. Upon the North- 
east Coast, within the reefs, the sea is crowded with Ba* 
Usna phyialis^ Linn., or fin-backed whales, as they arft 
called by the whalers, who pay little attention to them, 
on account of the danger of approaching them. His boats 
tren sometimes placed in critical situations from these ani* 
ftials suddenly rising to the surface of the water close to 
them, and lashing the sea with their tremendous fins, and 
their occasionally leaping out of the water, and falling 
down with a crushing weight. Their colour is generally 
of a cinereous hue, but a few were noticed that were 
yariegated black and white, llie whales of the North- 
west Coast appeared to be of the same species, but of at 
darker colour. At one of the anchorages, near Cape Le- 
y^que, (vol. ii. p. 91.), the brig was for a whole night sur- 
rounded by these enormous fish, and the crew in momentary 
dread of their falling on board, the consequence of which 
would have been very disastrous. The noise of th«ir fall 
in the water, on a calm nighti was as loud as the report 
of a cannon. 






416 APt^lSNDIX. fB. 



AVES. 



Thii Collection has been presented to the Ltnnean Soetetyf in 

whose cabinets they are numbered according to the 

Order in which they are here inserted, 

1. HALcroir sacra. Swainson, 

Alcedo sacra, Ind. Orn, i. 250, 
Sacred Kbgfisher, Latham^ iv. 25. 

This bird was taken at sea, in the neighbourhood of Cam^ 
bridge Gulf, on the North-west Coast, haying probably been 
blown off by a strong land wind. 

2. Barita TiBicBN. Cuvier. 

Coracias Tibicen, Ind. Om. sup. xxvii. 
Piping Roller, Latham^ iii. 86. 

S. Barita varia. Cuvier, 

Coracias yaria, Ind, Orn, i, 173. 
Pied Roller, Latham^ iii. 86. 

This appears to be a young specimen. 

4. CrntRopus Phasianub. lUiger, 

Cuculiis Phasianus, Ind, Orn, sup. xzx. 
Polophilus Phasianus, Leach, Zool, Misc, pi. 46. 
Pheasant Cuckoo, Latham, iii. 240. 

This bird is found upon all parts of the coast of New 
South Wales north of Port Jackson, as well as upon the 
eastern part of the North-west Coast. Its habitat in Aus- 
tralia is known to extend as wide as twentyjfour degrees of 



AYBS.] N/ITURAL HISTORY. 41*^ 

latkade^ and twenty-six degrees of longitude* Thir spe- 
ciiAen was taken at Endeavour River, on the East Coast. 
There is also another specimen of this bird in the Linnean 
Society's colleaion, that was taken in the neighbourhood of 
Tost Jackson. 

5. Mbuphaoa cobniculata. Lewin, 
Merops comiculata, Ind, Om. i. 876. 
Knob-fronted Honey-eater, LtUhamt iv. 16L 

This bird is found upon the whole extent of the Eastern 
Coast. 

The next Urd in the collection has been arranged by 
Dr. Latham in the Linnean genus Orcicula^ but appears to 
me to agree in no respect with that genus, as originally 
characterized by Lmnieus, much less with it as it has been 
modified by modem ornithologists. Whether we consider, 
according to M. Cuvier*, that the type of Oracula is the 
Paradisea tristis^ Linn., or, according to M. Temminck, that 
it is the Oracula reUgiosa, Linn.t, ^^ which latter opinion I 
feel rather disposed to acquiesce, my bird agrees with the 
group in none of its essential characters. In fact, the Lin- 
nean genus Oriolus is that to which it bears the closest re- 
semblance in its general appearance ; particularly by a si- 
milar disposition of its colours, and in the structure of its 
bill, wings, and legs. I would at once refer it to that 
^enus, but that Ihave some reason to think that it belongs 
to the meliphagous birds, which are so abundant in New 
Holland, and which have been observed to assume the ap- 
pearance of almost every group in the Insessares* Indeed, 
some birds of that country, which have been decided to be 

•RigneAnim.i.860. 

t Afudyie dun Sytt Qen* dOm* p, S2» 

Vol. U. 8 E 



418 APPENDIX. [B, 

ffldiphagousy such as the MtVphaga eyoMpi^ Lewiii*f [Gm« 
culine Honey-eater, Lath. Stfn. it. 166. sp. Ed. 2da.] 
tod others allied to it, and which differ little from the bird 
before ns, have so many external relations with the Onole$t 
that they probably would be found to arrange themseWes in 
the same family with them, were it not for the totally dif* 
ferent structure of their tongue, and the consequent difierence 
in their habits of life. Of the tongue, or mode of feeding df 
the bird at present before us, I can myself say nothing de« 
cisively, not having had leisure or opportunity, as I have 
already observed, of attending to the more interesting details 
of Natural History during the expedition. But general opi- 
nion places this bird among the groups that feed by suction; 
and as I have a second species hitherto undescribed, which 
is closely allied to it, I prefer forming both provisionally 
into a new genus, to referring them to one, from which, al* 
though they agree with it in external appearance, they may 
be totally remote, in consequence of their internal anatomy 
and habits of life. The error at least will not be so great, 
and may be easily retrieved. If the tongue of my birds 
be found to accord with that of the Ortofes, and not of the 
Honejf'S&ckerSj my group of course must fall. 

Genus MIMETESt. 

BoHrum forte, sttbavcnatam, subcultratum, mandilmlis utri«|liS 
apiee emarginatis ; naribus basalibus, Uteralibus, subovalibua, nsn- 
brano partim tecds. 

LingwK ad tugendum idonea ? 

AUb mediocres, rotundatae; remige 1"^ bremsimA; k^ et 6^ 

« Birds of New Bottand, pi. ir. 

t Mimetes^ from ^M^mtv, imitator ; [assusnng the wpfmrmet of a 
different group.] 



AvnO NATURAL HISTORY. 419 

•qualilpas; fl^ et 4** ht^ nqtalikii* Imigiiiiimii ; 5^ bii panlo 
lireviori: remigum 9^ ad 6*** iodttsam poi^oiiiis ei^tanis \a medio 
fradatim prodoctis, 

Pei^ei subbreves; acrotaniis sculellatiB, acatia qalnque; pan- 
taniia intefpif. 

Cauda mediocrii, fori nqnafis* ' 

6. VifttDts. M. oihaeeo^ridii, subttu albidut nigro guHoHm 

itriatui ; alU eaudique nigro-fiueitf iUU otbid^'marginMs, 
hie apiee albo. 

' Gracuk Tlridis. LatL Ind. Orth 9upp, p. tS. 

Caput danumque ^livaceo-viridia, plumis in medio longitudi-* 
naliter fbaeo-lineatis. Tectrices tuperiorea nigro-fiiacie, ad apicem 
aIbido-mar|^nat» i inferiora albido nigroque varie^te. Remlg0$ 
aupra fuses, ad marginem externum apicemque leviter albido- 
notato ; tubtna pallid^ fuacto. ReeUricet nigro-fuicaB, snbtut pal* 
lidiores, omnibus, duabus mediis exceptis, i4>iGe albo-maculatia. 
Rostrum flaTom. Pedes rntpA, Longitude* corporis, 10]^; a/«a 
carpo ad lemigem 9^, 5tV> caudte, 4}; tarsi, H; rostri ad 
firontem, 1-^, ad rictum, l-^. 

7. FLAy<M!iNOTUB» (n. a.) M. fldvo^iridis, subtus pailidior, 

eapite dorsoque fuscoMneatis, alis caudique nigris virM 
fiavoque variefotis. 

Capitis, gula, dorsiqae plume flavo-virides, in medio fuseo* 
Uoeatae, bujoa fiaeis latioribua. Tec^neet superiorea nigrn, i^ce 
iavo-margin^tsi pteromatum margina flavo^ alia olausis, fiuKiam 
coQspicuam fonnante; inferiores flave, ad basin nigro*notatae. 
Remiges supra nigre, subtus fuscse; primariis angusl6» aecon- 
dariis lat^, apice flayo-marginaUs ; pogoniis extemis angustd, in- 
temis lat^ flavo^marginatis. Rectrices supra nigre flavo^Tiridi 
marginate, subtus paUidiores, omnibus, duabus mediis eiceptis, 
ihacallt flay& laid apicali notatis. Rostrum flavuro, pauIo altius, 
et magis'carinatum, quam rostrum M, viridis* Pedes nigri. 

* Mj meaammeni is in iiiclies» and thefar component parts. 

SE9 



420 APPENDIX. IB. 

The dimensions of this bird are nearly the same as those 
of ilf. viricUs: the bill only slightly differing in being some- 
what higher, and more carinated. The above descriptions 
will point out the specific differences between the two birds, 
which are strongly apparent, not merely by the M.flavo' 
cinctua being marked with yellow where the other bird is 
white, but by the general distribution of the colours. In 
this respect, ilf. flavo'cinctus resembles more closely the 
true Orkies, particularly in the ydlow/oscta which is formed 
on the wing, when closed by the junction of the apical spots 
on the quill coverts. 

8. Rallus Philippbnsis. Ltn. SyH, i. 263. 7« /fid. Om. 75S» 

Bm.T. 16S.t. 14.f. 1. PLEfa.774. 

This bird was found upon Booby Island, near Ciqpe York 
(the north extremi^ of New South Wales), and agrees with 
a specimen already in the Linnean Society's collection, that 
was taken in the neighbourhood of Port Jackson. My bird, 
being of smaller size than most of those with which I have 
compared it, is probably a young specimen. The rufous 
band on the breast is narrower than is usual in the species, 
originating probably from the same circumstance : otherwise 
it agrees precisely. 

Rallus Philippensis was originally found in the Philippine 
Islands. It appears to have a very extensive range, as it 
inhabits lands both in the North and South Pacific, as well 
as in the Indian Ocean, 

9. Eamatofus picatus, (n, a.) 

Heater; carport mbttu^fasciA aiarunh uropygiOt eauda^ 
que hasi^ Mis ; remigibus primoribus totis nigris, 

Roiirum pedesqfie nibri; eoUum totum nigrum; teetriees 
inferiores primoret fuse®, seoondarisB alb»t ad carpam et 
ad marginem exteriorem nigro-variegatse ; fascia tdarum 



AvMj NATURilL HlfiTTORY. 421 

anfittto; remiget primoret supra nignst sabtus fiuc»; 
uropygium album pare6 nigro varMgatam. 
Longitudo eorporii ab apice roatri ad apicem caudsB, 28 • aim 
a carpo ad remigem priinam, 1 1 ; rocfn, 3-^ ; tarsi,^ 8^ ; 
caud4Bf 5. 

Besides the common Oyzter^Caicher of Europe, two spe- 
cies have lately been added to the genus, viz., H. paUiatuSi 
Temm., a native of Brazil, and H. vigery Cuv., from New 
Holland. The bird above described approaches more closely 
to the European species {H. osiralegus) than to the other 
two; but may be distinguished from it by the following 
characters, viz. :— 

In its dimensions it exceeds the length of the European 
bird by six inches, and the other parts in proportion ; it wants 
the white collar round the neck, which is a very distinctive 
character of JET. ostralegtu ; the fascia on the wing is con- 
fined to the extremity of the secondary quill feathers alone, 
whilst in the other bird it extends to some of the wing 
coverts : the primary quill feathers also are entirely black ; 
whereas the other has them partially variegated with white: 
the under wing coverts also differ, the primary ones being 
fuscous, and the outer secondary partially marked with 
black ; whilst the whole of the under wing coverts in 
H. ostrai^us are white. The uropygium also, which in 
the European bird is entirely white, is in our specimen par- 
tially variegated with black. The marginal webs of the toes 
are much more dilated. The whitish lunular mark under 
the eye otH. ostralegus, is entirely wanting in our species, of 
which the margin o^ tbe eye seems to be of a reddish tinge, 
of the same colour as the bill. This bird is common upon the 
shores of the continent g^nersdly ; it is called by the colonists 
the Red Bill. 



Al^PENDIX. [B. 



10. ApTuroDTTBs WiNOR. Onief. iSfyif. i. 05B* 
The Little Penguin* Latham* 

This bird is common in all parts of the Southern Ocean. 
The above specimen was found at King George the Third's 
Sound near the south-west extremity of New Holland. 
There are two specimens, in the collection marked 9 a, 
and 9 b. 

U* Tachtpbtbs Aquila. VSeillot. 
Pelecanas AquUa, Omd, Lin, !. 572. 
Frigfate Bird. 

This specimen was obtained at Ascension, and is common 
in all parts of the Atlantic within or near the Tropic. 

12« Stbrka pulioinoba. Gme/. Lin. i. 605* Ind, Om, ii« 

804. 
Egg Bird, Forst. Voy. i. 115. Cook, Foy. i. 66, 975. 
Noddy, Dampier, Hi. pt. i. 99., tab. p. 85. fig. 5. Hawket^ 

worth's CoU, of Foyaget^ ill. 658. 
Sooty Tern, Gen. Syn, vi. 858. Arc. Zoci. ii. No. 4«r. 

There are two specimens of this bird in the collection, 
marked 12 a^ and 12 b. 

1& STSaNA PBLBCAirOlDES, (n. s«) 

S, aiba ; capitis vertice nigro albo^variegato ; dorso, alit, 
caudAqtic canii ; remigibus fusco-atris, rhachihtu albis. 

CM latera pared cano-maculata ; tectrices secundaria) pri- 
moribuB obscuriores ; rcmiges fiiico-atne, pogoniis inter- 
nis fere ad apicem albo-marginatis ; reetrices eztenus fiisctt 
• basi apiceque albis ; rostrum subflayum ; pedes nlgri. 

Longitada corporis, 10.}^ aim a carpo ad remigem primaoit 
13^ ; Cauda, 6^ ; rostri^ ad firontem, 8^ ad rictum, 3^ ; 
tarsi, Ij.. 

The hallux, or hind toe, of this bird appears to be more 
closely united to the fore toes, and to be situated more in 
front than is usual among the Term : it is also to be observed. 



AtM.J NATURAL lil81t>RY. 433 

that the side of the nail of the middle toe is considerably 
dilated, although not serratedy similar to what is obsenred 
among the Pelecanid^u These characters offer a corroboration 
of the affinity of the Sterna to the family of the PelecamcUBf 
and particularly to the genus BhaHton^ which approaches the 
Tenu more closely than any other group of that family, in 
the smaller size of the membrane that unites the toes (see 
Linn. Trans, xir. 505)i It may also be stated on the other 
handy that the same membrane of the Sterna pelecanoides 
deriates from its own genus, and approaches the PelecanuUBf 
in its being more dilated than usual. The wings are longer 
than the tail for a considerable eitentt by which our bird also 
evinces another character* in common with the long-winged 
TaQkfp&U$i or Frigate bird. 

14i Lakus OaoROiit (n. s.) 

L. Mutt dorto tiiUfue nigru; reetrie^ue albUt fmeUk 
media otrL 

Rostrum flavum, apice rubro ; mandibuls inferiorU gonlde 
maxime angulatii ; remigee prlmores atre, seemidaria supra 
nifTM apioe albo^ infta albs; teekieee inbrioies attNSf 
pedes flan. 

Longitudo corporis, 88; a/«, a carpo ad remigem primam 
18| ; mandibula, tuperioris ad frontemi 2^ ad rictum, 8^ • 
tarsi, S^ ; eauda, 8|. 

This bird was found at King George the Third's Sound, on 
the South-west Coast, in the vicinity of Seal Island. 



42i ^ APPENDIX. ^a 



BEPTILIA. 



By JOHN BDWABB 6RAY| EiQ.| M.9.8. 



Genus CHLAMYD08AURUS. Gray, 

Cajnie depress^ ; membrani tympani aperti. 

Gu/Apennolifrplicatia amM. 

Pedihui qoAtaar. 

IHgitia quinque, elongfatia, simpUcibus. 

CavM elongaUy snbcjlindricd. 

Animal scaly; the head depressed; the nostrils placed 
on the side, midway between the eyes and the end of the 
head ; the drum of the ear naked ;- the front teeth conical, 
awl-shaped (eight in the upper, and four in the lower jaw) ; 
the hinder ones largest; the side or cheek teeth compressed, 
short, forming a single rid^, gradually longer behind; 
tongue short, fleshy, with an oval smooth disk at each side 
of the lower part of its front part ; neck rather long, furnished 
on each side with a large plaited frill, supported' above by a 
crescent-shaped cartilage arising from the upper hmder part 
of the ear, and, in the middle, by an elongation of the side 
fork of the bone of the tongue; body compressed; legs 
rather long, especially the hinder ones ; destitute of femoral 
pores ; feet four, with five toes, the first having two, the 
second three, the third four, the fourth five, and the little 
finger and toe three joints ; claws compressed, hooked ; tail 
long, nearly round, scaly. 

This genus appears to be nearly allied to the AgamtByYmi 
difiers from them in the peculiar frill that is appended to 
the neck. 



..bfftuu.} natural history. .425 

h GiOAiiTDOiAimrt. Kivoii, (n. a.) 

. C. corpore lutfio^, nigro^ .v&riegaio:; M^^tamii eturinaiis ; peno 
nulA af^ce serraU ; caudA earpare dupio /(mgiore* 
GhlamydosaaiuB Kingiif Gray MSS* 
Icon. Tab. A. Natural size. 

. Inhabits Port Nelson, north-west coast of Australia. 

The colour yellowish-brown .variegated with black: the 
head depressed, with tha sides erect,. leaTing a blunt ridge 
on. the upper part,. in which the eyes. are placed: the ridge 

. over the eyes covered with, larger scales than those over 
the hea4 ;. eyes rather small, with a£eshy ridge above them; 
eye-lids covered with.minute^ and surrounded by a delicate 
.serrated ridge. of small upright scales: the lips surrounded by 
a row of oblong, four-sided scales^. arranged lengthways, the 
front scale of the upper lip bemg the largest : the chin co- 
vered with narrow mid-ribbed scales, with a five-sided one in 
the centre, and several of larger size just over the front of the 
fork.of the lower jaw : nostrils, surrounded by rather a large 
orbicular scale, situated nearly mid-way between die eye 
and the end of the upper jaw, the tubes pointing forwards : 
the side of the face has a very obscure ridge extending from 
the angle of the mouth to the under part of the ear : neck 
covered with small scales : frill arising from the hinder part 
jot tihe head, just jover the front of the ears, and attached to 
the sides of the neck and extending down to the front part of 
the chest, supported above by a lunate cartilage arising 
from the hinder dorsal part of the ear, and in the centre by 

.. a boi^e, which extends about half its length : this bone ap- 
pears to be an elongation of the.side fork of the bone «f the 

; tongqe, but it could not be determined withxertainty widi- 
out injuring the specimen ; each frill has four plaits,* whieh 
converge on the under part of the chin, and fold it up 
pn the side, and a fifth wher^ the twp are united in th^ 



496 APPENDIX. [B. 

centre of the lower part of the wA $ Ae ftont put of ill 
upper edge is elegantly lerraledy but the hinder or lower 
part iB quite whole; the outer surfiice is covered with 
keeled scales, which are largest towards its centre ; the inner 
surface is quite smooth. The scales of the back are oval, 
smoothish; those of the lower part of the body and upper 
part of the legs acutely mid-ribbedy and of the sides and 
jpints of the limbs minute. The tail is twice as long as the 
body, roundish, covered with acutely mid-ribbed scales, 
which towards the end form six rows, so as to render it 
obscurely six-sided; the epd is blunt: the toes long, very 
unequal, varying in joints, as stated in the generic character 
(which includes also the claw joint), compressed, scaly; the 
claws hooked, horn-coloured. 



Length of the tail 

w body 

»* head 
Breadth of the head over the eyes 


Inches. 
. 12 
6 

. H 
. I 


Length of the thigh 

»> foot and sole 


. 1* 


'» outer edge of the frill 


. 10 



This interesting lizard was found by Mr. Allan Cunning- 
ham, who accompanied the expedition as His Majesty's Bo> 
tanical Collector for Kew Gardens, on the branch of a tree in 
Careening Bay, at the bottom of Port Nelson. (See voL L 
p. 430.) It was sent by him to Sir Everard Home, by whom 
it was deposited in the Moseum of the College of Sur* 
geons*, which prednded my examination of its internal 
•tmetuie. 

* Upon application to iihe Board of Curators of the CoUsge, I 
was permitted to have a drawing made of this curious and umque 



RiPTlLiA.] .' NATURAL nl9rORY. 427 

Respecting^ this remarkable lizard^ Mf. Cuxmingham's 
joanial eontainB the fellowing remarks. *' I secured a lizard 
of extraordinary appearance, which had perched itself upon 
the stem of a small decayed tree. It had a curious crenated 
membrane like a ruff or tippet round its neck, coverii^; its 
shoulders, and when expanded, which it was enabled to 
do by meiins of transverse slender cartilages, spreads five 
inches in the form of an open umbrella. I regret that my 
eagerness to secure so interesting an animal did not admit of 
snfiScient time to allow the lizard to shew by its alarm or 
irritability how far it depended upon, or what use it made 
of| this extraordinary membrane when its life was threat* 
eaed. Its head was rather large, and eyeSf whilst living, 
rather prominent ; its tongue, although bifid, was short and 
thick, and appeared to be tubular.'' — Cunningham MS8, 

Captain King informs. me, that the colour of the tongue 
and inside of the mouth was yellow. 

S. Uabanus VAitius, Merrem. 

Lacerta varia, fFhitet Jour, of a Foy» to New HoUandt 2&S, 

t. 88. Shaw,Nat.Mise.t.83. 
Tupinambis varlegatua, Daud.Rept, iij. 76. 
Monitor bigarr^ Cuv. Rig, Anim, ij. 84. 

This species, better known to English Dealers under the 
name of The Lace Lizard^ is peculiar in having the two 
series of the scales, placed on the upper part of the centre 
of the tail, raised into a biserrated ridge, and in the outer 
toe» or rather thumb, of the hinder-foot being long, and 
reaching to the penultimate distal joint of the first or longest 
toe ; the claws are compressed, sharp. 

specimen for the Appendix of my work. The plate was engraved 
by Mr. Curtis, frqm an exceedingly correct drawing made by my 
friend, Henry C. Fields Esq.— P. P. K. 



428 ' APPENDIX. - [B, 

<}6niiB PHBLSUMA. Cfray. 

- Pedei qoatoor, di|ritu fer^ eqaalibn, totis lobafcisy mntieis ; pdHs 
femoralflms distinctiB. 

Caput et truncui supra t^ssenilis minutis, infra gquaouB miiii- 
mis, tecti. 

This genus, whioh : appears to be confined to the Isle of 
France, differs from the rest of the Geckomda^ hy the toes 
being dilated the whole length, and entirely clawless, and 
covered beneath with transverse scales ; by the thumb being 
very small and indistinct, and by the thighs being fur<» 
nished with a series of minute pores. 

3. P. ORNATA, (n. 8.) 

P. supra plumbeA maeuUf faseiique rufl orfioia, aubtus al" 

bida. 
Icon, — — ^ 
Inhabits Isle of France. 

Head depressed, truncated in front, covered with minute 
ovate scales; the front of the upper part lead-coloured, 
with a rather broad red band a little before the eyes, and a 
white crescent-shaped spot on each side immediately behmd 
it, and then some obscure red shades just behind that; the 
back lead-coloured and blue, with six longitudinal series 
of irregular-sized red spots ; belly whitish ; tail rather 
longer than the body. Body one inch and five-eighths, head 
half an inch, tail two inches and a half long. 

This animal is very interesting, as being the second spe- 
cies of a genus recently established, which only consisted 
of P. cepedia^ the Gecko cepidien of Peron; Cuv. R^. 
Anim. ii. 46. and iv. t 5. f. 5. ; which has somewhat the 
manner of colouring,' but is very distinct from tbe Qech 
ocettatus of Oppel. 



RlptiUA.] NATURAL fflfifTORY. 429 

Genus TILIQUA. Gray. . 

Pedei quataor pentsidactyli, pons femoralibus nuIliB. 
Caput Bcutatum ; denies in pttlato nulli. 
Truneut regolariter sqoamosus. 

This genus is distinguished from the true Scinks by the' 
want of Palatbe teeth, the shorter body , and the h^s of 
the ears being furnished on their front part with a fringe.- 
It differs from the succeeding Genus, Tr€iehysaurus^ in the 
head being covered with distinct flat plates, and the whole 
of .the body with cut heiangular scales; the scales are 
harder than those of the true Scink, but not 80 xliatinctly 
bony as those of the Traehy$auru8. 

4. TiLIQUA TUBBRCULATA. Oray. 

Lacerta Scineoides, Shaw^ Nat. Misc. 

Lacerta occidoa, var. Skawf Zool, iij. 289. 

Sciocus tuberculattts, Merrem, Syst. Amph. 78« 

Scincoid, or Skink-formed Lizard, White, Jour. 24£. 

Icon. FThite, i c. t. SO. Shaw, N. M. t. 179 ; Zod. iij. t. 81.. 

This Lizard, which was first described in the excellent jour- 
nal of Mr. White, does not appear to be uncommon on the 
coast of Australia, as there are several specimens both in 
the British Museum and in the collection of the Linnean. 
Society, that were probably taken in the neighbourhood of 
the colony; the specimen before me was caught at Seal 
Island, in King George the Third's Sound. 

The scales of the whole of the body are broad, bexan- 
gular, with ^ve or six longitudinal, slightly- raised ridges, 
which gradually taper, and are lost just before they reach 
the margin. T^e legs are short, thick; the toes of the 
fore-feet are radier short, the outer reaching to the middle 
of the second, the second and third equal ; the fourth reach- 
ing to the last joint of the third, and the little one to the * 
second joint of the fourth finger. In the hind foot the first 
and third toe are nearly equal, and only half as long as the 



430 APPENDIX. * CB. 

second ; the fourth only half as long as the third ; and the 
fifth about half the length of the fourth toe. 

Genus TRAGHYSAURUS. Gray. 

Pedes quatuor pentadactyli. 
Caput tnb-8cutatum, denies in palate nnlU. 
Truneui supra squamis cnunis elongatiB subspinosiSy infra hex** 
afonis membranaceb imbricatisy tectus. 
Cauda brevia, depress^. 

This genus is at once distinguished from the former, a|id iiH 

deed^rom the whole of the Scincidai by the large hard scales 

that cover the back of the body and head ; which are formed 

of distinct triangular long plates, rough on the outside, and 

covered with a membranaceous skin. The bony shields of 

the head pass gradually into the dorsal plates. The teeth 

short, thick, and conical ; the palate toothless. The belly and 

lower surface of the tail are covered with large six-sided 

scales, like the other genera of the family. The head is 

rather large, triangular. The legs short, weak; the toes 

very short, covered only with as many scales as there are 

joints ; the outer and innermost being about half as long 

as the three central toes, which are nearly of equal length ; 

claws short, conical, channelled beneath. The tail short, 

depressed. 

5. Traohtsaurus rugosu6» (n. s.) 

T,. squamis darsi rugosis, cauda subspinosis; caudA hre- 
vissinUU 

The body nearly uniform, chestnut brown; the head de- 
pressed with the scales convex, and more nearly of an 
equal size than usual: those round the e^es and mouth 
large; the three anterior scales on the edge of the lower 
jaw larger than those which cover the lower surface of 
the head, body,, and tail, which are uniform, distinct, 
large^ and mambranaceous : the scales of the back are 



BiPTlLiA.] NATURAL HISTORY. 431 

nearly of equal size with those covermg the commencement 
of the tail ; they are furnished with a prominent midrib, 
and end in a point The legs very short, compressed, co« 
vered mth nearly smooth, rather thin, scales. The toes 
very short; claws rather thick, and short The tail about 
half the length of the body. 

Headf three inches long. 
Body, seven inches. 
Tail, four inches. 

Only one specimen of this exceedingly interesting ani- 
mal was brought home by Captam King, but the spirits in 
which it had been preserved had unfortunately evaporated, 
so that it was considerably injured ; there is, however, a 
specimen, apparendy of the same animal, in the collection of 
the Linnean Society, which wants the end of its tail. 

The above specimen was found at King George the Third's 
Sound, and is preserved in the Museum. 

0. AOAUA MURICATA. Daud. 

Laoerta mnricata, Shaw, in fFhite*s Joumai of a Voyage to 
. New South JFalet, 244. 
Lacerta Agama, tmr, f Shmo^ den. Zooi. iij. 811. 
Muikated Lizard, Sham. 
Icon. Shaw» Gen. Zoo/. 1 65., and fFhite*t Jour. 1 31. f. 8. 

This lizard was first described in Mr. White's Joumai, by 
the late Dr. Shaw, who paid particular attention to that 
class of animals ; but he was afterwards inclined to consider 
it as only a variety of the common Lacerta Agama, or Ame* 
rican Oakote, from which, however, it is quite distinct 

It appears to be a young specimen, since its length is 
only seven inches, whilst that described by Dr. Shaw was 
more than a foot m length; and some have been caught 
even of a much larger size. The Doctor's figure is remark- 
ably good, but rather more spmous than the specimen under 



432 APPENDIX. [B: 

exftmtnation, which is probably another prdof of its youth. 
It was taken and preserved by Mr. James Hunter, R.N., 
who accompanied Captain King as surgeon during the Mer- 
maid's &ird voyage, and has been presented by him to the 
Britisb Museum. 

7. DiSTBiRA DOLtATA. LocSpMct Ann* de Muteu»» I>*Htjf. 

Nat. iv. 199. 210. 
Enhydris doliatus, Merrem, Sy»t Amph» 140. 
Icon. Laeip, Ann, Mus. iv. t. 37. f.'S. 

The series of small hexagonal slields on the 'abdomen of 
this curious sChimal appears to be formed of two series of 
scales united laterally. ' The length of the specimen brought 
home by Captain Kjng exceeds four feet. The figure by 
M.' Lac6p^de seems to be too short, but his description 
agrees admirably with our specimen, which has been pre- 
sented to the British Museum. 

8. Lbptophis* punctulatus, (n. 8.) 

N. iquamis lavibui apice unuindentatis, spina dorsalis <rs- 
angularibus ; caudA quadrantali, tenui, sqvamis aqualibus. 

Scales uniform, pale brown, with a minute black dot im- 
pressed on the apex: body slender, compressed: abdo- 
minal scutfiB rather broad. The series of scales on the 
side' next to the ' ventral plates ovate and blunt ; those 
on the sides narrow, Hnear, in five series ; the series of 
scales along the centre of the back long, triangular. This 
arrangement of the scales gradually assumes an uniform 
appearance on the neck close to the head, where the^ 

* I have adopted Mr. Beirs MS. name for this genus since his 
paper was read at the Zoological club of the Linnean Society* be- 
fore the publication of my genera of Reptiles in the Annals of 
Philoisophy, where I erroneously considered it as synonymous with 
Dr. Leaches genus Macrosoma instead of my AhmtuHa,-^. Ei Ql 



Reptilia.] natural history. 433 

are ovate. < Head rather long with nine plates, frontal plate 
being divided ; the snout very blunt, truncated ; the upper 
central labial scale octangular, with a deep concavity on 
the labial margin ; the anterior and posterior mental scales 
long. The tail one-fourth the length of the body, covered 
with uniform ovate quadrangular scales. Length, four feet. 

This species appears to have % considerable affinity to 
the genus named Macrasoma by Dr. Leach, but not de- 
scribed by him, and is very much like Coluber decarus of 
Shaw. It belongs to the group called by English Zoolo- 
gists, Whip Snakes. 

The specimen above described was taken by Mr. James 
Hunter, at Careening Bay, on the north coast, and presented 
by him to the British Museum. 

9. Lbptophis spilotus. 

Coluber spilotus, LacSpide, Ann. Mut* iv« S09* 

A specimen of this snake was brought home by Captain 
King, agreeing very well with the short description given by 
Lac6p^de, in his account of some new species of animals 
from New Holland. It has not been taken notice of in the 
modem works on Reptiles. It may, perhaps, be distinct 
from it ; but upon considering that upwards of two hundred 
species of this genus have been already described, I thought 
it best not to increase the number without very good reason. 
This species forms a second section in the genus Leptophis, 
on account of the form of its scales, particularly those of the 
throat. 

Captaik Ki vg has informed me that turtles of two or three 
kinds are common on the coasts of Australia, particularly 
within the tropic ; and Alligators were seen, in gpreat abun- 
dance, in the rivers of the northern and north-western coasts, 

Vol. II. 2 P 



434 AP^eNDix. tt. 

particularly in those that empty themteWes into the bottom 
of Van Dietneti's Gulf; but as no specimens of either of 
these animals were preserred, no ftirther notice can be taken 
of them ♦. 

• Tlis ItttUe IM frt^eati Ihd Nefth^MH Geam in tie mtk^ 
WuilMel ef fiMtoaveur Rifsr, k a ?arlet]r of Hie THbi4$mf t$i .'^ 
See JmiArt «HUl MfNtfcr M/&Sf. 



Pttcn.] NATURAL HIOTORY. 435 



fiscfei. 



S ' . . ' •! ■ T'^r 



Br JOHN BDWARD.eHAYt Bifi UiOA 



1, TlTllAODON AR6BNTEU8. Locipide, Ann, Muf, 17, 20S. 

Icon. Ann, Stus, i, c. t 56./ 2^ 
8. CmnoNBCTBS TUBBRosv^t 6« CuvxcTy Bihn, Mui. iii. 4SS. 

There are two other species of this genus in CapUin King^s 
collection^ which appear to be new. 

8. Balistbs Ausxbalis. Donovan, Naturalut, Repos» xxri. 
Icon. 1. ic. 

* 
4. Tbuthis Australib, (n. s.) 

T./tttcOt fasciis testa transvenU nigfih/uscis^ eaudi trun* 

taiSi, 
tcott. 



d tfTk 



^DT brown, palei^ beneaA, with six transvfers^e blackish* 
brown bands ; the first placed across the eye and front angte 
of the gill flap; the second obliquely across' the pectohJ 
iin, and the three next, nearly eqmdtstant, straight ach>ss' 
the body, the last band placed between the spine and the' 
base of the rays of the tail; and with a black longitudinal 
line between Old. eyes, feeth flat, rltth^r bhsidd/ rotinSed^^ 
at the end, and denticulated. The gills flat, unarmed^ jpec* 
toral 6n subacute, triangular; ventral fin triangular, sup^ 
ported by a very strong first ray; dorsal aAd anal fins rounded. 
Tail truncated, spine on the side of the tail very distinet,' 
imbedded in a sheath. 

8F8 



43e . APPENDIX. . [B.- 

Pectoral fin, fifteen ray«, firet yery short; Ventral fin, 
five rays; one very strong, short. Dorsal fin, thirty-one; 
anterior very strong, first short. Anal fin, twenty-three; 
two first Tery strong and short. Caudal fin, sixteen rays, 
divided. 

Body 3 ; tail I| inches long. Body 9| high ; dorsal fin 
i I pectoral fin I^ inches long. 

This fish belongs to the Genas Aeanthurui of Bloch, 
adopted by Shaw (Hcarpurus, of Forster), bnt as that genus 
is apparently formed from the type of linnaeus's Genus, 
Teuthis^ I have adopted the latter name for those Chetodons 
which have one spine on each side of the tail, and Acau' 
thtarus for those that have two« They are usually called 
Lancet-fish, from the curious structure of the sub*caudal 
spines* 

Captain King has presented to the Museum seven ot 
eight other sorts of fish, in spirits, and several interesting 
drawings, which I have not hitherto been enabled to find in 
any of the works on Ichthyology, but so little is known of 
the genera and species of this department of Natural His* 
tory, that I am not inclined to describe them as new, for fear 
of increasing die confusion at present existing. 

Among the unnamed fish, there is one exactly similar 
to a species found by my late friend Mr. Crancb» in. the 
Sooth Atlantic. 

S^ SaUALUS OOBLLATUS. Qme^in^ Sifit. iV^ot, 1404. 
SqualuB ocolatUB^ Banks and Sniander^ M&S. . 

6. Squalus olaucus. 

Captain King observes, this fish is frequently foand in ij^ 
neighbourhood of the coast. 



PI8CBS.] NATURAL HISTOKY. 437 



?• Squalus ■ 

Captain King in his MSS. observesy that a species of shark 
was observed commonly near the shores, haying a short 
nose, with a very capacious mouth ; the body was of an ash 
grey colour, marked with darker spots, of a round shape, 
and about two inches in diameter. This shark was usually 
ten or eleven feet long. 



ANNELIDES- 

, ]. Leodicb gig ante a. Savigny Syst, da Annd, p. 49. Lam* 

V.382. 
Eunice gigautea, Ctitr. Rig, Anim, ii. 594. 
Nereis aphroditois, PaU, Nov, Act. Petrop, ii. S9P. tab. 5. 

^g. 1. 7. 
Terebella apbroditoSs, Gmelin, SyH, Nat* 8114» 

The specimen brought by Captain King is nearly five feet 
long, and was procured at the Isle of France. 



4dSi APPENDIX. (B^ 



A N N U L O S A. 



CeUaiiogUe of huecti, coOeeted by Caftaim Kiivg, R^N. 



Bt WILLIAM SHARP MAC LEAY, Esq., A.M., F.L.S. 



Thb collection consists of one hundred and ninety-tvro species, 
of which one hundred and thirty belong to the class Mandtbulaia, 
fifty-eig^ht to HaustMUa, and four to the Arachnida. Eighty- 
one of the spfcies are new, and the extent to which each order oi 
winj^ed insects has been collected, will be best understood from the 
following^ summary. 

MANDJBULATA. HAUSTELLATA. 

108 Coleoptera. 40 Lepidoptera. 

8 Orthoptera. 8 Homoptera. 
5 Neuroptera. 8 Heniptera. 

9 HynienG|>tera. 8 Diptera. 

Total JS8 Species. 

This number is, of course, not sufficient to allow any general 
remarks to be founded on the collection, and the following Cata- 
logue is, therefore, merely descriptive. 

Class MANDIBULATA. 
Order COLEOPTERA. 

1. Panagaus quadrimaculatus. Oliv. Enc, MM. Hut. Nat. 

Obs» There is a wretched figure of this insect given in the 
fourth volume of Cuvier*g Rigne Animal. 

2. P^ciLus KiNGii, (n. s.) P. atronitidus, antennis tomentosis 

obscuris, basi et apice piceis, labri margiue antico palpisque 
rufo-piceisy thorace line& medik longitudinal! vix marginem 



]ft(AifDiBULATA.] NATURAL IHSrORY. 439 

posticum attixyjfe^te fowiiMque u^uquQ. poftUci^ eljtn« stri- 
atis Tix atro-sBneis tibiis ad apicepi tarsisque atro-piceis. 

3. Gtrinub rufipes. Fab. Syst BktM. p. Ml. la 

Oht. Tb» 46«oripti9^ of t)ui specjet h giym hf ftfycmu^ is 
v(iry T«^ ; but ai ^t »pplie| tolerably well to the miept collated 
hj Captain VAs^t I lu^ve not thoug^bt pco|>er to ^ve i^ a new aai|i). 

4, Siii?ii4 ^40* YMOii A. Schreibcr,, w Un% T«in»« Ti. \9k *•»»(♦{►. 

{f. CrBOPHILUS BRYTHR0CBPHALU8. 

Staphylinui Erytkr^oephalus. Pab« i8y«^ ^e»M. H. 5fS. 19, 

6. HiSTBR oTANBiM^ Fab, Shfft JMn*M. 1. p. W. la. 

7. Hmvbr 8f B€»Moe. 1%. Ool. p. 48. 

8.. Passalus VQLYVVLYI^VH, (a. B.) P« a^r depr^iuscvliu, 
fintcsiniB sex-lameUatia^ veitvce tubercuUs trib\M, interqiedio 
majore compreaso linearum superlorem duarum elevatanun 
traniTefiarHi^ dUa^oantet tbora«i« ||it^ribi4i |uf<^iUi^ti|i elf* 
trorum striia lateralihus punctatis. 

■ » 

9. Pa88AIiU8 B0BNTULU8} (o. 8.) P. atcr convexiasculuB anten- 
• nis triphyttia, rertlcis comn elerato iaearvi^ canaUeulato 

apice emarg^pato, tHbercido utrinque acuto, eljtrorun\ fitriis 
aubpunctatis, mandibulis concavis exti^s dentatls. 



Mi. TUi iiaed it o^iok tesa 'm VM tb«i tbi CbouMi %vA i> 

more convex. 

♦ ■ • . . » . . '. 

10. Lamprima iSNBA. HoTCB EfUom. L p. 101. 8, 

11. DAaraHAVMva Buaanii. tli»0m,En$m»U |u HU l« 

18. Twn, ALT#aK4il«» (n. »«> 1\ e^pil^ a«tk^ IhK^ vif 4htfi 

elevate marginato, thorace lineis quatnor mediis elevatis, ex- 

terioribus interruptis tuberculisque otrin^e duobue hi»qii»- 

' Hbu8» eljtris' taberovliB striatim dlsposttis, slriia ateernatim 

go^joribus. 



/ 



440 APPENDIX. IB. 

13. Hblolontha frstiva. Fab. Syst Eleuth, ii. 171. p. 63. 

Obi, Hum most beautiful insect ou^ht to be considered as the 
type of a nev s^enus near to Seriea, 

14. DiPRUCBPHALA 8BRICBA. Kirbj, tft Zrtn. TVofu. xiL p. 463. 

Obs, This genus I had named Agrodiphila in my MSS., but 
M. Dejean has since published it under the name of Diphucephala. 

15. DiPHUCBPHALA SPLBNDBN8, (u. 8.) D. viridis mtidissima 
antennis palpisque nigfris, capite anticd tlioracisque lateribus 
subpunctatis, medio canaliculato, elytris punctis rugosis seri- 
atim dispositis, corpore subtus hirsutie incano. 

An MMwUka eohspidoidet, Sch<Mi. App. 101. ? 

16. Cbtonia vabibgata. Fab. Sygt. Eleuth^ ii* p. 157. 112. 
C, luetuoia, Lat.in Cat Mui. Gall. 

Obs, This insect is an inhabitant of the Isle of France, and was 
probably collected hj Captain Kin^ during' his stay in that island, 

17. Cbtonia AU8TRAI.A8I jr. Dmkoiv. Ins.ofNew HtMand^Uh.u 

18. Cbtonia borsalis. Donov. Jns, of New Holland, tab. u 

19. Anoplognatbus yiridianbus. HorcB, Ent i. p. 144. h 
20* Anoplognatbus tiriditarsis. Leach. Zool. Miscet. ii. 44. 
2U Anoploonathus ruoosus* Kirby, Lin, Trans, xii. 405. 
SSL Anoplognatbus inustus. Kirby, Lin. Trans, xii. 405. 

S3. RbPSIMUB iENBUS. 

MeMontha anea. Fab. Syst. Eleutht ii. p. 166» S0» 
S4. RBP8IMU8 dttibooipbb* ' Hera.Eniom. U p* 144* 8» 

25. BUPRB8TI8 HACULARIS* 

Buprestis mactUaria,, Don. Ins. of New HoUand, tab. 8. 
26. BuPRBSTis iMPBRiALis. Fab. Syst. EUuth. ii. p. 204. 98, 



Mandibulata.] natural HISTORY. 441 

57. BvPRBsTift 8UTURALIS. Don. /fM. ofNew ffattdndt tab. 8. 

58. Bi7PRS8Ti8 TARiABiLis. Doii. /fu. ofNew HoUand^ tab. 7* 

89. BuPRBSTis KiMOii, (n. s.) B. elytris striatis nigro-violaceis 
testaceo-quadri&flciatis hand bidentatis, thorace piinctato 
Higro-eneo lateribus testaceis* 

Obs, This species comes perhaps too near to some of the darker 
varieties of B, variabUiM, of the true appearance of which scarcely 
any idea can be formed from the figures of Donovan. Our in- 
sect bears a remarkable similarity to a Surinam Buprestisp with 
serrated elytra. 

30. BuPRBSTis BiMACULATA. Lin. Syst Nai. li. 662* 16. Oliv. 
/fit. ii. a8» tab. 1S» fig. 140. 

Obs. This is an Eiast Indian Insect; and, as Captain King col- 
lected a few species in the Isle of France, this is probably one of 
them. 

dl. BuPRBSTis PI88ICBPB. Kirby, til Irtfi. Trans^ xii. p. 458» 
Ub. 23» fig. 4. 

» 

39. BuPRBSTis LAPiDOBA, (n. s.) B. cuprea scabrosa thoraee 

lineis duabus parallelis longitudinalibus elevatis, elytris in- 

tegris subacuminatis substriatis inter tuberoolos punctatis, 

corpore subtus seneo. 

88. Elatbr xanthohub, (n. s.) £• ater antennis apicem 
versus dilatatis serratis, thorace punctato canaliculato» elytris 
punctads striatis pubescentibus basi late auratis dimidiatis. 

Obs. This insect is about four lines long, and entirely bhu;k» 
except the upper half of the elytra. 

34. Elatbr nioro-tbrminatuSi (n. s.) E. lutens capite an- 
tennisque atris, thorace oonvexo macuR lohgitudinali sub* 
acuminata k margine antico ultra medium attingente, elytris 
punctato-striatis apice late nigris» anoque nigro. 

Obs* This insect is about the same length witii the former. 



44Si APPEIiDIX. (B. 

)^viii|^ttife9laiidun<|6rude entivelj yeUow» exoeptiog tht hmd 

and a black anal spot, gomething like the letter V. 

* * » ■ 

85. Lrcus SBRRATIC0RNI8. Fab. Syst Eleuth, yal, ii. 111. 6. 

96. Ltcus SBPTBMCAVUiif (u^ s.) (j. ater thorace parabolico 
fogsulis septem, quatuor anticis fere sequalibus, posticarum 
medi& angnstfi lanciforml, duabus lateralibus latig antice 
emarg^atiB ; Scutello quadrato nigro ; <dytrt8 rubiis margi- 
nalia linds quatuor elevatls, interttitiia dapliei lene pui#- 
torum transFergonim orenatig. 

37, Ltcus rhipidium, (n. g.) L. ater antennig fiabellatis^ tho- 
race angulis porrectig obtugig, foggulig geptem, pogticarain 
Iriuiii medifi longitudtinali lanciformi ; tonteUo quadrato mguk; 
eljtrig rubrig marginatig liaeig iiorom 6kvati% qualuor al- 
teniatin nai^oribtMi ii^t^rgtitUg crenatig, 

S8. TBLBPHORug PULCHBLLug, (D. g.) T. capite thoraceque 
nigro-nitidig, hajug margine pogtico lat^ rufo, elytrig viridi- 
p^^i4)ei^ ^i^neatogig puncta^g ad gutui^am wairginatUi aorpoi|e 
pedibugque nigiig abdomine gubtug rafo. 

dt. M^Aoaiua vBHTicAUs, (n^ &), 11. rHfo-testaoeas verli® 

a^t«^uigque %p)o^ iU||fra*nitidi8, t)uwi^ tegtii^oeoi el^ 
. . huBieiaHm^^quefioki^eigspofl^ctorepadibvat^oquoiligrig. 

40. OLBRug CRUGiATUg, (n. g.) €. tegtacea tomentoga, capite 

thonoia lateribtu oljtronunque maculia duabjuig kngitiidinaH- 

bus, ^quamun poaliei lattori, nigris, elytrig atdatOi-puBctatis 

• apioe mftacentihua, antannia pio6ia» pedibua palpiaque p^tidig* 

*4L CEdbmbra LiTlDA. Dliv. Ins, 50, tab. i. fig. 2. 
Dryops livida. Fab. SysL Eleuth, ii. 68. 3. 

42. CEdbmbra ^inbata. Oliv. Ins, 50, tab. i. fig. 4. 
Brycfs HneeUa, Fab. Syst, Eleuth. ii. 68. 4. 

Obs. I gugp^ 441 iipfct to bift i%^elj a variaty pf (ha former 

81 



Mamdibulata.] natural HISTORY. 443 

4S. (Edbmbra punctum, (n. s.) (£. flaTo-nit^ anteiuiM ob- 
scoris, iTonte pancto atro-nitida impresao^ tjiorftce tunulA 
utrinque atro-nitid^ impreBso, acutello fLw^ e^jrtrig nigro- 
fascig limbo et suturk teatacebj geniculis tibiis tar^iaque 
nigris. 

44. Laoria TOMBNT08A. Fab. Sysk Bkutk, vol. iL p. 99. 9. 

45. LAGRIARUPB80BN8. DeJ. Ca|. 99. 

46. C|aT«L4 sBCVRiGBHi, (Q, %.) €• aubti^s picea ^upri brunnea 
pubescens, antennis apice palporumque articulo ultimo secu- 
riformi nigris, elytris puncts crwatii striatis. • * 

•47. An AiiraiiiJs tristis. 

Cnfidulan irith. Fab. Syst. El0^A. U. p. \^ 4» 

Obi, Tbe cbaracters of tbts genus are given by l^bricius Under 
'tbe head of Cnodidon, but tbe true Cnoduhn of M. Latreille is a 
native of St. Domingo, and a different gemis of which the cha- 
racters are to be found in tbe €fe»em CruMkie0oruM el huecUrum, 
Tbe genus has, however* been of Ute more accurately investigated 
• by BaUnan* in bis Anaieeta BniomoUgieaf and be has given it 
the name of Amarygmus, 

•48. Amartomvs viridioollis, (n. s.) A. oonvexiusoubis capitis 
thoraceque viridl-csruleis, flyfris cupreis stni^-pu^ot^tis, 
corpore subtus cbalybeo pedibusque nigris. 

49. AMARYOMua V'BLVTiNUB, (n. s.) A. atro-Bitidus gkbenriflius 
labri Biargine rubro, elytris nigro-ssneis punctorum striis mi* 
. autissimis. 

OAs. This beautifiil Insect is one of the largest of a genus which 
'Contains a great number of species. 

U), Abbliuae CALOSOMOIDBS. Kirby, in i^m. fruns,%iu 1^490. 
ST. tab. 9^. fig. 2. 

6\, Aojsuuu CARABOiDBs. Kifby, in Lin. Trans* zu.n. 466« 17. 



444 APPENDIX. [B. 

S2. PhALIDUIIA MIRABILI8. 

Curculio tnirabUis* Kirbj, tn Lin. Tram, ui. 469. 21. tab« 
83, fig:. 9. 

Obs, The characten of this most singular genus Phalidurm are 
chiefly to be found in the broken clavate antennae, short thick ma* 
tnun, connate elytra, and singular anal forceps of the male. 

53. Phalidura Kirbii» (n. s.) P. nigro*fu8ca clypeo sub(urcato 
utrinque canaliculato, thorace confertim noduloso, elytris lineis 
eleyatis interstitlis crenatis lateribusque punctato-striatis. 

54. Phalidura Draco,. (n. s.) P. atrofusca rertice concaTo 
cruce impresso, clypeo emarginato, thorace depresso utrinque 
dilatato dentato margine antico tuberculato tuberculoruinque 
lineis quatuor duabus mediis longitndinalibus, elytris punctis 
elevatig scabrosis utrinque dentibus acutis seriatim armatis, 
lateribus seriatim nodulosis medioque lined tuberculoium sub- 
duplici instructo. 

Obs* This and the following species are not true Phalidura ; 
at least neither appears to have the anal forceps, but as they come 
close in affinity to the genus Phalidura, I have not for the present 
ventured to give them a new generic name* 

^. PdAUDURA Marshami. Kirby, in Lin. Trans, xii. 436. 77. 

06«. This insect appears to be a Chrysolopus In M. Dejean's 
Catalogue* 

S6w Htbauchbkia nodulosa, (n. s.) H. atra capita l»vi vd 
pimctia minutissimis impresso, clypeo canaliculate), thorace 
irregulariter noduloso, elytris suturd lieviori punctis que elevatis 
Btriatis striis duabus 4 suturfi altematim majoribus. 

Ob*» I regret that I am not able to give the detailed characters 
of this genus at present. I shall merely, therefore, say that it has 
the broken clavate antenn» of Phalidura, only they are here longer 
than the head and thorax taken together. The body is yery con- 
vex, having the thorax as wide as the abdomen, subquadrate, with 
very convex sides. Abdomen joined to thorax b^ a distinct pe« 



Mahdibulata.] natural HISTORY 445 

juncle. Elytra- very convex, with almost perpendicular Mw. 
Feet longf, with rather incrassated femora, 

ST, ChRTSOLOPUS 8PBCTABILI8. 

Cureulio *peetabilU^ Fab. Sysf.^/euM. ii.'597. 184, 

58. Chrtsolopus echidna, (n. b.) C. atrofuscus yertice triIi-> 
neato, thorace pnnctis scabro medio concaro subcarinato 
lineis utrinque elevatis, elytris crenatis seriebus spinarum 
duabus interiori anum versaa abbreviate; spinis anticis de- 
preggis obtasis, posticis acatis. 

C. echidna. Dej. Cat, JB8. 

59. Chrtbolopus tuberculatub, (n. s.) C. fuseus vertice li-> 
' neato, thorace punctis scabro medio canaliculato, elytris punctis 

seriatun ImpreBsis, tuberculorumque Beriebua tribus minutis 
interiori abbreviate ; tubercolo postico Buturali maximo. 

60. Chrtsoi^pub quadridbnb. 

Curcidio Miens, Fab. Syst. Bleuth, ii. 536. 175. 

Oht, The three last species can scarcely be considered to belong 
to the same genns with C. speetabilis ; bat I follow M. Dejean 
until the whole family be more accurately investigated. 

ft 

61. Gastrodijs crbnulatus. 

Curculio crenulatus. Fab. Syst. Eleuth, ii, 518. 64. 

68« Oastrodus albolinbatus» (n. b*) 6. niger thorace 8ca« 
briusculo rugis trans versis duabus line &quelateralialbd, elytris 
nigris striato-punctatis sutur^ strifique medid elevatis levibua 
Wnek lateral! alb& baud apicem attingente, apice rufescente 
albo-punctato. 

63. Fbbtub rubripbs, (n. g.) F. niger capite ]ine& transversfi 
constricto ; vertice tineis quatuor elevatis clypeoque tribus« 
antennis piceis clavfi obscurfi, thorace punctis elevatis scabro : 
elytris punctis impressis striatis, punctis conspicuis argenteo- 
squamigeris pedibus ruiis geniculis obscuris. 



446 APPfiNDlX. 1 tB. 

* Ohi, t am donbifiil whether tliis in&eet truly belotagi to Me- 
^erie*s genvLi Festus. The antennee are mach Bhorter than iir 
Paehygasier. 

64. CsJIcMROltA LAltoatltoAAfc Iky. CM. p« M^ 

61^. Cbnchroma obscuiui (i|. b.) C. nigfra Bquamis Ginereu as«> 
persa clypeo lineiB duabuB mediiB approzimatiB elevatU lateri- 
buB albisy thorace canaliculatcs elytris punctiB impresBiB striatiB 
BqaamiBque cinereiB sabaureiB prsBertim ad ktera aspersiB* 
corpore subtus ad latere pedibusqae albo-BquamoBiB. 

66. CuRCULio CULTRATU8. Fab. Syst. Bleuth, ii. 536. l7& 
Oliv. Int. 811. fiflf. 157. 

Oh§t, ThiB is a new gentiB of tiie Cwrcu/lonM^ , bat at I am 
not able in thia place to gire the chancterB of it, I prefer to cite 
the inseet under ita Fabikian title. 

67. Rhtnchjenub gtlindrirobtrib. Fab. Sytt. Eleuik jif, 

463.185. 
OUt. ifu. 83, fig. 188. 

06s, This inaect ia altog-ether as different from the true Rkgn^ 
eluBni, as the preceding one is from the true Ctircti/iofief • 

68. Rhtnchjenus btobnb. Fab. SyH. BUuth. ii. 457. 96. 
0Ii]r./fM.8afig. 118k 

Obt. ThiB is bIbo not a true Rhynchanuit but ia a very aingukr 
tiiBCct in appearance, as the acute spine, which Hbcb from eadr 
dytron, appean to be itB peculiar defence against entomological 
coIlectorB. 

69. EcRHiNDB SCABRIOR. Kirby, in Lin, Tram, aii. p. 4i8. 65. 

70. Rhinotia RAMorrBRA. Kiiby» in Lin, Tram, zii. p*486>, 

71. ORTnORHTNCRUB BUtURALIB, (U. B.) O. ttigrO-fuBCUB punCtlB 

ImpreflBUB vertice ad ocuIob albo-bilineato, thorace foBBulft poB- 
tica mMk alb&, elytriB ad Buturam lineft pillB alb4* eo^ra 
BubtUB lateribUB alblB. 



Mandibulata.] natural HISTORY. 



44t 



73. Cari^ophagus baKrbiji, (n. s.) ۥ toigro-fuftcUB ptUs UMb' 
aspenuB capita thoraceque punctatis line& medid ([labit di- 
Tisis, Bcutello cinereo, elytris rugOBlg lineb quahior 8abele?ati8» 
corpore subtus pedibusque cinereo-Bariceis. 
Tab. B. fig. 1. 

Obi. This curiottB insect b Baid to be found on the Bankitd, and 
would probably* with Linnaeus, hare been a Brudhui. The fbl- 
Towing are the chafa6terB of this new genus. 

GARPOPHAGUS, (novum genus.) 
. Antenna ante oculoe insertas filiformes articulo baBilari crafi- 
siorii Becnndo subgloboso breTiBskno, ultimo qnce conico acuto* 

Labrum semicirculare margine antico integro rotundato ciliato. 

Mandibulm yalidffi comeae arcuatse, intus apicem versuB subsS* 
nnatse edentuIsB basin versus ciliatse vel submembranacese. 

MiutiUa basi corneae processubus duobus m^mbranaceis apictoi 
fMUB Initructae, lobo ettemo vel apieali oval! extui dHato^ In- 
temo tenuiori lanclfbrmi apice acuto, 

Patpi tmurtHdren breves crass! vix ultra maxillamni apieem te- 
tensi, quadriarticulati articulo stipitali vix consplcuo BectailA<» 
obconlco tertio subgloboso breviori ultimo ovaU i]|)tuso. 

Ptdpi iahiMles triartlculat! airticiilo stipitali minimo, secnndo ob* 
conico longiore> ultimo crassiori ovato, apice truncato. 
' Labium obcordatum basi cortteum angustiuB apice membrana- 
etam medio emarginatum ciliatum lobo utrinqtte rotundato* 

Menium semicirculare anticd rotundatum medio emarginali^ 
Ave edentolo. 

Caput porrectum oculis prominulis tiiorace angufcthiA elypeo^ 
<)[nadrato vertice inter ocblos fossulis duabus antic6convergetttibiiB. 
Thora» baud marginatus lateribus baud rotundatis subcylindrlcttB 
antici angostlus, posticd Bublobatus. Scutettum tubetrculare mu- 
^natmn. Abdomen thorace duplo latins. Eliftra convex* hu-^ 
meris eminentibus postice divergentia rotundata. Pedes pentameH 
ftrticulil triboB tafBorum pririils dliatis pnlviHatiB dilatatis, tertio 
biloboi quarto brevissimo et qointo tennibus obconieiSp hoc ttfun* 
Ifoiculato: Femora poBtica valde inerassata Intus unitfe&tata; 
dente magno. ^ Tibim poBtictt compressie apice dilatatae. 



448 APPENDIX ; [B, 

73. Mboahbrus KinoiIi (n» «.) M. nigro-fuscus labro palpisque 
piceis thorace y'lx punctato posticS rugoso, elytris rugis vel 
punctis confluentibus substriatia fosBuIli ad humeros profundi 
line&que suturali impressis^ corpore subtus pilis 8ub-sericeo 
pedibiisqae concoloribus. 

. Tab. B. fifi^. 2. 

m 

Obis This sing^olar insect has an affinity to Sagra, but differs 
from that g'enus in having^ setiform antenns^ porrect mandibles* 
and securifonn palpi. Its habit is also totally different from that 
of a Sagra, and more like that of some of those insects which 
belong to the heterogeneous magazine called Prion«$» It is, un* 
doubtedly, the most singular and novel form in Captain King's 
collection, and forms a new genus, of which the characters are as 
follow. 

MEGAMERUS, (novum genus.) 

Antenna inter oculos insertte filiformes vel potius setacese arti" 
culo basilari crassiori secundo subgloboso brevisaimo apicall acuto« 

Labrum transverso-quadratum anticS submembranaceum tomen- 
toBum snbemarginatum. 

Mandibula exertte porrectn suprd convexiuseulse lunulats vel 
fakiformes dorso subsinuatte apice vel extus obDqud truncate 
acutissimse. 

ld€UfilUB basi coi^iesB processubps duobus submembranaceis api* 
cem versus instruct», lobo eztemo vel apicali ovali extus ciliato, 
intemo tenuiori apice subacuto margineque interno vix unidentato. 

Palpi masiUares quadriarticulati, articulo stipitali minimo in* 
conspicuo, secundo obconico longo duobus ultimis simul sumptis 
longitudine fere squall, tertio obconico crassiori, ultimo securi- 
formi oompresso. 

Paipi Uibiales triarticulati articulo stipitali minimo inconspicuo, 
secundo longo obconico setis quibusdam ad apicem instructor tertio 
triangnlari compresso vel securiform!. 

Labium membranaceum cordatum antice bilobum^ lobis elon- 
gatis ciliatis intemo latere rectilinear! extus ad apicem rotundatis. 

Mentum semicirculare antice rotuudatum margine antico emar* 
glnato. 



MAHDiBCtATA.] NATURAL HIOTORY. • 449 

- Caput porrectum ocuUb promineDtibuB thorace baad angostias. 
Thorax convexus antic^ poftticdque marginatus lateribus rotandatis 
baud marginatis. ScuteUum triang^ulare subacutam. Abdomen 
thorace fere duplo laUus. Elytra humeris eminentibuB marginatis, 
lateributf parallelis. Pedet pentameri articulis tribuB tarBorum 
primiB ciliatiB pulvOlatis dilatatis, penultimo bilobo, ultiino tenoi 
biimguicttlato. Femora poBtica Talde incrasBata intoB unidentata. 
TUfia poBtictt compreBsse apice dUatatn angolo extemo acuto. 

Obs. The Btnicture of the tarsus in this genus, bo near in affinity 
to Carpophagm and Sagra, has led me to investigate more mi- 
nutely the tarsus in the tetramerous and trimerous insects of the 
French entomologists, and the result has been that the arrange* 
ment given in the third volume of M. Cuvier*s Rigne Animai^ is 
discovered to be as erroneous in point of description, as it is in- 
consistent with natural affinities. 

74. PaioMUs BIDBNTATU8. ' Don» Int. of New HoUand, tab. 6. 

75. Priovus fabciatub. Don. Ins, of New BoUandt tab. 0. 

76. Priokus 8?iNrooLLi8, (n. 8.) P« piceus antennis filiformibus 
basi nigris articulo ultimo vix crassiore, capite fusco tomentoBO* 
thorace nigro^fiisco punctis scabroso, lateribus spinulosiBy in 
medio postice carinfi Isevi tuberculoque utrinque magno com- 
presso Bcabro; scutello piceo nigro-marginato, elytris testaceis 
punctulatis subBtriatis apice unidentati8» pectoris lateribus rufo- 
tomentosb. 

77. DisTicHooBRA MACULicOLLis. Kirby, in Lxn, Trans, xii« 

78. DisTiCHOCBRA ? RUBRiPBNitis, (u. 8.) D. rufo-tcstacea sub- 
tomentbsa, capitis laterlbas oreque nigris, vertice canaliculato, 
antennis nigris articulis vix biramosis ramis BiniBtJis brevis- 
simis, thorace atro vitt& utrinque rufotestacefi, scutello nigro, 
elytris rufo-testaceis tomentosis apice obtusis dehiscentibus, 
corpore cuneiformi subtus villo argenteo micante, abdomine 
utrinque nigro raaculato, pedibus nigriB. 

Obs, This insect may be considered a Molorchus with elytra as 
Vol. II. « G 



450 APPENDIX. [B« 

hmg M ito win|i; Mid \U thtnfore, evidtnUy comiaeta Uils ffattOs 
with DtiiicAoeera. 

79. Clttub thoracicus« Don. Im, rfNtw Hottand, tib. 5. 

Oki. Thu intect kftTM tlie typicd form of OiyiUi^ lo mndi at 
to make me hestale in placing it in the fenua. 

80. CaUsIDIVm BAJULU8. Fab. Syst, EleuiL iL 8SS, 9. 

Oit. This insect ansvren perfectly well to the specifie deeerip- 
tion as given by Fabricius, but is rather larger than the European 
insect, and has eight obsolete white spots disposed in two parallel 
bands on the back of the elytra. 

81. Galudiuh BROstiu, (n. s.) C. nigrum capite punctato, ore 
testaceo, antennis aplce ftiseis, thoraoe tomentoto punctato rel 
potius punctis confluentibos eroso disco rufo medio sobtuber-* 
culatOy elytris acununads apice deflexis lineis duabus eleYatia 
interstitiis punctis confertissimis pulcherrim6 erosis suturA 
margineque rafls, corpoie sobtus pedibosque toneateis. 

Far. /i. Major, capite rufo antennu f uscis, elytris tvAm ItturA • 
inter lineas duas elevatas solum nigricante, pedibus nigiopiceis. 

89 CALLimtTM §OLAlfDRl. 

Lamia Sohndri. OUv. Ifu. $7. 188. PI. 16. fig. 118. 

Fab. £nt. Sygt. 8. 898. 97. 

Obs, I place OIivier*s Synonym in this case first ; because the 
Fabrician description is so erroneous, that did we not know the ori- 
ginal insect in the Banksiao CoUeotion, there would be ao possi- 
bility of making it out 

88. Stbhochobus SBMiPUNCTATUs. Vdb, Sytt^BUuih.iL 90$.S. 

Ok. TUi and the tiivee foUowfng species belong to the SUno- 
chpH CaOiiiifomei dfUtOmher. 

84). Stbkocbobvs ACAMTHOCBBua, (n. s.) S. fttsco-fimmgiaens 
capite punctato, antennis rubris articulotertio quarto quinto et 
sexto apice spinosis, ore rubro, maxillis elongatis apice ciliatis 



IIaWdibulata.] natural HISTORY. 4&1 

membraiiaceiB, pilpis lecorifonnilnut ihonice obieiiro utrioqiiej 
uokpinoto marine aatioo tuberouluquB donalibiu utrinque 
dttebai poBticoqtt« MOuciiouUtfi rnbrii* tcnleUo rubro | elf trb 
rubriB fasciis tribiu nigra undatis, ad basiti later lioeaa.ele- 
vatas subcrenaiis apicemque yersus punctatis apice bidenta- 
tifl I cbrpo^ subtdB nigrb-nitido ionfentoso pedibuft tubrft. 

85. Stbnoohorus dobsalis, (q. b.) S. fulvo-piceiu capita an- 
gtHBto, labro palplB^utf teBtaceis, vertiee canaliculatti, tburace 
inequaliter nigoso emineiiti& medifi.ovali |^labr& tribuiqae^ 
aliifl utrinque inconspicuis, efjtris bidentatis lineis subeleratis' 
fnterstitiisque panetatis macul& medii Buturali teetacei antie^. 
eubemarginalA* adtenniB subtua yiUoijb articalis ^ce baud 
8piiioBiB» corp^re pedibttsque piceis femoribus inmisaatiB. 

86. Stbjiochorus tumicatub, (u. 8.) 8. flaTUB anteun^rum 
articuliB duobuB primiB nigriB quinto apiee Beptiino nonoque 
nigriB, tborace subcylindrico utrinque unidentato Bupra qua- 
dritubercttlato taiberculis aaticis majoribua* eiytris apicd ilaTi^ 
unidentatis, parte baBali ultra medium Bubviolaoeo-^ayfi finefi 
obliqu& terminatd, corpore pedibuBque flavop-testaceis. 

87 StbNODBAUS ABBRBYIATUB. Dej. Co^. 111. 

Cerambyx ahbreviattu. Fab, Syst Eleuth, 

Leptura cerdmboidet* Klrby, in Lin. Trans, vol. zii. p. 472. 

Obs. TbiB is certainly Mr. Kirby*B Leptura ceramboides, and 
perftctly agrees widi tbe Fabrieian deBcription of tbe C^rmAfS* 
abbreviatuir except tbat no mention iB there made of ita mouth being 
yellow. Mr. Kirby Bays of this insect, " a kabitu Lepiura omftmo 
reeedit Cerambycibus propior,'* and certainly were it allowable to, 
judge entirely from habit, it wouild seem to connect those American 
Saperdtt of Fabrieius and Olivkr whiob hare beatded imtenmB,-* 
such as (S, plumgera, Oliv., barbicomis. Fab.) with some other 
&mily, perhaps the (Edemerida. But, however this may be, the. 
genus Stenoderui differs from the Cerambycidm, and agrees with 
the Lepturidmt inasmuch as it has the antenna inserted between 
the eyes. 

8G8 



452 . . APPENDIX. J [JB. 

8K Stbnodbrus concolor, (■•8.) S. obscure testaceuB* an- 
tennis articulo basilari lon^o apiee crasuori, cajHte thoraceque 
cylindrioo constricto Bidnrofis* elytiis . tettaceis .punctatjs lineis 
quatuereleTatis* 

89. LiiuA ▼BBUicuiiiJMs.^.SGhte. in App.. Syn.Iiu.p. 109, 294* 
L, vermieuhria, Don. Int, F^. 5. 

9a. Laiiu ftuoicoLUS. SchdQ; laApp. Syn* lnSn,pt 169. SBH* 

91. Lamia bidbns. Fab. Sytt. Sleuth, ii. 304. 124. 

98. AcAif THOCiirus FiLiOBR, (n. 8.) A. antetmis obscsttris pilosis 
apicem Tersiis cinereo-annolatis, • capite dnereo veitioe nifio 
biHneatOb thorace obscure cinereo inaqoatipostic^ subcanali- 
culato medio utrinque tubercalato, elytris obscuris fascicolis 
minuti!! nigpris flavis cinereisque Tariegfatis, fascift medii cine- 
red undatfi crist&que tuberculat& bumeros yersus. 

93. NoTOGLBA IMMACULATA. Marsbam^ in Lin. Tram* iz« S9I» 
tab. S6L fig« 4. 

94« NoTOGLBA TARI0I.08A* Marsbaniy in Lin. Tram. it. S85, 
tab. 84. ^. I. 

■ 

95. NoTOGLBA RBTICULATA. Marsham, tit Lin. Tram. ix. 885^ 
tab. 84. fig. 8« 

1K» . NoTocLB A 4-MAcuLATA. . MarsbsiB, in JLin. Tram.- ix. 887, 
tab. 84.%. 6. 

Oh. I suspect that this insect is mereljr a Tariety of N. f^- 

87. NoTooLBAATOHARU^. MMhBm,.m Lin*. Tram, ix. 899, 
tab.8i.%a 

9a NoTocLBA sPLBMDBNs, (n. «<) N. splendidissiuid cupi^ an* 
tennis piceis, scutello nigro, thorace postic^ elytromm suiflrd 
macultsque duabus dorsalibus Cteruleo-viridibus, elytris novetfi 
striis punctorum subtilissimd impressis. 



bumdibolata.i natural HUrrORY* 453 



99r NOTOCLBA TBBTACBA. MuTlluun, in*Uni TrafW; iXb««ar»- 

tab. M. ^. 10. 

103. NoTOCLBA 8>maci;lata. Kanbam, im Lin. Tramt* ix. 
S94^ tab. 25. ftg. 10. 

10). PoDOMTiA NioROVABiA, (o. 8.) P. iiifii thoiace piu^ctis 
quatuor utrinque inter latus et fosBulas anticas daas diyer- 
gentes in lineam transvenam dispositis, scntellu piceo» eljtrit 
testaceis iiigro-yaiiis striatu striis punctatis, corpore subtos 
pedibiuque rufiB» femoribus posticis vakle incraasatis. 

Oh$. This insect bears a great affinity to Chrytomda l^-ptinc- 
lute. Fab., and other Asiatic insects of this type, which hare been 
separated from Chrysameia by Dahnan in his Bphemeridei EntO' 
nifiiogic4g, under the name of PodanHu. - 

102. Phtllocharis CTANicoBNiB. Dtlm^Ji^ Efhem, BfUom.ftU 
Chrifsameh eyanicomis. Fab. Sy$i, Eleuih. i. p. 488. 85. 

10& Phtllocharis Kluoii, (n. s.) P. mfo-testacea antennia 
scuteHo pedibusque atro^yaneis, capita puncto verticali, tho* 
race macule posticali, elytris panctato-striatis maculis duabua 
anticis cmceqae apicali atro-cyaneiSy abdomine sabtasatro- 
cyaneo limbo rafo. 

Ois. This species comes very near to the Chryiomda eyampu 
of Fabricius» and is probably only a variety of it* 

I 

104. Chrtsombla 18-guttata. Fab. Syti* EleiUh, u 489. 10l« 
Don. /fw. of New HoUand, tab. 2. 

105.' Chrtsombla <^rti8ii. Kirfoy> in Lin. Trant. vol.' xii. 

106. Crtptocbfhalus tricolor. Fab. 8yti. Eleuih. ii« £!• 65. 
Far. fi. Thoracis macnla media nigra. 

107. Cassida dbusta. Fab. Sysi, EletUh. u 896. 44. 

OUT. Jns. 97. tab. i. fig. 17. , 



^454 APPENDIX. IB. 



.Mb CooemiuA Kin«ii» (n. s.) C. palUd^ tettaeea tkonce 
dio maculis quinque nigris duabus anticia eloojfatb tiibusque 
posticis rotundatis, elytris nigpro-tripunctatiB punctis hume- 
ralibas daobus alioque medio marginal!. 

Order ORTHOPTERA. 

109L Blatta Au8trali8» (d. 8.) B. elongato-ovata, ferrugineo- 
fuBca thorace suborbiculato-quadrato, marginibus lateraii et 
posticali lunulisque utrinque duabua paulisper impressis, fa8« 
dk ante marginem posticum nigrum 1at& albi transversa ei 
lineolis duabus longitudinalibus mediis rulis carinulam forman- 
tibus In furcam flavam ad marginem antieum deainentibus. 

Obs» Tbe elytra of the male are mucb longer tban the abdomen. 

llO. Mantis quinqubdbhs, (n. a.) M. dilnte-viridh thoraee 
baud triplo longiore quam latiore, dorso parte antic& canaK- 
culatii excepta longitrorsum carlnato, margiqibus laterafibus 
denticulatisy^elytris thorace duplo longioribus elongato-ovatis 

; diltttd vin4tt)ua margine extemo mi^;ullU|ue medik elerat^ 
flareseei^ua i aiis hjalinis dilute ferrugineia margine antico 

J apie^que subfuscia , pedibua aaticia coxia denticulatia maigine 
intano pkeo lineia quatiwr adbis elevatia tranaveraia in dentes 
deainentibaa. 

'111. Mjlvtib Darchii, (n. a.) M. dihite viridia thoraee qua- 

drupio longiore quam latiore, dorao parte anticft canalicnlati 

, . ^xceptli longitrorsum ^arinato, marginibua laterallbua poatic^ 

baud denticulatis, elytria thorace baud duplo longioribus linea- 

ribua acuminatis antic^ viridibua margine flaveacentc poeticd 

. aiiribJ^yiJinia aubfyadsr nervo eoatan versus cffMaiwe, alis 

apice acuminatis margine antico diiutd rufeacente, medio nigro 

punictb hyAKaii et parte poslict ib8c4 obaooWK vix nncidatl. 

Mantis Darchiu Captain P. P. King, ifcf55. 

Obs, Thia inaect baa been named bj Captain King» after hia 
friend Thomas Darch, Eaq., of the Admiridty. 

1 12. Phasma Titan> (n. a.) P. corpore decern undarum longo, 



If ANDIBULATA.] NATURAL HlffTORY. 455 

sabelneivo-ftiieo linetH, thoram •piitttlls fttlhiigdani rang 
a0tttit elytrit lonfflore, hit nigro-Tiridibiii tettaceo niMulatis 
maeulique io marpnii aatiei medio nu^k iM, aUi meaibra- 
naceit «igro-fuicU albo-raBcuUitit, mtioi •orineiia ad baiia 
rubris nigro-maculatu ad apieem oifiii*vtridib«t IfiUctO ma* 
culatiB, pedibus albo-cinereis coxig anticiB trij^onis an|^do in« 
feriori deotibat magTiis rafis postico mlnaribfis et snperiori 

niillis. 

< 

CMf • Tbii immeiua ioMct, wbiob U oearlj a foot lonf , ii iioir 
for tbo fint time deacribedf altboagh It Memi to ba not uncommon 
in New South Wales. AHbouf b much larftr, it comei ftrj near 
to the P. Gigat of Linnsua and StoU* and like it» belong^s to 
Lichten8tein*8 divisioliy thni ehararteHsed, '* Alata elytris alisque 
in utioque mxu;* 

ilS. Phasiia tiahatum, (n. 8.) P. corpore fere i(uid(|ue unci- 
arum longfo cuneiformi viridi, capite tiard aciftninaift epifluloelt 
coronato, thorace antico ani^nsto auhdepreeso spinuloeo pea^ 
tice dilatato convexiori margfinibus lateralibus denticolatis, 
abdettine antice cjUiidrico medio valde dflatalo miiiglM den- 
tato et in procestum segmentorum trium linearem desinente 
se|;mentfB supra blots lamlnis dentatis in medio annatis, ely* 
tris Tirfdibus sabovads mioutis alarum mdlmentls brevioribus * 
pedibus Tiridibus coxis triquetris, anticis atigalo Interfori tri- 
dentato, superior! denticulato processu ad apieem criatato, in- 
feriori dHatatQ rotundato* qoatuor postids dilalatia ovatis 
margioe denticalatia. femoribus antida extua dihUatie rotun- 
datis apieem versus sabemarginatis, quatuor posticis triquetrb 
angulis dentatis exteriori valde dilatato. 
Tab. B. fig. 3 et 4 

Obi, I have been Ibue particular io the* deeeripiion of tldsnre 
iM t rt , in order to affaid ae much iiifeimatioii aa p«seftle io the 
naturalist, who may be inclined tq inTeatiptte tiM ni^uval arfullf** 
ment of the Phasmina, 

114i. LocusTA 6ALICIF0LIA, (tt. 8.) L. viridis thoTaco supra piano 
lateribus perpeadicularikua aagofia flat eseeMfbos, ^Jifia rik 



456 APPENDIX. [B 

brevioribiu limceoUto-ovatiB. cost& flavd punctis utrinque ad 
medium impreagis alia hyaliniB acuminatis apice viridibiu. 

Oftf. This insect differs from the L. unieoUn* of StoU, a J»- 
yanese insect, inaimnch as its thorax is not dentated, and is 
marked at the angples with yellow. 

115. GRTifiiUS PICTU8. Leach, Zool. Muc, i. tab. 2S. 

116. Gbtllus Rboulus, (n. s.) G. femigineo-fuscas antennis 
filifonnibia mgnst elytris obscord nebulosis, alis f usco-hyalinis, 
thoracis lateribas posticd testaoeiStCorporesabtosrofo-testaceo, 
tibiis posticis testaceis spinis dorsalibus rufis apicibus nigrls. 

Order NEUROPTERA. 

117. LiBBLLULA 8AN0UINBA, (n. s.) L. tota san^ulnca alis hj* 
alinis stij^ate fiilro nerrisqae sanguineis,^ postids basi fla« 
rescentibus. 

118. LiBBLLULA OCULATA. Fab. EfU: Syst ih S70. 9. 

119. LiBBLLULA 8TIOMATIZAN8. Fab. Ent. S^it.U. STS. 8.. 

190* Lbstbs bblladonna, (n. s.) L. supra Tiridis subtus albes- 
cens pedibus nigiis» alis quatuor cultratis macul& ad marginem 
apicalem alb&. 

121. AoRiON KiKOii, (n. s.) A. eapite nigro, froxlte corporeqne 
subtus albidis, thorace abdomineque supra fiisciB, segmentis 
abdominalibus nigro alboque annulatis, alis hyslinis stagmat^ 
fusco. 

Older HTMENOPTERA. 
128. Ophion lutbum. Fab. Syst. Pte«..iao. 1,, . 

Ols. This seems, according to Fabricios, to be merely a VBsittf 
of the common European insect. 

183. Lniis ANGULATA. Fab. Sya, Piez. S90. 9. 
DM.^ PoxFiLtJS M9BI0. Fftb. Syst, Piez. 1S7. h 



IfANOiBUtATA.] NATURAL HlflTORY. 457 

125. PoHPUiUs COLLABIB. Fab. Syst. FUt. Ifff* 9: ' 

128. Altsod TouBNTOsuM, (ii.s.) A. nigpro-pubeweos abdoiDuiia . 
legmentis apice argenteis, alia apice iugfncantiba8«. . 

1ST. Thtnnus variabilis. Leach, MSS. 

Thynnw dentattu. Fab. Syit. Piez. 831. I. 

188. EuMBNBS CAMFANiFOftMis. Fab. Syit. Piez. 887. IQ. . 

)89. SuMBNBs APiCALig,(ii. 8.) £. fUva tkoracis spalio inter 
ula* leginentlque abdonuQalis tecundi parte basali nigris, aUs 
flavifl apice faicis. 

ISO. Gbntris B0BIBTLAM8. F)ib. SyitPiex, 358. 19, 

Class HAUSTELLATA. 

Order LEPIDOPTERA. 

131. Papilio Eubtpilus. Xinn. Syst. Nat. ii, p. 754. 49. 
Goctart Ene. MM. Hut. N^t. ix, ^. 61. 

Oht. Captain King^ found an insect on the north coast of New 
Holland, which, I think, can onlj be deemed a variety of P. Eury^ 
piiugf a species hitherto recorded as inhabiting' Java and Am* 
boyna. This variety ie distinguished from the Euripiltu' c( 
Godart by several minute differences. 

)98.,Papilio Maglbatanus. . Oodftrty. Enc. MHh. Hut. Nat. 
ix. 47. 65. 

IBS. Papilio St^nblus, (n. s.) P. alls nigris flav'o-maculatis 
posticis dentatis fascist macul^ue adj^Ui ^vis,. ocello. anal! 
rufo lunuhe cserules submisso. 

Oht. This species is in New Holland i^hat Demdetu is in 
Africa, and EpiuMin India. It is even difficult to determine 
whether, the three may not be varieties of one species. If varieties, 
however, they are certainly permanent according to the above lo- 
calities,, and tills species may be easily distinguished from Epius^ 
which it most resembles, by- the large yellow spot near the middle 
pf the siHP^riw .margin of 4he apjper wWf TIds spot^ is- divided 



458 APPENDIX. [B. 

intotwoini7ptiw«nd J>efi90^^i«t. Moieover.thebmdofiha bwr 
wing^ in P. Sthendus is only attended with one small sppt. 



1S4. Papiuo AmaotuIj (n. s.) P. alii Bi|;r»-ftiiei8, antids gfriseo- 
maculatis, inferis dentatis ftscift aM extoa dMtatA liundi 
medid mgri, Umbi<|Uft nigri lunalis ',qiiiuque c«ruleis ocellis 
tot rufis submissis. 

Obt, This fine species is of the middle sizet and seems to have 
a lelalioa both with P. Spint and P. MmehtM^. The vertex b 
iirang««cokNii«d» with a blaek Mne la tiie niddla. The two upper 
wingfs are slightly dentated, the lower dentations befog narked 
with white spots. There are three grey spots in the middle of the 
superior margin of the wing, of which the largest is the one nearest 
to the body ; on the oiitnde of these ars two parallel rows of grey 
spots, the first range consisting of about nine oblong spots unequal 
in size, and the outer range of eight smaller, whitish, and round 
spots^ The wMte band of the lower wings, which are not tailed, 
has a blaclc cresceal«like spot in the middle ; and on the outside, 
two parallel rows of five spola» the one blue «ad the other ted. 
The emaifinations of these wingt are inoged with white* The 
under side of this insect is like the upper, except that the caknis 
are more pronounced* and that there are two round white spots m 
the outside of the white band of the lower winya. 

.I8C Pafiuo Gammioa^ Godart^ Bne. MM. HUi. Nm. ix. 78. 

145. 

IW. Papilio HAftMONiA. Doo. Im. of New HMmnd. 

P. Bmrm^n&ides. Qodart» Bne. MHk. ffUi. Jtai. iz. 76. 146. 

1^4 PoNTiA Crokbra, (q* «•) P« alia integerrimis nims aoticis 
apice punctoque nigri«» posticis ciaereo^ubmarginatia subtas 
flavu-irroratis. 
P. Crokerd. Captoin P, P, King. MSS. 

OAf. This inseet ie of Godail^s fifth sise, adi eomei wy near to 
1ms Pierif JVmni., The winge are of a iqe white eoianr, p«vtistt> 



Hauitbllata.] natural IflBITORY. 4S9 

* 

blaek point, iia»f the middle. The under wiogi era wMMNilt ray 
ipotg, hat afc bordered bdhiad by » dneieoiif thraed. The nader 
side of the upper wings have the costa and summit ooveved with 
spots and minute incontinuous lines of a yellowish colour. The 
underside of thd lower wingv are sulphureous, with yerj fine un- 
dulating* or rather incontinuous Ihies of a yellowish colour. 

The species has been named by Captain King, after JcAn Wilson 
Croker, Esq., M.P., and first secretary to the Admiralty. 

.138. P1411M NisiUf (n. s.) P. alie ftlbis limbo late mgro ; a«* 
tieh maculi medift nigrft limboq^e ribo-trimaealnloi peelieis 
Bobttts nigro^venosis limbi n^eeulii luteo-notatis. 

' M«. This insect comes ^efy near to the P, Teutanim of Oodart 
«nd Donovan, particularly in its under side. His, however, smaller 
than that insect. The upper wings are white, with a poeterior 
•bfoad black sabtrianguhir border, having two or three white spots 
mi the apex. These wings have a bbuik spot near their middle, 
whieh is also on the under skle, but theiv communicates by a trant- 
Tcrse, short, and rather eurved, black band, with a black superior 
edging of the wing. In other respects the under side of the so- 
.perior wings is like the upper, except perhaps that it Is yellowish 
«t the base, llie lower wings have their upper side white^ with a 
'hvoad bkck border.. Thqir* under side is strongly veined VFHh 
black, having the base and the middle of the outer row of white 
spots in the posterior margin of the wing yellowish. 

}B9. Pisais So7ia.AEA« (n, s.) P, alls integerrimis albi^ limbo 
exteriori utrinque nigro : anticis elongato-trigonis maculis api- 
calibus quatuor albls. 

Obs. This species comes very near to P. Lyncida of Godart. 
Its wings are white above. The upper ones have their costa 
tilackish, and a triangular border at their extreuuty rather dentated 
on the inside. On this black border is a transverse row of four or 
five wlHte spots* unequal in size. The lower winga have also a 
.blsick border with one vhite spot, and which is simply crenated on 
the inside. The under side of if^ four wi|^[s KMC^ d^fipers from 



460 APPENDIX. . fB- 

the upper, exeept that the Uackborderi above mentioiied are m 
genemlinore pale, and those of the lower wings are broader Cfaas 
outthe upper side* . 

140. PiBRis Ntsa. Fab. Syst. Ent. iii. 478. 123. 
P. Endara, Don. 7iw. of New BoUand. 

P. Nysa. Godart, Enc. MHh. Hist. Nat ix. 152. 118. 
P. Endora. Godart, Enc. MHh. Hist. Nat. ix. 15S. 117 ? 

Obs. On an inspection of the original Pieris Nysa of Fab., in 
the Banksian cabinet, I find it to be the same with the P« End»rm 
of Donovan, the only difference being that the under wings are 
less cinereous on the upper side, and the upper wings hare more 
white at the extremity of the.yellow spots at the base of their under 
sides. These minute differences appear to be sexual. At all erente 
this is- undoubtedly the P. Endora of Donovan, in his Insects of 
NewHoQand. M.Godart, however, most erroneouslj. quotes 
another. work of Donovan, namely. The Insects of Indim^ and 
gives an erroneous description, apparently from confounding some 
Indian insect with the insect described by Donovan. Godarthas 
also erroneously altered the Fabrician description of P. Nysa^ and 
thus added to the multitude of proofs which his laborious work 
affords, that the. continental entomolc^ists have no means of un- 
denUildng a complete description of species, without visiting the 
extensive collections of London. . 

141. PiBRis NiORiNA. Godart, Enc.Mith.Bist.Nat.vL\49A(». 

142; PiBRis AtSANipPB. Godart, Enc. MHh, H. iVoe. ix. 15S. 121. 

14S. PiBUs SuiLAX. Don. Ins. of New Holland. 

P. Smikuf. Godart, Enc. MHh. Hist. Nat. ix. las. 56. 

Obs. As Godart here again cites Donovan's work on the Insects 
of India, instead of his Insects of New UoUand, I jun inclined to 
think that he never saw those works. 

144. PiBRis Hbrla, (n. s.) P. alls rotundatis integerrimis flavis, 
anticis apice fuscis, posticis margine nigro*8ttblineatis subiuk 
testaceis atomis griseis aspersis. 



Haostbllata.] natural inSTORY. 461 

Obt, This insect is larger than P. SmilaSf but resembles it ex- 
tremely in its upper side. The under side, however, is different, 
as. the extremity of the upper wing's and the whole of the under 
wings are of a fawn colour. The under side of the lower wings is 
idio sprinkled with some grey atcmis, and marked obscurely with a 
fuscous band under two points. 

145. EuPLAA Ghrtsippus. Godart, Enc. MHh. ff.NAx. 187. 38. 

• 

. Obt, Captain King has brought a variety of this insect from 
New HoUand» which only differs from the European specimen 
%ured by Hubner, In the row of white points round the edge of 
tlie upper side of the lower wings being evanescent. . This species 
is one of those which have a great range of distribution* being 
found in Naples, Egypt, Syria, India, Java, and New Holland. 

146. EoPLAA AFFiNis. Oodart. Enc. Mcth. H. Nat. ix. 188. 81. 

147. EuFLiBA HAMATA, (u. 8.) £. abdominc supra nigro subtus 
fusco alis repandis supra atris; omnibus utrin<^ue ad ex« 
tunum.punctis ad basin maculis subbifidis virescenti-albis : 
nUftiu anticarum apice posticarumque pagiult omni, olivaceo- 
fuscescentibus. 

. Obi. This insect comes so very near to the Euplaa Limniaeet 
of Godart and Cramer, which is common on the Coromandel Coast 
as well as in Java and Ceylon, that I can scarcely consider it as any 
thing but a variety of that species. It differs, however, in being 
constantly of a smaller size, in its abdomen being black, and in 
the exterior row of white spots on the under wings not extending 
much more than half way round the margin of these wings. Cap- 
tain King found this insect in surprising numbers on various parts 
of the North-east Coastt particularly at Cape Cleveland. See 
vol. i. p. 195. 

148. Danais Tulliola. Fab. Ent Syst, iii. p. 4. 182. 

' Obt. I reserve the generic name of Danais for such of M. La** 
treiUe's gemtt.RS. have no pouches to the lower wings of their 



462 APPENDIX. [B. 

mal«8 ; aild to the veiDidnd«r I ^ve the Fabrieian fenedc name ef 
Eufkuu 

140« DARAI8 Dahcria, (ii« 8.) P. alif integris finds veldtlftii 
csrti]eo«mlcatitibu8» omnibus suprA iasdft tnaoulari iatfa ptine- 
torum seriem marfiaalem abbreviatam albftj anticis poncto 
albo coBtali 
Danais Darchia, Captain P. P. Kin^ MSS. 

Qbs. This is exactly the size of D. Bleustne, to which it appears 
to come very near. The npper side of the four win^ is brownish- 
black, hanngf towards the margin an arched band of violet-cokmred 
white spots, of which the ^atest is at the extremity of the wingp. 
There is also on the superior margin, about the middle of the upt)er 
wing, a white point, and at its inferior angle a marginal series of a 
few white points. The upper dde of the lower wings has an abbte* 
viated series of marginal points on the outside of an arched series 
of violet-colouted whitish lunulas. The Under side answen well to 
the description given by Godart of the under side of his Danais 
Eunice, except that D. Darchia has only one white point in the 
middle of the upper wing. 

Tlus species has been named by Captab King after his friend 
Thomas Darch, Esq., of the Admiralty. 

150. Danais Gorinna, (n. s.) P. alls integris fuscis yelntinis 
cieruleo-micantibus, anticis punctis quatuor costalibus, maculis 
duabuB angularibus et punctorum serie marginaU albis, punctis 
extimum versus majoribus ; alls posticis punctorum serie 
marginali et macularum longitndinalium fasci& discoidall al- 
bis. 

Obt, This species comes between the DanaU Cora of Godart 
and his D. Coreta. The under side differs in having the marginal 
series of white points continued to the very tip of the upper wings, 
while they have three other points in the disc. There are also 
eight or nine similar white points between the base of the lower 
wings and the band of longitudinal spots. 

151« Nticpbaus Lassiwassa. Godart. Bne.MHk. ix.ae5. 1^ 

168. Vaxbssa Itba. Godart. JBiie. UUh, ix. Ml. St* 



HAU8TBUATA.] NATURAL HIVrORY. ' 46S 

IM. VaMma Cahd^i, vat. CkkUirt. Mne. MHh. ii. MS. M. * 
154. Sattsus Banksia. Godart. Sm. Meth. iz. 497* 8. 

V 

I 

1£5. Satyrvs Abbona. Oodart. Bnc, Meth. iz. 49t. 9S. 
166. SATYmtft Mbbom. Oodart. Sne. MHh. iz. JM. SOi 
157. Sattrur Arghbmor. Godart. EfMi MHL iz. Mk 81. 
118. AAOTltHis Kii»Hi. Godart. Sne, MHh. it, tel. 17. 

159. ARarMirii Tbfhnia. Godart. Bnc. MHk iz« Mi. 18. 

160. AcABA AltDROMACHA. Pab. Bnt Sytt ill. ISd. 564. 
^. Eniaria, Godart. j&nc. Mcth. iz. 

0&«. The original insect of Fabricias is in the Banktian cabinet^ 
and affords further cause of legreti that the article " Papilhn/" of 
the Encyelophdie MHhodifue, should have been undertaken by a 
person who had not studied the classical collections that exist out 
of Paris. M. Godart describes this insect as a new species, under, 
the name of Eniaria^ and makes it an inhabitant of the West Coast 
of Africa. 

161. Cbthosia PniTTRBeiLBA. Godart^ Enh* MM, iz. M8. 18. 

Obi. This species has hitherto been described only ae a native oip 
Java, but Captam King* found several jspecimens of a variety of it 
on the North Coast of New Holland. 

16fi. Hbspbria Rafflbsia, (n. s.) H. atra aUs integerrimis ;. 
anticis fescii maculari abbreviate sulphurel^ atomisque apicem. 
versus subviridibus aspersis, posticift rotundatis fascia basali 
oval! sulphured abbreviatd, caud^^td corporis fiiscid medift sul- 
phured ano palpisque viride rufis. 

0&«. This beautiful species I have named after Sir Stamford 
Raffles, to whose scientific ardour and indefatigable ezertions in 
Java and Sumatra^ every Naturalist must fed himself indebted. 

The under sides of the wings are spotted like the upper* the 
only difference beingi that roimd die whole disc of thefoor wingi 



464 APPENdlX. [B. 

tiuere ram a' baitd of ashj-grden atoiiui. The antemue anii feet 
are black, and the breast whitish. The virid colour of the yellow 
■pots on the velvefy black of the wings distingaish it at once from 
every knowi^ species. 

163, Uravia O&ontbs. Godart. Enc. Mcth. ix. 710^4. 

Far, alis atro-viridibus, anticis fasciis doabiis posticis copreo« 
. Tiridibus, onied lat^ 



0&<. This beautifal Tariety of an insect hitlierto described 
peculiar to Java and Amboyna was found in immense nombers* 
flitting among a grove of Pandanui trees, growing on the banks 
of a stream near the extremity of Cape Grafton,, upon the North- 
east Coast of New Holkund. See vol. ii. p. 14. 

f64. AoAEiSTA AORICOLA. Don. /ffu. of New Holland. 
AgarUta picta. Leach, Zoo/. Misc, vol. i. tab. 15 
Godart. Enc, MHh. ix. 803. 2. 

Oht» As Donovan described and figured this insect many years 

« 

befoce Dr. Leach, his name has the right of priority* 

165. Sphinx Latrbillii, (n. s.) S. alis integrig ; superts griseo- 
* flavescentibns atomis brunneis aspersis, punctiB duobos nigris 

basalibus et fasciis quatuor obscuris subapicalibus, inferis 
griseo-nigrescentibus apicem versus subflavescentibus. 
Dieiophila LatreiUii. De Cerisy ilf ^. 

Obs. The under side of tlie four wings is very pale, of a yellow" 
ish-gray colour, traversed by a line of blackish points, which 
indeed are dispersed very^generally over the whole surface. The 
disk of the upper wings is rather blacker than the rest. Hie head 
and thorax are of the colour of the wings, their sides and the conical 
abdomen being rather Ughter. The antemuB are ciliated, whitish 
above, and brownish beneath. 

166. Spbikx Godarti, (n. s.) S. abdomine griseo line& medii 
longitndinali guttulisque lateralibus nigrescentibus, alis in- 
tegris; tuperii griseo » nigrescentibus maculis irregularibus 



Hausteilat A .] NATURAL fflSfTORY. 465 

nigrii punctoque medio albo, inferis gT'iseo-flavescentibiiB fas- 

ciis tribal uigfris. 

IHelophiht GodartL BeCerisyMSS. 

Obsu AH the mng9 are of a gray colour beneath^ the fringe 
hein^ alternately wlute and brown. The thorax is gray, with a 
narrow, tawny, transverse mark, a lateral white fascia, two black 
curved marks, and on the hinder part a black spot. The body 
beneath is of a whitish colour. 

167. Macaoglosbum Kinoii, (n. s.) M. capite thoraceque vi- 
ridibus, abdomine nigro flavoque variegato, alls integris byali- 
nis subtus ad originem flavis, superis basin versus brunneis 
pilis Tiridescentibua obtectis costfi limboque posteriori brun- 
neis, inferis ad originem limbumque internum brunneo*viri- 
descentibus. 

Macroghssum Ktngiu De Cerisy MSS. 

Obt, The antennse of this beautiful species are black, very slen- 
der at the base, and thick towards the extremity. The palpi are 
greenish above and white beneath. The breast is white in the 
middle, and yellow at the sides. The two first segments of the 
abdomen are, on the upper side, gray in the middle, and yellow on 
the sides ; the third segment is black, with a part of the anterior 
edge yellowish towards the side; the fourth segment is entirely 
black, having only a white fringe on its anterior edge; the fifth 
segment is of an orange yellow, with the middle black ; the sixth 
segment is entirely yellow, and the whole abdomen is terminated 
by a pencil of hairs, which are yellow at their base, and black at 
the extremity. The thighs are whitish, with the tibi» and tarsi 
yellow. 

168. CosdUB NBBULOSUB. Dou. insects of New Holland. 

169. EuPRBPiA Grokbri, (n. s.) E. alba antennis fuscis, capite 
nigro bipunctato, thorace lined transversa miniatsl anticS 
punctis quatuor et postice duodecim nigris, alis testaceo-fuscis, 
superis ad basin albis punctis axillaribus tribus atris maculis- 
que duabus medits hyalinis, abdomine supra miniato subtoB 

Vol. 11. 2H . 



466 APPENDIX. fB. 

albo lateribas duplici aerie punctorom nigrorum notatia, pedi- 

bus chenneBinis. 

Euprepia Crokert, Captain P. P. King MSS. 

Ob$, This lovely inaect, of which two apecimena were taken at 
aea, haa been named by Captain King after John Wilaon Croker, 
£aq.» M.P., and First Secretary of the Admiralty. 

170. NoGTUA GTATHiNA, (o. B.) N. fiisco-grisea subtua palIidior» 
alis superis lined transversa fusca sub-undatt aliisque mar- 
ginalibua obacuris fiMcii apicem veraua fulT^ undata intiia 
lineolfi fuacfi terminate, ad marginem externum dilatatS, 
limbo punctorum aerie tix mai^nato, subtus fascii albfi, 
potterU supra apicem versua nigris fascid medifi macuUsque 
tribuB marginalibus albis, subtua macule marginal! pallidiori 
margine nigro punctato. 

Order HOMOPTERA. 

171. Cicada Aubtralabijb. Don. Im. of New BoUand. 

173. CiOADA ZoMALis, (n. a.) C capite thoraceque flavia, hoc 
macularum iaacifi nigrarum punctisque posticis yariegato^ ab-* 
domine atro fasciS antidl rubrd analibusque Iribua albis, la- 
mellia baaalibua aubviridibus, elytris hyalinis costis viridibua 
pedibuaque teataceis. 

Order HEMIPTERA. 
173. ScuTBLLBRA Banrsii. Don. Ins. of New Hettand. 

Obs. This insect varies so much in colour, that I almost think it 
to be the same species with the following S, cyanipes. Fab. 

174. ScUTBLLBRA CTANIPB8. 

Tetynt cyanipee. Fab. SyH. Rhyng> 138.23. 

175. SCDTBLLBRA IBIPBRIALIS. 

Tetyra imperialism Fab. Syst Rhyng» 1S8. 1. 
176. 8ci;TBLiifiRA coRALLiPBRA, (n. B») S* Supra cyanea linefi 



HAtJSTBLtATA.] NATURAL HiarroRY. 467' 

verticaU nigrfi thorace kntiod aur&to^ wmtello id basin aiaculfi 
tnuHTenft nibrd» coi^;Knrtt sobtiu nifpro^yantD pactorii la- 
teribuB aaratis abdominis lateribas rubris anoqod Tiridi» pedi- 
bus rubris tibils lafaiiqua nljj^ro-cyaiieis* 

177. SCUTBLLBRA PAOANA. 

Tettfra pagana. fVtb. SyH. Rhtfng. 194. Sft. 

178. PlKTATOMA CJBLBBS. 

CtMe» citlebg. Fab. £nf. Syst. \r. Ill, 119. 

179. PbNTATOMA BLB0AN8. 

Cimex tlegans^ Don. Ins, of New HcUand* 

180. LTOJiea rbgau8» (a« t.) L. capite nibro» latenBls nigpris, 
thonoe iaTo-marginato aatied liueis albfi nlfprfiqua transversd 
notato* scutaUo nigro, alytris flavia macnld medii parteque 
apical! membranaoefi nigiis* cor^re subtus fulro lateribus 
albo-lineatis pedibas nigro-brunneis. 

Order DIPTERA. 

181. Stratiomts Huntbri, (n. s.) S. nigro-bninnea tomen- 
tuaa, post-acoteflo flavo, abdomine supra nigromaculis utrinque 
basin versus duabus viridibus, subtus riridi, pedibus flavis^ 
Stratiomys Hunteri. Captain P. P. King M8S. 

Obs. This insect baa been named by Captain King after Mr. 
James Hunter, the surgeon of the Mermaid. 

182. AsiLUs iNOLORius, (n. s.) A. obscuro-lufceuB abdomine ad 
basin pilis flavis hirsuto, alis flavo-hyalinis apice obscurioribus, 
pedibus rufis geniculis tarsisque nigris. 

188. Tab ANUS guttatus, Don* Ins. of New HoUand. 

184. Tabanus CIKBRB8GBN8, (n. s.) T. cinereo-femigineus sub- 
tus albescens, alls byalinis basin versus suf^luteis, abdomine 
lined medifi maculisque quatuor utrinque cinereis* 

18& Pamoonia Rqbi, (n. s.) P. rostro brevi iota ferrugiaea 

8H S 



468^ APPENDIX. [B. 

nitidii, abdomlnc subtui testaceo alls falvo-hyalinU apice mar- 
gfineque exteriori saturatioribui fasciiBque duabus mediis ob* 
Bcoris marg^alibu. 
Pangonia Roei. X^aptain P. P. Kinf MSS. 

Obt. This insect has been named after Lieutenant John S. Roer 
R.N« ; one of the assistant-sunreyon of the expedition. 

189. Anthrax p]t«-AR0BNTATU8» (n* s.) A. supra niger pilifr 
flarescentibtts tomentosus subtus albidus, ore albo^ pedlbus 
nigris, alis brunneo-hjalinis marg^e exteriori saturatioribus 
apice albis. 

187. Anthrax BOMBYLIPORHI8, (n. s.) A.nigro-brunneus post* 
BCtttello fenrugineo, abdomine supra ad basin fuiro apice albo 
fasciiique medift fuscfi* subtus albo pedibus atro-brunneis alis 
hyalinis basi marg^neque exteriori fuscis maculisqoe aliquot 
discoidalibus. ^ 

188. Musga splbnoioa. Don. Ins. of New Holland. 

Class ARACHNIDA. 

189. Nbphila CuNNiNOHAMif, (m 8.) N. thorace scriceo cinerco, 
Ifenicniis incrassatis pedibus nigro*fulvis» tibiarum primo et 
postremo pari flayo-annulatis. 

Nephila Cunninghamii, Captain P. P. King MSS. 

Named after Mr. Alhin Cunningham, the botanist of the ex«> 
peditiou. 

Ohs. The g'enus Nephila has been very properly separated from 
Epeira by Dr. Leach in the Zoological Miscellany. 

190. Uloborus ganijs» (n. s.) U. albescens thorace conrexo, pe- 
dum pari secundo longiori, femoribus nigro-punctatis. 

191. LiNYPHiA DBPLAKATA, (u. s.) L. rufo-testacea mandibulis 
pedibusque apicem versus nigris, thorace sub-circulari piano, 
pedum secundo pari longiori. 

06f » The principal difference of this spider from the genus 



HAVflTSLLATA.J NATURAL HISTORY. 469 

Lififfphia, as characterized hy Latreille, coiuisU in the circum- 
stance of the two lai^fest of the four middle eyes heing the posterior 
ones. The palpi of the male are in this species each provided 
with a spiral screw resemhling^the tendril of a vine, 

192. Thomisus uoRBiLi^osuSt (n. 8.) T. pedibus quatuor primis 
loDgioribu8» cinereus thorace macule postic& sublunari ma^& 
yiridifuscd^ pedibus sub-geminatim ilisco maculatis. 



CIRRIPEDES. 

Anatipbra sulcata. Gray, Ann, FhU. 1885. 
Pentalasmis sulcata^ Leach, 
Montagfue. Test, Brit^ 



4TO APPENDIX. [B< 



RADIATA. 



GENTRONU. 
1. Echinus Ovum ? PSron and Lesueur. Lam. SiMi. iii. 46. 

This specimen, presented to the Museum, agrees very well with Uia 
short description given bj Lamarck of this species. 

8. Echinus Vabiolaris. Lam. Hist. iii. 47. 

This specimen, agreeing very well with the description of one 
foond by P6ron, is very remarkable ; and has the larger area agru- 
late and ornamented with two rows of white tubercles, nearly as 
large as those in the genus CidarU ; the pcMres in the upper part 
are not perforated, and are placed in segments of cirdes round 
small tubercles. 

3. ECHINOHBTRA LUGUNTBR. 

Echinus lucunter. GmeU Stfs. Nat i. 3176. 
Icon. Ency. Method, t. 134. f. 3^ 4^ 7. 

ANOMAUA. 

Phtsalia Mboalista ? PSron Foy. U Lam> BUt. ii. 4SK 
Icon. PSron, Foy. AUas, t. 29. f. 1; 

No specimen of this animal was preserved, but Captain King ob- 
serves, that the animal he caught, of which he made a drawing, 
differed from Lesueur*s figure of P. megalista, in being of smaller 
size, and with fewer tints ; the colour of the tentacula was a brighter 
purple tipped with yellow globules, and the crest of a greenish hue, 
but the general colour of the animal was purple. It measured from 
three-quarters to one inch in length. Captain King considered it 
to be a variety of P. megaligta. 

Porpita oioantba. PSron, Foy. ii. Lam. Hist. IL 485. 
Icon. Peron and Lesueur, AUas, t. 31. f. 6. 

A very beautiful and accurate drawing of this curious animal was 
made by Lieutenant Roe. Mt Lesueur*8 figure is also very cor-r 
rcQtly drawn. 



ZdoPHYtA.I NATURAL HISTORY. 471 



ACRITA. 



ZOOPHYTA, 

1. TOBIPOEA MU8ICA* Gmd. StfU, Nat I. S7S3* bum. Hist. 

iu909. 
Icon. Seba. MusAn. t. 110. f. 8, 9. Soland. and EUi$. U 87. 

According' to P^ron, the animals of this coral are furnished with 
green-fringed tentacula. 

2. Pavonialactuga, Lam. Hist. ii. 299. 

Madrepora lactuca, PaUasp Zoopk. 289. 
Icon. S(^nd» and BUiSt U 44. 

3. EXPLANARIA HB8BNTBRINA, Lam. Hxst. l\. 255. 

Madrepora cinerascena, Soiand^ and BiUs. 
Icon. Sciand. and Ellis^ No. 26. t« 43. 

4i, Agaricia ampliata, Lam, Hist. S. 243, 

Madrepora ampliata, Soiand. and EUis, \ST. 
Icon. Soland. amd EUu^ t. 4L f. 1, 2. 

5. FuNOiA A«ARioiPOiuu«» £«»• Hisi. ii. 286. 

Madrepora fungites, Gmel. SifsU Nai. i. 3757. 
Icon. Soland. and J?(/w,.p. 149. t. 58. f. 5, 6. 

6. FuNOiA LiMACiNA^ Lam. Hist. ii. 237. 

Madrepora pileus, Chnel, Stfst. Nat. i. 3758. 

Icon. 3;tlMd: and BiHs, t, 45. Soda. Mus. ii. t. 111. f. 3. 5. 

7. FuNGiA COMPRB88A, Lam. Hisi. it. 236. 

8* Cartophillia? fastioiata^ Lam. Hist. iL 288^ 
Madrepora fastigiata, Ott«/. SffsL Nai. L 3977. 
Icon. Soland, and EUis, t. 33. Esp. SupfL t. 82r 



472 APPENDIX, [B. 

9. PoRiTBg 8UB0I0ITATA, Lam. HUt. ii. 871. 

Icon, ■ 

10. PoRiTBs OLAYARiA, Lom, Hist, ii. 270. 
Madrepora pontes, QmeL Syst Nat* i. S774. 
Icon. Soland, and Ellis^ t. 47. f. 1. 

11. AsTRBA STBLLULATA ? Lam, Hitt H. 261, 
Madrepora stellulata, Stdand. and Ellis, p. 165* 
Icon. S(^nd. and Ellis, t. 53. f. S, 4. 

Obs, The stars in this specimen ard mooe niinierou8» and do not 
perforate. 

12. Madrbpora prolifbra. Lam. Hist. ii. 281. 
Madrepora maricata, Gmel. Syst. i. 3n5. 
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. ST. 

13. Madrbpora abrotanoiobs, Lam. Hist. ii. 280. 
Madrepora nmricata, (hnel. Sys. Nat. i. 3775. 
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t, 57. 

14. Sbriatopora subulata. Lam. Hist. ii. 282. 
Madrepora seriata, Pallas. Zooph. p 386. 
Madrepora lineata, Esper. Suppl. 1. 1. 19, 
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 31. f. 1. 2L 

15. Madrbpora laxa (?) Lam. Hist. ii. 280. 

16 Madrbpora plantaoinba (?) Lam. Hist, ii, 279. 
Icon. Esper. Suppl. i. t. 54. 

17. Madrbpora cortmbosa. Lam. Hist. ii. 279. 

8. Madrbpora pocillifbra^ Lam. Hist. ii. 280. 

19. OoROONiA FLABBLLUM, Gm^. Syst. Nat. i. 8809* 
Flabellum Veneris, Ellis, CoraU. p. 76. 

Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 26. f. A. 

20. Galaxaria cyundrica, Lamourowe. 

Corallina cylindrica, Soland. and Ettis^ 114. 
Icon. Soland. and Ellis, t. 22. f. 4. 



ZOOFHYTA.J NATURAL HISTORY. 473 

21 Spongia uuricina (?) Lam» Hut ii. 969. No« 74* 
Icon. Seha. Mus. iii. t. 97. f. 2, 

2SL Spongia pbrfouata, Lam. Hist, ii, d7t). No. 78. 
Icon. ■ 

29- Spongia basta, P(Ulat. Zooph. 379. Lam, Hid. ii. S71» 

1^0.82. 
Icon. " ■ Etper. ii. t. 25. 

24. Spokgia alcigornib, Esper. Lam, Hist, ii, 380. No. 120. 
Icon. ■ Esper. ii. p. 248. t. 28. 

25. Spokgia spiculifbra? Lam. Hist, ii* 375. No. 106. 

Icon. ■ ■■ * • 

Three or four other species o( Spongia were brougfht home» which 
I have not been able to identify with any of Lamarck's descrip* 
tionsy or with any figures ; but as this author has described many 
species from the collection of P6ron and Lesueur, which have not 
hitherto been figured, I have not considered them as new, until I 
have had an opportunity of examining more New Holland species^ 
and of seeing those described by Lamarck. 



474 APPENDIX. [B. 



MOLLUSCA. 



BY JOHN EDWARD GRAY, BsQ., F,G.S« 

I. CONCHOPHORA. 

1. SOLBNOMTA AuSTlfcALIS. 

Solemja Australis, Lam. Hist. y. 489. 

M j» ]afurgUiip«etiii»U» Pcrwi an^i Irfltueur. 

2. Magtra abbrbviata ? Lam. Hist. v. 477. n. 20. 

Icon. ■ 

■ 

TliU collection contains a considerable number of specimens of a 
shell agreeing with the short specific character given by Lamarck 
of the above; but as it has not been figured, I have referred to it 
with a mark of doubt The shells are rather solid, white, or white 
variegated with purple, with numerous concentric wrinkles^ which 
are more distinct nearer the margin ; the umbones, covered with a 
thin pale periostraca, nearly smooth and polished, with a small 
purple spot, the inside white, with the disk and posterior slope 
purple; the anterior and posterior slopes distinct, the lunule and 
escutcheon deeply and distinctly sulcated ; length fourteen-tenths 
of an inch ; height one inch. 

3. Mactra ovalina. Lam. ffUt, v. 477. 

This shell is neariy of the same shape as the last, but the anterior 
slope is rounded and circumscribed, and the posterior only marked 
by a raised line in the periostraca. The shell is thin, Mrhite ; widi 
a pale brown and deeply grooved escutch^n. 

4. SOLBN TRUNCATUS, fFood. Cofich, 

Solen Ceylonensis, Leach, ZooL Misc. i. 22. tab. 7. 

Solen vagina, b. Lam, Hist. v. 451. 

Icon, ffood. Conch, t. 26. f. 3. 4. Ency. Method, i. 2^2. f. h 



lioi.iirtcA.1 NATURAL HlSnTORY. 474 

$• CaRHIVM TBlfVIOOflTATUlf, IrMI, Hilt vt. & 

Icon. ' 

The shell when perfect is white* with rose-coloured umbones ; the 
rose cohmr Is often extended down the centre of the ihelli forming 
concentric zones, 

6. LiTCiNA DivARiGATA, Lam. Hhi, y» 541. 
TeOina dlvarioftUi, Omel. S^. Nmi. 1 8941. 
leon. OAmii. Comch. n. 184. 1 18. f. 199. 

7. VBNBBUPie 0ALAGTITB8, nob, 

Venus y»l»otitea» Ltm^ Hist* v. W' 

Icon, i "" ■■' 

The ftcl of Lamarok havinsf placed in the genns Fenu$ this shell, 
whkh a modern epneholef ist has eonstdered as a variety of Feflm- 
rupU perforatu, shews the very great affinity that exists betwoeo 
those genera« 

8. Vbn us FLAMMioutATA ? Lam, Hist, V. 605. 

Icon. ■ ■■ 

This shell Is pale yellowish* with irregular, large, distinct, concen- 
tric ridges, and distinctly radiated strise ; the umbones smooth, 
polished, orange-yellow ; the lozenge lanceolate, purple ; the inside 
golden-yellow; the anterior and posterior dorsal margins purple* 

9. Vbnus tbssbllata, (n. s.) 

Testa avato-obtonga, atkida, lineis purpureis anguiatis 
picta ; iulcis concentri^Ut ad htus post^orem foiUftfa^ 
tis ; marginibus integerrimis. 

Icon. -* 

Shell ovate-oblong, white, polished, with rows of square purple 
spots, forming regular lines, with the points directed toward the 
back of the shell ; covered with many distinct, nearly equal, con- 
centric, smooth ridges ; the ffOAl pari of the itdges eoniewhat 
elevated, thiiv, hinder part distinctly kim^Uar and much elevated} 
the lunule subulate, lanceolate ; the edge quite entire ; umbones 
with a purple spot; Inside white> eieoepl on the anterior and pos- 
terior dorsal edges, whkh are purple; length eighutenths, height 
^ix* tenths of an vich» 



476 APPENDIX. £B, 

There are itiro pther specimeiu of this shell iQ the Mmeum whidi 
do not agpree with any that Lamarck describes ; one of these being' 
fourteen-tenths of an inch long, and one inch high, is doable tbe 
size of Captain King's specimen ; its habitation is nut markedL 
but the other specimen is from Ceylon. 

10. Ctthbrba Kinoii, (n. s.) 

Tetta ovatO'cardata, tumda, albida, coneentriee suh^tvUsy 
radiata^ radiis flavicautibtM ; lunulA laticeoiato^ordaU ; 
intuf albidL 

Shell ovate, heart-shaped, white or pale brown, with darker brown 
rays, each formed of several narrow lines, the umbones white, the 
eAf^o quite entire ; the lunule lanceolate heart-shaped, obacnrely 
defined, the centre rather prominent ; inside white, the hinge maigin 
rather broad. 

This shell is very like Cytherea iata, but differs from it in its 
markings, as well as its outline, which is more orbicular. The 
specimen given to the Museum by Captain King, is one inch long, 
and eight-tenths of an inch high ; but there is another specimen in 
the collection, from the Tankerville cabinet (No, 2S8), which la 
twice that size. 

11. Ctthbrba gibba. 

Cytherea Gibbia, Lam, HuL v. 577. 
Icon. Chemn, vii. t. 39. f. 415. 416. 

ISL Pbtricola rubra ? Cardium rubrum ? Montague, 

This shell agrees in general form, teeth, and colour, with the Cat' 
dium rubrum of Montagu, but it is larger. It was found imbedded 
in the sea^weed and spongy-like substance that coven the Tri* 
dacfM tquamasa, 

IS, Chama limbula, Lam, Hist, vi. 95. 

This shell may, perhaps, be a variety of Chama gryphoides, 

14. Tridacna Gigas, Lam. Hist. vi. pt. 1« 105. 
Chama Gigas, Gmd. Syst. Nat. L S299. 
Icon. Chemn. viLt. 49. f. 495. Ency. Mcth. pi. 235. f. i. 



MotLtracA.] NATURAL HISTORY. 477 

15. PECTUNCULtTS RADiANd ? Lam. Hist YuS4k 

• ♦ 

16L Arca Scapha, Lam. HUt. y'u 42. 

Icon. Chemn. vii. 901. t. 65. f. 54S. Ency. Meth. pi. d06. 
f. 1. a, b. 

« 

17« MTTittUB BR08U8» Lam. HnUyu pt. i. 120. 

This shell was described by Lamarck from some New Holland 
specimens* that were probably collected by P^on in Baudin's 
voyage. It is remarkable for being very thick and solid, and of a 
fine dark colour^ with only a narrow white band on the anterior 
basal edge. The edge is crenated, and the muscular impressions 
arie very distinct, and raised above the surface* particularly that on 
the antenor valve, which is both pellucid and tubercular. 

18. MODIOLA (TULIPA?) AUSTRAUS, Noh. 

Modiola tulipa, var. L Lam. Hist. vi. pt. i. 111. 

This Australian species will most probably prove to be distinct from 
the American kind ; but the specimen before me does not afford 
sufficient materials to separate it, since there is only one water- 
worn valve in the collection. It is not so distinctly rayed as 
M. tulipa, and the inside is entirely of a brilluint pearly purple, 
except near the anterior basal edge. 

19. L1THOPHAQU8 CAU0ATU8, nob, 

Modiola caudigera. Lam, Hist. vi. pt. i. 1 16. 
Icon. Ency. MM. pi. ;^]. f. 8. a, b. 

20. Mblbaorina albida, uar. a. Lam. Hist vi. pt. i. 152. 

This appears to be a distinct species from tliose found in the Gulf 
of Mexico and the W^est Indies, but the difference is not easy to 
describe. The specimens before ine, which are small, differ mate- 
rially from some of the same size among the American species. 
The outside is of a duU greenish-purple colour, vriih a few distant 
membranaceous laminse which are unly slightly lobed, and not ex* 
tended into long processes like those of Avicula radiata {Zool, 
Misc. 1. 1. 43.) which is the young of the American kind. The 

« 

internal pearly coat has a bright yellow tinge. 



478 APPENDIX. £B. 

21. SPONDTLI78 lUDlANft ? Lom. H%*t. H. pt i. 109. 

Icon. Chemn, Conch, vii. t. 45. f. 469. 470. Ene^. Metk. pi. 
191. f. 5. 

22. Pbgtbn HAxmus ? Zram. Hut. vi. pt. i. 163. 

Ofltrea maxima, Gmel, Syst, Nat, i. 3315. 
Icon. Chemn. CoficA. vii. t. 90. f. 585. Snetf, MM. p^* 8M. 
f* 1* a, b. 

The shell before me is probably distinct from the above species, bat 
it too mnch worn down to be separated from it ; in its present state 
it seems to agree tolerably well with the species to which it has 
been referred. 

23. Pbctbn aspjbrsiuus, Lam. Hist. ▼!• pt. i. 174 

This beautiful species was origfinally found by MM. P^ron and 
Lesueur on the coast of Van Diemen*s Land. 

24. Lima hinuta, (n. s.) 

Testa ovatO'Obhnga valde tumida clausa radiatim costaia^ 
costis transverse costato^striatis, auricuUs mtnutis, mar' 
gine crenato. 

This shell, which was brougfht up by the deep sea sounding4ead, 
being only one-sixth of an inch long, and one-fourth high, is the 
smallest species of the genus. It is white, ovate, oblong, turned 
and closed at the ends ; the surface is deeply radiately ribbed ; the 
ribs are concentrically rib-striated, wliich gives their sides a denti- 
culated appearance ; the edge is crenulated, and the nmbones are 
acute, a small distance apart, and nearly in the centre of the hinge 
margin, which is straight. 

25. Pinna dolabrata. Lam. Hist. vi. pt. i. 133. 
Pinna bicolor, Chemn. Conch. Cab. t. 90. f. 234. 
Icon. Chemn. viii. t. 90. f. 780 ? 

The shell, figured by ChemnitZ) appears to l)e a variety of this spe« 
des with the anterior end uncurved, which has most probably been 
caused by some injury on the anterior basal edge. 

The species is peculiar for its yellow pearly internal coat, and 
purplish rays. 



I 



MoLLUSCA.] NATURAL HIStORY. 479 

II. COCHLEOPHORA. 

M. Troobus carulbscbkb, Lam. HiH, vii. 18. 

Icon. Eney. MHk. pi. 444. f. & a, b. 

Inhab. South-west Coast. 
laanutrck describes tins shell from a specimen found hj P^ron. 

27. Trochus N0DULIPRRU8, Lam» Hist. vii. 18. 

28. MONODONTA CONICA, (n. 8.) 

Testa conica^ acuta^ imperforata^ spiraliter striatO'COstaia, 
rufa ; costis subtubercMlatis, aib<hnigrihartie%ilati$ ; oper- 
tur& suhatd, 

Inhab. Mus. Brit. 

Shell conical, axis longer than the diameter, the whorl flattened 
with six spiral ndsed subatrite, which are transversely divided 
into blackish purple beads with white interspaces, the apex rather 
acute ; the base, rather convex, axis imperforated ; the aperture 
sabqnadrangular, inside furrowed ; the base of the columella lip 
with a prominent tooth and distinct groove behind it^ the upper 
part rugose ; axis eight-twelfths, diameter six-twelfths of an inch. 
This aheil does not appear to be uncommon on the coast of Australia* 

' 99. MONOnOMTA ORANULATA, (U. S.) 

Testa (iepressO'Conica^ umbilicata^ purpurea, alhomarfnorakt, 
spiraliter papillata ; papiUis quadri'Seriatis, umbilico 
lavi: itifimA facie papiiiatA, aperturi sulcatA. 
Inhab. — — Mus, Brit. 

Shell rather depressed, conical, purple variegated with white, 
generally concentrically wrinkled, and ornamented with granulated 
spiral ribs, the ribs of the upper part of the last, and of all the other 
whorls rather distant, and forming four series ; those of the under 
part rather closer, and smaller* The axis unbilicated, smooth, the 
aperture roundish, the outer lips furrowed, the columella lip smooth, 
with a groove at its base, axis four-twelfthg, diameter five-twelfths 
of an inch. 

90. MONOOONTA DBNTIGULATA, (tt. S.) 

Testa depreuO'Conicat umbilicata, rufa^ nigro punctata^ spi» 

raliter sukatOf subgrantUata^ umbilico e^uscrenato. 
Inhab. ' Mus» Brit. 



480 APPENDIX. [B. 

Shell depressed, conical, pale reddish* ornamented with rows of 
white and brown spots, spirally gfroo?ed, ribs slij^htlj granulated ; 
the satnres distinct, impressed, the lower part of the last whoil 
nearly smooth, the umbilicas white, smooth inside, the edge fitf- 
nished with a series of granules. The mouth subquadrangular, 
outer lip crenulated at the edge, the columella lip smooth, with a 
large tooth at the inside, and a little roughness on the outer side ; 
axis three-tenths, diameter five-twelfths of an inch. 

31. MoNODOKTA C0N8TR1CTA, Lam» Hid. TiL 86» 

S2. MONODONTA RUDIS, (n. S.) 

Tatm avatO'canica imperforata Mido^urpurea rudis erOMsa^ 
labro duplicato, estui aibido viridi, intus subsuhiUOf alho» 
Inhab. ■ Mus» Brit* 

Shell ovate, conical, imperforated, rough, pearlj, concentricallj 
striated, whitish-brown ; when worn or where eroded, purple ; 
the whorls convex, suture distinct, sometimes occupying an im- 
pressed line on the lower whorl ; the base rather convex, the 
aperture roundish, the axis (imperforate) covered with a white 
callus, which leaves a slight concavity over its end ; the outer lip 
of jthree colours, the outer part purple or green and white, the 
middle pearly, and the inner opake, white, and furrowed ; the 
surface of the lower part of the last whorl is frequently worn 
away just opposite the mouth, so as to leave a purple spot. 

33. RiSSOA CLATHRATA, (n. S.) 

Testa subgioboita, subimperforata, aMa, sdida, spiraliter 
et cottcentrice costata ; aperturA suborbicularif suturA 
impreuA, 

Shell nearly globular, spire conical, ^ upper whorls with three, 
lower with seven distinct, large, rather separates much raised, 
spiral ribs, and numerous acute transverse ribs, which form an 
acute tubercle where it crosses the spiral ridges, the suture deeply 
impressed, very distinct, the aperture nearly orbicular, the outer 
lip denticulated on its outer edge, inner lip smooth, column with- 
out any perforation, only a slight linear cavity behind the inner 
lip, axis and diameter each one-sixth of an inch. 



MoLLUgCA.] NATURAL IIISTTORY. 481 

This shell is allied to LiHorina murieata (Turbo murieata^ 
LiQ.) in it« general form and the shape of its umbilicus, but 
is white and ribbed liice Rutoa cimex, (Turbo cimeM, Lin.) R, 
etdathrUeui, the Turbo ealaihriscu$ of Montag^ue. 

^4. Solarium bianodlatum, (n. s.) 

Testa orbicuhtO'Conica subdepreua albtda tpinditer tvh* 
striata rufo vaHegata, anfractibus biangulatti supra 
plants infra contexts, umbiiico pervio edentuio. 

Shell orbicular conical ; spire rather depressed ; whorls five spi- 
lullf striated ; upper part flattened, expanded, white with numerous 
diverfpn^jr red cross lines ; centre flat, nearly at right angles inth 
the upper edge, white, with a convex thread-like rib round its 
base, which is distantly articulated ; base of the whorls convex, 
red, punctured and variegated with white ; axis conical, concave, 
white, smooth at the commencement ; aperture subquadrangular ; 
inside pearly , inner lip with an obscure tooth at the end of the 
ttmbilicus; axis one-fourth, ctiameter one-third, of an inch. 

85. Turbo sbtosus, Ome/. 8ys. Nat. 3594. Lam. Hist, vii. 42* 
Icon. Chemn, v. t. 181. f. 1795, 1796* 

36. Turbo torquatus, GmeL S597. Lam. ffist. vii. 40. 
Icon. Chemn, x. 293. Fig. 24. f. A. B. 

37. Phasi ANBLLA VARiA, Lam. Eney. Mcth. pi. 449. f. 1. a. b. c. 
Phasianella bulimoides. Lam. Hist. vii. 5S. 
Bttccinum.Australe, (hnef. Syst. Nat. i. 3490. 

Icon. Chemn. ix« t. ISO. f. 1083, 1034. 

38. Phasianblla pulchra, (n. s.) 

Testa minuta oblique eanica tenuis pellucida lined aWidct 
opacd et fasciis eoecineis omata, anfractibus voids eon* 
texis. 

SheU minute, obUquely conical, thin, pellucid, variegated with «piral 
opaque white intercepted strite and several transverse scarlet bands 
formed of oblique lines; axis^ imperforated, one-sixth, diameter one- 
eighth, of an inch. 
Vol. II. 2 1 



482 APPENDIX [B. 



but the whork an more c<»vex«snd it ii ntther difiierently aarlced* 

99. ScALARiA ^iftTftAXJ8» Lom* OiU* vi. pi. S* 228. 
Icon. 

40. SOAULJUA Twvia, (||.«,) 

2>i|^ t^mea umbiliwim tenuit ftMudda Mida wMfateiaU^ 
costifi Mi* tetmibut crebmrrimU pmrum tievMh lavibtu, 
anfractihut contiguis, 

SIM conical, thin, pellucid, «rJuti8h*l)rown» vitii a narrow central 
flpiral brewa band ; wiiorii c«ntiguoiia» eoovez, amoolk with nn- 
qNToiia closf obiiqoe liigMj. laiaed, thia^ limple-edged croM ribs ;. 
ass wabilinited ; umbilicus narrow ; moiUb amall, orate, orbicular ; 
a^ ibree-eifluhs, dianetar 4«e-fourtti of an incb. 
. Tbis sbell is aiMt like Sealaria principaiis, no6. Turbo prm" 
d^U of Pallas. Chemti. xi. t 195, f. 189«, 1877. Tbc sbell 
before me is aKWt pi»b«bly n ywag speeimea. 



41, PstpmvciiA iiACi|ruTA» Lanu Hut. vi. pt 8. 290. 

Turbo Delpbinus, Gpel. SjfH, Nmt.%e509. 
Icon. Luter, Coneh, t. 608. f. 45. i 

Tbis sbell was found at low water upon tbe Coral Eeefs, in tbe 
entrance of Prince Regent*8 River, on tbe Nortb-west Coast. 

« 

42. Nbrita ATRATA9 Latn» Bid. ?i. pt. 8. 191. 
Icon. Chemn» Coneh, t. t 190. f. 1954, 1955. 

4S. Nbrita tbxtilis, dmeftn. ^yti, Nmt. 468$, 
Icon. Chemn. v. 1 190, f. 1944, 1945. 

44. Nattca XAini.LA, £«m. Jffid, H, pt. H 1#7« 
' Kerita mamilla, Omd, Sysi, NM, MTV. 

Icon. Lister Coneh. t. 571. f. 22. Enc. MM. pi. 4i& f. 5. 
' a. b. 

4$, Natica Aj.aA, n. 

Icon. Chemn. y. t. 189. f. 1922. 192S. 



MoLLUSCA.] NATURAL HISTORY. 483 

46. Natma ookica^ //OfM. Hist, rupLSk 19^ 
Icon. Chemn. y^ 1. 189. f. 1930. 1931. 

4r« LmouHA Ai7tima.ii» (■.&) 

jTexto ovato, eonica fidva rudis ipiraiiter striaia s^tet^^ 
spird acutct, fauce lividd. 

Shell ovate, conical, fulvous-'brown, roagb, wiih nmneroug im- 
pressed spiral lines ; the spire acute, the whorls rather Cii^TeiEp 
last slightly angcular, tho columella Up purplish-browii ^ loia iolid, 
with a lunate concavity behind the usual situation of the umbilicus. 

46. LiTTORINA UNIPA8CIAT>i, (n« S.) 

Te$ta ovatO'Canica imperforata purpuieO'-aXbida lamgata, 
anfractihus convexis tdiimo suhamguMQf 0p0rtuti4 §ur^ 
pureA UniftKimtii 

Icon. 



Shell ovate ^oslcal, ^learly 'saooKli, wilh only a lew eoMMtric 
ridges, and distant, scarcely impressed, ▼^narrow, grooves^ white 
or purplish-white outside; the whorls rather convex^ last one 
slightly fuigular in front ; mouth ovate ; throat purple or puipGsli- 
liiack with a distinct broad whit^ spiral band just bdow the 
slight external l^el ; inper lip purple with a deep concavity behind 
it ; spire acute half the length of the sh^B ; axis ^, dia^iueter ^ 
of an inch. ^ 

This shell has somewhat the shape of Littorina xigvMg^ the 
TVacAiM 3figmg «f MmtM/gm, tet ia nil 4f one MhMr ^tMnallf 
and liat a aneh 4Witer spine. 

49. Cbrithium palu&trb, Brugs Diet. n. 19. Lam, Hxtt. vu. 69. 
Strombus palustris, €W. Syxt. Sat, 35SL No. 38. 
Icon. LUter. Couch, t. S36. f. 62. t, 837. f. 63. Seb^m.] 
t. 60. f. 13. 14. 17—19. Martini Conch, iv. t. IfiS. f. 1478. 

10. CBRinnjM rauf ijroM, Brug, iHct. n. S6. Imm* Mid. vi. i7. 
Icoo. CkmL Conek. k. t. 148. £. iMA, Um. Mmf. MUh. 
t.44&f.La,b, 

51. Cbrithium horus. Lam. BUt. vil. 75. not Bfug. 
Icon. Lister, t. 1084. f. 90 ? 

818 



484 APPENDIX, [B. 

62. Cbrithiitm lima? Lam. Hid. viL 77. Brug. No. S3. 

A broken shell apparently of this species was brought home, but 
when a more perfect specimen is found, it may prove to be distinct 
from it* 

53. Cbrithium pbrtbmuh ? Lam, Hist vil. 77. 

54. Nassa fasciata, n. 

Baccinam fasciatum. Lam, Hist. vii. S71. 

55. NasSA 8UTURAU8, n. 

Bocdnom suturale, Lam. Hist. rii. 069 ? 

56. Nasba motabilis, n. 

Buccinum mutabile, Gmd. Syst, Nat. 8481. Lam, Hist, Tii. 

969. 
Icon. List, t. 975. f. BO, Bonu t 9. f. IS. Ckemn. Couekm- 
xLt. 188. f. 1810, 181 K 

67, Nassa livida, (n. s.) 

Testa ovatO'Coniea supeme transverse plicata bast spira^ 
liter striata purpurethlivida obscure castaneo bifasdata^ 
anfraetibus convexiusctUis, suturA lineA alb& notatA, labro 
extus marginato iritus suicato. 

Icon. — 

Shell ovate conical, livid parplish*white, with one or two central* 
obscnre brown, bands ; upper whorls bluntly transversely plaited, 
the rest smooth, livid, except at the front part of the last, just 
over the groove, where it is spirally striated ; the suture distinct (not 
channelled) marked by a white line ; the inner lip distincc, raised* 
the outer thickened on the outer side, edg^e sharp, inside grooved ; 
the throat fulvous-brown ; axis one inch, diameter half an inch. 

This shell belong^s to the group of Nassa, but will perhaps forat 
a distinct genus intermediate between it and Cdumlteilap charac- 
terized by the narrow form of the mouth. It is most nearly allied 
to N, ciivaeea, n., (Bucc. olivaeeumf Lam.) and N. eanalicu" 
lata, n., (Bucc. canalieulatum. Lam.) 



MoLiuscA.] NATURAL HiarrORY. 485 

58. Clavatvla striata* (n. t.) 

Te^d ovaiO'laneeoiata turrita aUida regulariier . gpiraliier 
stdcutO'Striaia iranwerse et inUrrupte eoiMa* an/roc- 
tuum margine superiore anguitUo subnodoio, caudA brmtif 
fauce suleatd. 
Icon. ■ 

Shell ovate tumted, whitish-brown, with eleven or twelve Iongitu« 
dinal interrupted ribs forming long tubercles on the centre of the 
whorls ; the whorls with distant impressed spiral lines near the su- 
ture, with a rather flattened slightly nodulose band; the mouth 
rather more than one-third the length of the shell ; outer lip thin 
inside, grooved; tail short, with a linear depression on its colu- 
mella side ; axis ten-twelfths, diameter four-twelfths of an inch. 

59. Cassis achatina, var. Lam, Hut. vii. 229. 

A worn specimen, apparently a variety of this species. It is en- 
tirely smooth, polished, and has the hist whorl near the spire slightly 
concave, edged with a scarcely raised rather nodulous line, the outer 
lip is very thick, grooved on its inner edge, and the columella is 
distinctly plaited. 

It may perhaps prove to be « new kind ; but the species of this 
genus are so exceedingly vpt to vary, that I do not wish to increase 
the number of the already too much extended lists of Lamarck and 
others. 

60. Cassis vlamuba. Lam. Hut. vii. 890. 
Cassidea flammea, Brug. Diet n. 1& 

Bttccinum flammeum, Lin. Sys. Nat. 1199. Ome/. 9478. 
Icon. LiHer. t. 1004. f. 69. et 1 1005. f. 72. Martini Conek. 
ii. t. 34. f. 35& 854. 

4»L DouuM yariboatvm. Lam. Hiit. vii. S61. 
Icon. ■ 

62. Purpura HiSMASTOMA, Lam. ff»f. vii. 238. 

Buccinum hsmastoma, Lin. Syst. Nat. 1202. Gmel. S48S. 
Icon. Liaer. t. 988. f. 48. Martini ConcA. iii. 1. 101. f. 96%, 
966. 



406 APtENDn. CB. 

6S. MuEBZ ADU8TC8? Lam, Hiie. tit IM. 

Tfih stidi ngreen Tory^trdl fMt the cleieriptkm 0f Lanarck* ex- 
cept that the whole ed|^e of th^ mouth is of a Ase nrte-ved eokwir. 

64u TrITONIUM TRAN<mBBARICUM, Q. 

Triton Tranipiebancum, Lam, tlisi. yii. 189. 
Icon. J?ftcy« Jtfc£&. t. 4SS. f. 6. 

9dL TsiToomm JHfjsTRALA, n. 

Triton Aostnde, JScmk tf tV. vii. 179. 

BfoTBt Tritoniiim Aiutrale» ChemtL, C&nek, xL 

Icon. CAaim. zf. 1. 1^. f. 1987, }868. 

d6. RaNBLLA LBUCOSTOMAf IrCtflH. Hist, vil. IdO. 

lean. " ■■■■■ i. 

Thk shell it very IHe Tfi^on Sdobina^^ lam, ^ and Hie varicei, 
Bke it, nether form a complete series, nor are they alteiuate, sd 
thai it does not agree exactly with the characters of eHJier genus. 

llBMn fwracMM, Bmd» &fg^. Hfm 95M* 
Icon. Martfnf. W. t. MA t IMOv 1|M^ 

68. CoNUs ACHATiMUS, Brug. Diet, n. 66. Lam, Hist, vii. 460. 
Icon. Chemn. x. 1. 140. f. 1^17. Aiey. M tM i d . t. aMr£ 6. 



69. OvmOk W»0TinUTi4» firMy. i%^-B« 96* LawL.Bi$L k 460. 

70. CONUS MAURUSy (n. 8.) 

Testa turbifum csswtatHk irih'db jom Apo^/wm <pM 
subdepressA mueronatd, fauce albidd ztm^duainm pur* 
pureis notatdm 

Icon. ■ . ■ ■ 

9W vesjf plaa^ top«€iia|ied»> orowne4i and whidsh, with two 
brown bands ; spire rather depressed ; crowned, blunt ^ the epi^ 



MdLiuscA.] NATUIUL HISTORY. 497 

dMiift pale gnetMtJttowui Ihi isikb wUle, iMk t»« Iroad 
Uue banda, in the front of whlehlienclMid tk»««ial; ads one 
and a ^ali, diameter one inch, 

* 71* CrpRAA ARABioi, Gmei. Sftt* Km$^ L mo» JUmib AM. vii. 
378. €rray,Zool.'JmtfKi.9^ ■■ ■ 

Icon. LUter. Coneh, t. 658. f. 5. MdHinu i. t. 31. f. 888. 
Awy.ilMI.t8i2 th%. 

78. CtPRJEA TiGRii» Clftte/. iSyjf. Nat. \. M08. X«iii. i7w^. vii. 
888. Cfray, 2^00/. Jour. i. 867. 
Icon. LUter. Conch, t. 68SL f. 89. JToreMt i. t. 84. f. 888^ 
884. Ene^dikh. %. 86^ C a 

The shells of this species that are foiiwi on the N^tth-eatt Coast 
of Australia are genesoly ^f » very pale teioaiw uMi o8lf eehltered 
ntfkinit. 

78. Ctprjba MAURITIAN a, Gmd, Syst. Nat, MfJ. Lam. Hist. 

Icon. LUter. Conch, t. 70S. f. 52. MavtM k t. 8A f. 817- 
818^ JffMf • MSkh. t. 31KK f^2* a. 1^ 

74 CrPRAA Ltnx» drnd. Sy$i. Nat. 3409. Lam. tiiH.yu. 888. 

Cypnea Tenolik 4ANeL #108. 

C7pnea^S^i8ififeayil«MlL8|09» 

Icon. Litter. Conch, t. 683. f. 80. Martini L t. 83. f<, 880, 

831. ^*u?y. i»aA. t: SSi f. $. a. ». 



75. Ctprjsa Anni>u)8, Gmd^ Stut. Nat, 8415. Lgm^ ffUC ^k 
408. Gray, Zoo/. Jour. i. 494. 
Icon. Martini Conch, i. t. 84 f. 839. 840. Ency. MHh. 
t. 356. {.7. 

76* CtpAaa 0BV8LAT a, Zrom. 2r»it. vii. 40U Cray, U e. u 49& 
Icon. ■ > ■ ' I "I 



fr. Ctprjia MomfAi 4lma*J^if9t.Nat.mii^ l«ii.JMivtfi 
401. 6f9«jr, JVoef • JiMr.l 499. 



48& APPENDIX. [B. 

Icon. LiHer. Coneh. t. 709. f. 59. MaHini i. t. SI. f. dST* 
ass. Eney. MHh, t. SfiS. f S. 

78. Ctpraa brroitbs, Irtn. /Sfyi^. i\rat 1178. Gray^ 1. c. i. 865L 

Cypnea erronea, (rtiie/. iSfyfl. Not, 8411. 
Cypnea oliTacea, b. Lam. Hist. viL 898. 
Icon. Pet Gaz. t. 97. f. 21. 

79. Ctpraa Caput sbrpbntis, Lin. SyU, Nat 1175. Gwe/. 

8408. Lanu Hi»t vii. 385. Gray, Zool. Jour. i. 495. 
Icon. Lister, t. 702. f. 50. et t. 704. f. 52. MaHini i. t. 38. 
f. 816. Ency. MM. 854. f. 4. 

80. Ctprjsa Ziozao» Gmd. SyH. Not. t 8410. Lam. Hisi.yn. 
894 Gray, Zoo^. Jour. i. 878. 

Cypnea undaU, Lam. Ann. Mug. n. 41» 
Icon. Lister. Conch, t. 661. f. 5. Martini i. t. 98. f.8H 
885. Ency. Meth. t. 856. f. & a. b. 

81. Ctpraa HBLYOI.A, Lin. Syst* Nat. 1180. Gmei. 8417. Lam. 

Hist Yii. 898. 
Icon. Lister. Conoh. t. 691. f» 38. Martini Conch, i. t. 80. 
f. 886, 887. J?ncy. ilfM. 856. f. 18. 

88. CrPBAA NuoLBU8» Lin. SyH. Nat u 1181. Gmel. 8418. 
Lam. Hist. vii. 400. Gray, Zool. Jour, u 515. 
Icon. Bom. t. 8. f. 17. Ency. MM. %. 856. f. 8. 

83. Ctprjsa Onisgus, Lam. Hist.' y\i. 408. 

Icon. Lister. Conch.t. 706. f. 55. Martini i. t. 89. f. 806, 807* 

84. CrPBiSA AasTBALis, Lam. Hist. vii. 404. 
Icon. — — 

85. MiTRA TABANULA ? Z/AM. Hist viL 888. n. 79. 

A singple bleached specimen, agreeing with this description ex- 
cepting in having five instead of three or four plaits on the cola- 
mella, was brought up by the sounding line. The shell fs longi- 
tudinally grooved^ and very remaricable for being fttmisbed with 
numerous, rather distant, smooth* narrow^ raised spiral bands ; 



JfoLLUiCA.] NATURAL HISTORY. 489 

haviDgf the inter-spMeB iiiielj spirally striated ; tlie nucleos of the 
tliell, like that of a vo/wto* is maminillaiT. 

86. MiTRA SCUTULATA, Lam. Hut, vii. 314. 

Voluta Scutulata sue discolor, CKemn, Conch, x. Gmd. 3i5S. 
Icon. Chemn. 1. c. 1. 151. f. 1«B8^ 1489* 

Lamarck never havui; seen this shell has described it on the 
authority of Chemnitz, ndiose figure agrees very well with the shell 
before me ; excepting that the spots round the suture form nearly a 
continaal band at a little distance from it ; the outer lip is smooth 
and thin ; the inside dull livid brown ; the axis is fourteeQ*twelfUis» 
the diameter seven-twelfths, of an inch. 

87. Maroinblla minuta, (n. s.) 

TeUa minuta avata fusiformis Ma polita, »pird conoided 

'obtusiusculd, lahro tnJU»o, cdumettd quadriplicate. 
Icon. — — — 

Shell ovate, fusiform, white, polished; spire conical, nearly as 
long as the aperture, rather blunt ; outer lip somewhat inflexed ; 
columella with four distinct plaits ; axis three-twelfths, diameter 
two-twelfths of an inch. 

S0* St|iohbu8 PLIGATU8, Lam, Hist, vii. SIO* 
Strombus dentatus, Gmei, Sytt Nat, 3519. 
Icon. Rumph. Mus. t. 37. f. T. Pet. Amb. t. 14. f. SI. 

Schroet. Eifd. in Conch, i. t. 2L f. 12. Ency. Sicih. t 408, 

f. 2. a. b. 

89. Stbombus urcbus, Lin, Qmd. 3518. 

Icon. Lister, Conch, t. 857. f. IS. Martini. Conch, iii. t. 78* 
f. 808^808. 

90« Strombus Austraus, (n. s.) 

Testa ovatO'Ohlonga tuberculata spiraliter sulcata albida 
fuscO'Variegata, spirct e^sertd, caudk recurvct, labro in* 
crassato posteriiu lobo digiti-formi terminato intks (roseo f) 
sulcttto. 
Jcon. • ? 



490 AmNm. ck 

ebeB otaile Moitg, ipini) wUte, ipotted mmI fiadl i»ttf» |tali^ 
fttlTOQB-brown ; the spire ctintiil, oinkti, half at tta|p «• Iht 
shell ; the whorls longfitudinallj ribbed with one more protniiient 
than the rest, the one nearest the suture beings acnle and tubei^ni- 
lated ; the caiial recurved ; the outer lip thickened* ^ddhi^ in a 
projecting lobe behind, and edged with two or three blcuit tu- 
bcvcl«»; th« throat nMe-oaiewred, fumvwed^ tte Immt 1^ 
tTtichgn<id> 

This shell is one af the five specicft whkk hsva beta 
with Sifmbug rnurU Diana; il is most Mho S, ZdandMi, m* 
aumn. X. U im. 1 1485» 14M in fcrm and thrMl^ hat kse the 
sculpture of S. Adusta, n. Ch^m, x. t. 158. L \4gr, 14M; tliil 
last Lamarck considers as the true S. auris Dianas whilst IdBDaeus 
unquestionably describes the shell fi§f ured by Martini, vii. f. 84.* 
£ 840, and by Seha, lii. t. 61. f. 1, 8, which I have named jff. La^ 
marckii, from having^ considered it to be the young* of a new 
species ; it is figured by Martini, vii. t 84. f. 338, S3d, and by 
JSeba^ lii. t, 61. f. 5, 6, and is very newty allied to S* Bitftb^rtw* 
ttKwB ec £/€ttnarcn» 

91. Ptbrocbra lambis. Lam. Hist, vii. 1S6« 
Strombus Lambis, Gfme/. Sytt. Nat. 3508. 
Icon. Lister. Cmc4. U 866. f. SI. JUotiM, OmmA. ifi. t. ir. 

f. 858, 859. 

This shell ia very distinct from Strombus Camdus of Chemn. x. 
1. 155. f. 1478. 

92. Bulla Australis, Gray, Ann. of Philosophy, ix. n. s.408. 
Icon, ■ 

This species is very distinct from Bulla stria$a^ Lishr. Conch, 
t. 714. f. 72, with which it has been generally confounded j it is of 
larger size and perfectly smooth, 

93^ Bulla htalina^ (n. s^) 

Tata owata eylindrica imporforaia tenuis hyalina tdbida 

lavis concewtrice subrugosa ; apice incrtissata* 
Icon. ' 



MoLLUSCA.I . NATURAL HmORY. 401 



The shell ovate, cylindrical^ thio; hyttloe tThiAe^ wmnHk ▼«! 
iigrMly ooMSBtfisallj n^ee* ; the vertex thidMiied* moi perfo- 
nted; A» aptituit father leaiifer thip the iheU; the ianer lip 
aligrhtlj reflezed ; axift £vo4«riftiM, dtanator threeMtirelltta of an 

|n4 »h T 

04 CETPTOiTOMA HAUOTOIDBUH, (ll«> 

Sicaielus haUoioideus^ !»«». Hut. vi* $. 208. 
Icon. MarHni. Cfich. u t. 16. f. 151—154. 

95. Hippomx Lmtkxi. (n.) 
Icon. Lisier. t 544. f. 89. 

This shell is very nearly allied to PUeopti*^ hat the animal ii evi- 
dently not hraehiopodoas. It does not form (or at least no! always) 
a shelly support, but corrodes the surface of the shell to which 
it is attached, so as to form a more flat attachment, and to leave 
a loaata eonvvx fib inetead of the- Unate mnsonhir impnSMioa 
irUeh u obierve^ on those speckwnt or hudividnali whieh hftve a 
shelly base. 

96. SiPHONARiA RAorATA, Tar. Oray^ Phit. Mag. 1884. 876. 
Siphonaria Ezigua, Saw. Gen. 

Patella Japonica, Danowin. 
Icon. Donovan^ Nut, Repot* U 79* 

9T. BvUMVB KiHTQity Grayy Ann. Mt7., it. n. 9. 4l4t 
Icon. ■ 

The shell ovate, white, with^ numetfiNu teMMmof inregufiir tfMI- 
centric lines, smooth e«eepC mm lh# s«itf» #hM» It ie slightly 
wrinkled ; whorls six, rather convex ; aperliOT oval#r aboot half 
as leaf a* thfr sh^ ; peilstene' thift (perhaye not temed); p«p- 
fega<itoa cevefed witk a whita evem ltp» siwrofHided bf a dark edfe ; 
the th eo a t ckoooUle^hreeni. 

ThiasMUs ahundaa* en the MUa rf King €le«tse tbft ThMi 
jBomulk IB the vicinity of Bald Head. 



492 APPENDIX. [B. 

98. CrCLOSTOM A AUST&ALB, (n. 8.) 

Tata orbieuiata subtrochiformis profunde umbUieaUt o^ 
bida fasciis bints fuseis cincta, tpird brevi aeuUtf sn^ 
fractibu* 5 cofweMts canceniriee suleatu. 

Icon. 

Shell orbicalar» nearly trochi-form» white with two pale-brown 
bands on each whorl ; the one near the suture narrow, and the 
other, placed on the middle of the whorI» broad ; whorls five ; con- 
vex rounded, with numerous close concentric furrows ; axis umbi- 
Heated ; umbHicus rather narrow, deep ; aperture rather more than 
one half the length of the shell ; peristome (not formed ?) simple. 

99. Chiton rugosus, (n. s.) 

Tuta oetovahU glabra^ valvii tt$bercukttis, ligametUo giabro 

lavL 
loon,— — 

Shell with eiirht valves, bald ; valves covered with numerous small 
tubercles both on the central and lateral area ; marginal ligament 
smooth, bald* 

lOQ. Patblla tramosbrica, Chemn. xi. 179. 
Icon. Chemn. xi. 1. 197. f. 1912, 191S. 

101. Patblla radiata, Chemn.^l, 100. 
Icon. Chemn. xi. t. 197. f. 1916, 1917. 

When young, the form of this shell is more conical than in the figure 
above quoted, and the outer surface is finely radiately striated. 

108. Patblla nbolbcta, (n.) 

Patella melanogramma, Sowerby, not Gmel. 
Icon. Sow. Gen. f. 

When this shell is young, or when the older specimen? have lived in 
deep water, where their surface has not been broken by the shingle, 
or corroded, or covered with coralloid incrustations, they are re- 
gularly radiately ribbed ; the ribs are covered with narrow inter- 
mediate grooves, marked with a black spot on the internal edga 



MOLLVSCA.] NATURAL HI8T0RY. 493 

of the iliell^ which is permanent throu|ph all the Tariations of 
the outer tarface. The inside is pale purplish-hrovm, with a yel- 
lowish-white muscular impression. In the older specimens tlie 
oentral disk is often of a pare opaque*white» and the muscular 
impressions round the inner ed^e of the shell are both pellucid 
brownish-white; lenjfth four inches, breadth three, height two 
inches. 

This shell is abundant on the rocky shores of King; George the 
Third's Sound. 

In the collection there is a worn specimen of another species 
of this genus ; but from its bad state, and from the very gfreat con- 
fusion in which the various species of PateUa are involved, I do 
not venture to describe it as a new shell, although there has not 
been any hitherto described to which, in its present state, it can 
with any certainty be referred. It is conical, convex, with twenty- 
four or twenty-five distinct convex ribs alternately increasing in 
size; the grooves between the ribs are broad, with irregular, 
concentric, black-brown, raised lines, which appear to be caused 
by the wearing away of the other part of the dark outer coat ; 
the inside is white with a brown disk, and the edge sinuated 
and furnished with grooves under the larger ribs. 

103. Haliotis Robi, (n. s.) 

Tegta Mubrotunda convexiuscula rugosa et plieaia spira^ 
liter sulcata intu$ argenteo et rubra margaritacea, ipirU 
praminuUi^ 
Icon. — — 

Shell roundish, rather convex ; the outside reddish or brownish, 
regular ; closely but unequally spiral, ribbed, and irregularly and 
roughly concentrically striated and plaited; the row of perfo- 
rations is rather prominent, and pierced with six or seven moderate- 
sized, slightly tubular, holes; the inside is iridescent, pearly, 
rather wavy, and exhibits two distinct whorls ; the columella lip is 
short and flattenrd, outer lip rounded ; the spire is convex, rather 
prominent, placed about one-third of the breadth of the shell from 
the outer lip, and consists of three whorls, which very rapidly en- 
large. 



^4 APPENDIX. [B. 

This distinct thidl, at the dtmn of Captain Eing, law bcea 
uuaei nfter lieutenant J. S. Roe, ike aaatatant-aurreyor ef the 
eipedttion. 

It 11 meat nearly allied to H. dugUiaUs, Ckmm. t. t. MS. 
f. 1«04^ bnt diftrs fimn it in Mnf nwadcr and more dbtectir 
iibbed« 

Tefto avtUo-rotundaia tenuis deprena rug9so»9ubpiic8i^ 
spiraiUer striata inttis argenteo et ruhr0 nmrgariiaeta, 
spird praminuld^ faramtiibus pants* 

Icon. ■ 

Hieliroundirf^^tate, tinivdepreaafid; the oulnraarfMe veiy diglrt- 
1/ coQceotrieally plaited and rongli, and inelf, regalarif, 8pin%, 
striated; die rev iA perforations slii^iidy elevated, fieiced wA 
eiflit or nine small sligto^lf -^bnlar h(4es : <fe tpire rather jirona- 
neaty apex placed about one-lburth of the breadth of the shell 
froB> the aiitural angle on the outer 1%», consisting of four whoria 
which rapidly enlarge ; the inside expanded o«t» disk neari j flat 
exhibiting one distinet wherl; the eokuneOa lip narrow* mthor 
long, flattened; the outer lip ihtn« iranontcd; te nick of Iho 
imperfect perforation placed about one-third the length of the outer 
lip from the end of the columella lip : length six inches, breadth five. 

This shell, at the wish of Captain King, has been named after 
Mr. Allan Cunningham, the botanical collector of the voyage. 

This species, although nearly allied to Malices Midot is quite 
distinct from it. 

iOS^ UaUOTU OQUAIIOSA, (n. s«) 

Tesia ovaUhohhmga convesa rugBsO'plieata otcran^t^-rv* 
bens spiraliter costata^ castis tvh€revlaUhmurieaH$ff4iuee 
margasritaced^ spirB retustt. 
Icon. ■ 

Shell ovaterohlong, eonveac, ezteiMdlf traosversriy ntgose, i^tid 
aod apirallf ribbed; tiw ribs conceflftricaily etriated and ftraisliod 
with iMMDerens nined senle4ike tnbenctos ; the tow «f perfo- 
rations scarcely round contains ten or twelve rather large hot^s ; 



M 9LLvacA.] NATURAL HiaTORY. 495 

the spire flligfaUj raised* very aeir 4iie ed|t» eonMkug of Mro 
or three very rapidf •enlaifing wlorii ; the ioside ooacave* sbew- 
ing the external rihs, i«4dish pearJf ; the eolimella lip ntrow, 
depressed, beat ; the outer Ep thin, stiaitp attmt out ; the ivporfect 
perforation abiont one»fifl|i the liBg^k «f 4lw oater Up fnM Ihe end 
of the columella lip ; length two, breadth one inch and a quarter. 

This species is yery diitiaft on aoDonat of its long* form, and 
cnrTed lower face» as well as its outer surface. 

106. HaLIOTIS MARMORA TA, Iftfl. Sift. NoH, 1S56. 

Icon. Martini, i. 1. 14. f. 139. 

107. Pajuollu^ RU^IpuNI>us, De Montfort, S^d. ii. 115. 

Padollus scalaris, Leach, Zwjl, Mine. i. 66. 
Haliotis tricostalis. Lam, Hist, vL 2. 218. 
loon. De JtflMi(f.ft. t. 114. Leae^, l. e. 

This specimen, which ts the largest I ever saw, measures three 
inches and a half by two atfd a half. It was found npon Rottnest 
Ishmd, on the Wfest Coast. 

PTEROPODA. 

108. JAirvRiMA. f«uAaiu«, Lam* Mytt. Aidm. 
Janthina communis^ Lam* BisL \i. S. iOft. 

Helix janthina, Lin, Sys, Nat, i, 1246. 

Icon. Lister, t. 572. f. 24. Chemn, y. 1. 166. f. 1377, 1578. 

Several specimens of this shell were taken by the towing- net in 
the Indian Ocean, on the passage from the Coast of New Holland 
to Mauritius. 

109. Janthina bxioua, Lam, Hist, ti. 2. 206. 

Two or three species of this shell were presented to the Museum by 
Mr. Hunter, the surgeon to the expedition; it is proved to be 
very distinct from /. fragilis, from the description of its float by 
Dr. Coates in the transactions of the Society of Natural Science 
of Philadelphia. See Annals of Philosophy for 182fi, p. 885. 



I 

496 APPENDIX. [B. 

110. Htalaa tridkntata, Lam. Hist. vi. 1. 286. 
Monoculus telemus, ? Lin. Syst, Nat, i. 1059. 
Anomia tridentata» Forsk. Faun. Arab. 124. 
Icon. FoTMk. Faun. t. 40. /. b. Chemn. viii. Vign. 19L 

Cuv. Ann. Mut. ir. t. 59. Anatomy. 

I 
CEPHALOPODA. 

111. Spirula PRA0ILI8, Lam. Syst.Anim. 102. 
Spirula Aiutralis, Lam. Ency. MSthod. 465. f. 5. a. b» 
Spirula Peronii, Lam. Hist. ?ii. 601. 
Nautilus spirula, Lin. Syst. Nat. 1163. 
Nautilus gpicula, (knel. 3871. 
Icon. Lister Conch, t. 550. f. 8. Martini, i. Veg. 254. t. 90. 

f. 184i, 185. Ency, Mithod. ut supra Animal. 

Captain King brought home several minute species of Naut&us^ 
which will be taken notice of at a future period, as they reqiure 
particular examination and minute comparison with those found 
upon the coasts of Italy and other parts of Europe. 

iVofe.«»Specimen8 of the shells in the above catalogue, to which 
the following numbers refer, have been presented to the British 
Museum, viz., 2, 5, 7, 8, 12, IS, 17, 20, 25, 28, 29, 81, 46, 46, 90, 
91, 92, 94^ 95, 96, 97, 98^ 99, 102 and 105. 



BoTAWT.] NATURAL HISTORY. 497 



A FEW GENERAL REMARKS ON THE VEGETATION OF 

CERTAIN COASTS OF TERRA AUSTRALIS, 

AND MORE ESPECIALLY OF ITS 

NORTH-WESTERN SHORES. 



Br Mr. ALLAN CUNNINGHAM, 
Colleclor to the Royod Gardens at Kev), 

It having been resolved by the British Government to em- 
ploy a colonial vessel from the settlement of Port Jackson 
in New South Wales, for the purpose of exploring the whole 
of the North-western Coasts of New Holland, and that por- 
tion of the North Coast, not seen by that able navigator, the 
late Captain Flinders ; a most favourable opportunity was 
thereby afforded for a partial examination of the plants of 
those unknown shores, with a view of adding to our pro- 
gressively augmenting knowledge of the very interesting 
Flora of this southern continent. 

Having materially profited by a twelvemonth's previous 
residence in New South Wales, acquainting myself with the 
characters (and principal peculiarities of structure) of many 
genera of plants absolutely proper to Terra Australis ; and 
particularly in that period, throughout the progress of a long 
and very interesting journey in the interior, to the westward 
of Port Jackson, I was most happy and desirous to obey an 
instruction I received from the Right Honourable Sir Joseph 
Banks, on behalf of the Government, directing me to place 
myself under the orders of Captain P. P. King, to whom the 
execution of this important service had been intrusted, and 
to accompany liiQi to those particular coasts, destined for 

Vol. II. 2 K 



4SS APPENDIX. {B. 

his investigation^ in order to form and prepare such col- 
lections of their vegetation, for the use of His Majesty's 
gardens at Kew, as circumstances, and the particular season 
of the year proper for visiting those shores, might afford 
me. My very limited knowledge of the plants of that con- 
tinent, especially of genera, that form a striking feature in 
its Flora, was moreover essentially improved during our stay 
at King George's Sound on the South-west Coast, previous 
to our arrival upon the North-west Coast* at the commence- 
ment of the first voyage of His Majesty's cutter the Mermaid. 

Although the reader may inform himself, from Captain 
King's relation of the several voyages* of the opportunities 
that were afforded me in forming my collections of plants, 
still it appears necessary, in this place, to take a general 
retrospective view of those parts of the coasts under ex- 
amination, whereon my researches were made, adverting, at 
the same time, to the prevalent unfavourable seasons for 
flowering plants, during which it should seem the survey of 
the North-west Coast could alone be effected with safety. 

During the progress of the survey of the southern ex* 
treme of the North-west Coast, (at which part Captain King < 
commenced his examinations, in 1818,) I landed in Ex- 
mouth Gulf, then upon one of the islands of Dampier's 
Archipelago, at the Intercourse Islands, and on Mains 
Island ; but the results of these several excursions (in some 
of which ample time was afforded me) did by no means an- 
swer my expectations; herbaceous plants being for the 
most part dead, and the few (hard woody) shrubs scarcely 
bearing fructification : disadvantages arising, in fact, from the 
extreme barrenness of the land, and more particularly from 
the prevalent droughts of the season, previous to the change 
pf the monsoon, which soon afterwards took place, obliging 



Botany.] NATURAL HOfrORY. 4M 

«• to quit tbe Vortli-west Coast altogethw $ the remaining 
periods of the fojag^ being employed in the examination of 
eertain parts of the North Coast 

We a^ain retched the North-west Coasti in the month of 
September of the following year, resuming the sunrey at its 
northern extremity, nnder the most flattering views» and 
with a favowable season for the proseeotion of that primary 
object of the voyage. Between the meridians of 125^ and 
129^, on the parallel of 14^ although a large proportion 
of the vegetation was for the most part destroyed by the 
long established droughts, the number of specimens of 
plants bearing fmctification, gathered at Port Keats^ Van- 
sittart Bay, Port Warrender, and especially in Cambridge 
Gulf, (where we spent ten days) was neverthdess consider* 
able and highly interesting, belonging, • however, almost 
wholly to established genera of which Greviliea and Acacia 
were the most striking. The breaking np of the monsoon at 
length again obliged Captain King to close his examination 
of the coast for that season, to which we* however, returned 
in September, 1820, continuing the survey westerly from 
the point at which we had left those shores the preceding 
year. I had very eligible opportunities of landing upon the 
shores of Montagu Sound, Capstan Island, Cape Pond, 
York Sound, especially at the head of Hunter's River, at 
Brunswick Bay, and in Careening Bay« Port Nelson; at 
which several parts the collections formed were very im« 
portant, but not extensive. 

Onr encampment on the shore of the latter bay, during 
the repair of the vessel, enabled me to examine the country 
arot}nd, to the distance of four or five miles ; but it being at 
the height of the dry season, comparatively' few flowering 
plants were detected, and no herbaceous ]^ant8 of impor* 
tapce. Our prolonged stay there also enabled me to fbrm 

/ 2 K S \ 



50O APPENDJIC. tH. 

some idea of the Flora of its -shores and neigfabouriiig^ 
country, from which I gathered materials for comparisoit 
with the vegetation of Endeavour Rivert situated «t the 
eastern extreme ct its parallel on the opposite shore of the 
continent: the identity of certain species on either coastt 
together with the inference drawn therefrom', will appear 
stated, towards the close of this general notice^ Very fe^ 
new genera were the fruits of this third voyage, bat many 
nndescribed plants of old genera were discovered^ and with 
those that are frequent on the North Coast, and tropical 
shores of New South Wales, some were remarked that were 
originally discovered on the South Coast. The period agaia 
arrived, that rendered it necessary to depart from the coast* 
independent of the leaky state of our vessel, which mate* 
rially hastened our return to Port Jackson, when the cutter 
4iras considered wholly unfit for a fourth voyage, in which 
the complete survey of the north-west, and the examination 
of the line of weM cdasts w^re contemplated. To effect this 
importaat'serVib^ the colonial government purchased a brigf 
Subsequently named the BaCbarst; a^d I -aguni diecbnipanied 
Captain King from Porr Jackson, in 'May, 1821, to tliose 
parts of the coasts then remaining tinexplored, at which we 
arrived at the elose of July« Our very limited stay on those 
shores, however, was at that season wherein all vegetation 
was suffering under the excess of drought; I had never-* 
theless the means afforded me of ascertaining the general 
identity of the plants of Prince Regent's Rivier, Hanover Bay, 
and Port George the Fourth, (portions of tlie coast explored 
in the voyage) and other parts in the vicinity, that were ex- 
amined the preceding year, at a like season, but under .cir- 
cumstances much more favourable. Upon ourre turn to the 
North*we8t Coast from the Mauritius, early in 1822, the 
cnly part visited was Cygnet Bay, situate about 2^^ to 



Botany.] NATURAL HISTORY. 501 

the south-west of the last-mentioned sound, and it hap- 
pening at a season when some raia had fallen, I met with 
several plants in an abundant flowering statet of species, 
however, in part originally discovered upon other coasts, 
sad described by Mr. Brown, during the Investigator's 
voyage. 

Of the West Coast (properly so denominated) which Was 
seen during the Bathurst'& voyage, very little can be said in 
reference toi its- vegetable productions, and most probably 
nothing can be here advanced, tending to augment our very 
scanty knowledge of its Flora, acquired in part long since, 
through the medium of the celebrated navigator, Dampier, 
but more especially by the botanists accompanying Captain 
Baudin*s voyage. I bad no opportunity of examining any 
part of the mam, during our run northerly along its exten- 
sive shore, but I landed on Rottnest Island, and repeatedly 
visited the northern extremity of Dirk Hartog's Island, off 
Shark's Bay, where I gathered, under every discouragement 
of season, some of the most important portions of its rich* 
Tegetation ; in many instances, however, in very imperfect 
conditions of fructification* Its general features led me 
decidedly ta assimilate it to the strikbg character of the 
botany of the South Coast; ft characteristic of which it is* 
more than probable the .main land largely partakes, if we 
may draw an inference from its aspect at widely distant 
parts. 

Upon those portions of the North Coast, which wera 
chiefly surveyed during the Mermaid's first voyage, at a. 
period immediately subsequeint to the season of the rains, I 
had very favourable opportunities of increasing my coUec'* 
tions upon? the Goulbura Islands, Porta Essington and 
Raffles, Croker's Island, Mount-Norris Bay, and on the 
shores of Van Diemea's Gulf; and among many described 



502 APPENDIX. [B. 

ftpecies, diacovered formerly in the great Golf (^ Carpeo"* 
taria» there were several moat inteicstiog new plants. With 
a view towarda an entire completion of the aurvey of the 
aereral coasts of the continent, that part of New Soath 
Walea within the tropic^ north of Cape Bedford, which was 
not seen by Captain Cook, entered into the plans of the 
Mermaid's second voyage, and it was highly gratifying to 
my feelings to reflect, that it was reserved for me to com* 
plete aeveral specimens, discovered formerly in imperfect 
states by those eminent naturalists who accompanied the 
above* great circumnavigator, in 1770, desiderata, that have 
been wanting ever since this period of their discovery ; no 
mediums of oommmiicalioik with those particular parts of 
the coasthaving presented themselves. 

The aggregate of the several collections that have been 
Ifarmed during the progress of the four voyages, under tba 
general circumstances above briefly referred to, and which, 
as constituting a small Herbarium, will be thus collectively 
apoken of in the following remarks, does not exceed one 
thousand three hundred species of Phoenogamous plants ; 
of these five hundred and twenty are already described by 
authors, the other portion being in part unpublished species* 
previously discovered on other coasts of Terra Australis, 
and in part absolutely new, refeirible, however, moatly to 
well defined genera. Of Cryptogamons plants, there are 
but few species, and of these, or parasitical Orchide8e,.noiie 
have been detected in these voyages in addition to those 
already described :^ a ciroamstance, that with respect to the 
Korth-west Coast can reasonably be accounted for, from the 
non-existence of prinmry mountains, or land above very mo- 
derate elevation; by the absence of lofty dense forests, 
(points of character necessary to that permanency of atmo- 
spheric moisture, which constitutes an essential requisite to 



BotANT.] NATURAI^ HMTTORY. 503 

the existence of almost the whole of these tribes); and the 
eoDsequeot g^eDerat exposore to the smi of those arid shores^ 
Limited in ntimber as the new species really are, they will 
nerertheless coDStitute, when added to the discoveries re« 
eently made, through the medium of expeditions to the 
interior, from the colony of Port Jackson, very important 
materials to carry on that Flora of Australia, so very ably 
commenced by Mr, Brown. Since that eminent botanist 
has already advanced much important matter in the valuable 
essay, published at the close of the account of Captain Flin- 
ders' voyage, respecting the relative proportions of the three 
grand divisions of plants in Australia, as far as they had 
been discovered at that period, and has, from very extensive 
materials, given us a comparative view of that portion of its 
Flora* and the vegetation of other countries ; I shall now 
sicpply submit a few general remarks in this notice, on cer- 
tain plants of established natural families, that have been 
discovered in the progress of these voyages ; closing this 
paper with some observations, chiefly illustrative of the 
geographical diffusion of several Australian plants known to 
atrthors, whose localities have hitherto been exceedingly 
limited. 

Palm£. — On considering the vast expanse of the com* 
tinent of Terra Australis, and that great extent of coast 
which passes through climates favourable for the production 
of certain genera of this remarkable natural family, it is sin« 
gular that so few of the order should have been discovered : 
a fact in the history of the Australian vegetation, which 
(upon contemplating the natural economy of many other 
genera of plants) can only be considered as accounted for, 
by the great tendency to drought of at least three-fifths of 
its shores. 



504 APPENDIX. [B, 

To Corypha, Seaforthia, and Livistona, the only three 
genera that have been enumerated in the productions of 
the Australian Flora, may now be added Calamus ; of which 
a species (discovered without fructification^ by Sir Josepli 
Banks, during the celebrated voyage of Captain Cook) has 
at length been detected bearing fruit in the vicinity of En-* 
deavour River. The existence of this palm, or rattan, Ojp 
the East Coast, to which it is confined, seems almost to be 
limited to an area within the parallels of 15^ and 17^ South; 
should, however, its range be more extensive, it is southerly 
one or two degrees, in which direction a remarkable primary 
granitic formation of the coast continues, throughout the 
whole neighbourhood of which is a peculiar density of 
dark moist forest, seemingly dependent on it, and evidently 
indispensable to the life of this species of Calamus ^ but at 
the termination of this geological structure, it most probably 
ceases to exist. A dioecious palm of low stature, and in, 
habit similar to Seaforthia, was detected in the shaded forests 
investing the River Hastings, in latitude 31^ South, bearing 
mal^ flowers ; but as it may prove to be a dwarf state of 
a species of that genus, which has lately been observed, with 
all its tropical habits, in a higher latitude, it cannot now. 
be recognised as a sixth individual of the family whose 
fructification has been seep. , 

Although this order has been observed to be sparingly 
scattered along the line of East Coast almost to the thirty-, 
fifth degree of south latitude, its range on the opposite > 
shores of the continent is very limited. Upon the North- 
west Coast, the genus Livistona alone has been remarked^ 
in about latitude 15° South ; beyond which, throughout a 
very extensive line of depressed shore, towards the North- 
west Cape, no palms were seen, if the structure of a coast, . 
and its natural disposition to produce either humidity or 



BoTAMY.I NATURAL HISTORY. 505 

droaght be consnlted, (a point, with respect to this order, 
as well as certain other tropical tribes, appearing very im«. 
portant) those portions of the western shores recently seen, 
indicate no one character that would justify the supposition 
of the existence of the Palmae in tlie corresponding extremes 
of the respective parallels that produce them on the opposite 
or East Coast. Another remark relative to the economy of 
this family is, that in New Holland it seems confined to the 
coasts, Corypha australis, so frequent in particular shaded 
situations in the neighbourhood of Port Jackson, having 
never been detected in the vicinity of, or upon the.moun* 
tains, much Iftss in the distant country to the westward of. 
that extensive boundary. 

AspHODEL£A.-.*Among the several described plants in 
the Herbarium, referred to this family, that were collected 
upon the East and South-west Coasts, are specimens in 
complete fructification of a remarkable plant of arbores- 
cent growth, having a caudex twenty feet high, and all 
the habits of Draceena, It probably constitutes a new 
genus distinct from Cordylif^e of Commerson, to which, 
however, it appears closely allied; and has an exten- 
sive range on rhe East Coast, where, although it has 
for the most part been observed within the tropic, it 
extends nevertheless as far as latitude 31° South. The 
only plants of Asphodelese remarked on the north-western 
shores, were an imperfect Tricoryne, probably Tenella of 
Mr. Brown, discovered by that gentleman during the In- 
vestigator's voyage on the South. Coast; and the intra* 
tropical Asparagus, which is frequent in latitude fifteen 
degrees South. 

CoNir£R£. — ^To the general observations akeady made 



506 APPftNtHt. [B* 

on that pait of Conifei® inbabitiDg the touthem hemisphere, 
may be added eome important facts* to be gathered from the 
{dants in the Herbarium of the late voyages, that will afford a 
▼ery correct view of the fructification of some doubtM ge- 
nera, as well as their limits. Among these the frnit of Po* 
docarpm aspleuiifoHa of M. Labillardiere, was observed, to- 
gether with the female fructification of another tree, (the 
Huon pine,) found also at the southern extremes a&d western 
coast of Van Diemen's Land, which may prove to be a 
Daorydium. Callitris, of which seven species are known, 
and principally found in the parallel of Port Jackson, has 
also been discovered upon the North-west C Jast, in about 
latitude 15° South; and another species, remarkable for its 
general robust habit» was observed at Rottnest Island, on 
the West Coast. A tree, most certainly of this iamilyy and 
probably (from habit) a Podocarpas, has been seen upon the 
East Coast, within the tropic, but the absence of fructi- 
fication prevented its genus being satisfactorily determined. 
With respect to the 'extent of the order in the Islands of 
New Zealand, some recent specimens gathered upon the 
northern, prove one of its *' pin^s'^ to be a Podocarpus ; and 
another, prodocing a cone, and solitary, alternate scattered 
elliptical leaves, shews its relation to Agatfai^ of Salii^Mnry, or 
Dammar pine of Amboina. 

U&Tic££, whose mass appears, also to be conb^d to 
equinoctial coantrieSi may be considered very limited in 
thoee parts of Terra Australis lying within the tropic re- 
cently explored. Ficus is the most considerable genns of 
the order in that continent ; aood although chiefly found on 
the north and north-western shores, is also traced on the 
East Coast, almost to latitude 36° South, where the trees 
attain an enormous size. About sixteen species are pre- 



4 



BOTANY.] NATURAL H18T0RY. 607 

•erred in the €oIl6ctioii4of the lat^ voyagee^ all sonll tftfes, 
alid one half of which hat been gathered on the North<*weat 
Coast* 

A species of MoniSt bearing small white fraity was dis* 
covered upon the continent and islands of New Sooth Wales^ 
within the tropic, where also a new genus of the order, with 
radiated leaves, bas been traced as far as Endeavonr River. 
Of the genus Urtica, whose numerous species can simply 
be considered as of herbaceous duration, although a few of 
tropical existence assume a fruticose habit, there is one 
j^ant in the vicinity of the Colony of Port Jackson, remark^* 
able for its gigantic, arborescent growth ; many specimens 
having been remarked from fifteen to twenty feet in height, 
of propoftionai robust habit, and of highly stimalating 
nat«re« 

Saktalace£* — Nearly three-fourths of the Australian 
portion of the order described^ were formerly discovered in 
the parallel of Port Jackson, upon the shores of the South 
Coast,, and in Van Diemen's Land. The genus Choretrum> 
however, heretofore limited to the southern extremes of the 
continent, approaches within about two degrees of the tropic 
on the West Coast, having been lately observed on Dirk, 
Haitog^s Island. It is rather remarkable that neither Lep-» 
tomeria nor Choretrum form a part of the feature of the ve« 
getation of the arid, depressed portions of the North-west 
Coast*, where several of the more harsh, rigid kinds of plants, 
of various genera, of the South Coast have been remarked*, 
Those extensive shores (generally speaking) are not waatmg 
in the order,,for two species of the tropical genus Sautaium^ 
Sxocarpus, and a globular-fruited Fnsanus, were collected in 
and about the parallel of 15° South. 

* Towards the North-west Cape. 



508 APPENDIX. [cr. 

Protbaceje •—Since the publicalioD of Mr. Browned va- 
luable dissertation on this very extensive natural family, in 
which were described all the species known at that period, 
a few important discoveries have been made in Terra Avs* 
tralis, particularly on the North-west Coast, where the order 
seems to be limited to Grevillea, Hakea, and Persoonia. 

In the Herbarium formed during the late voyages, are 
specimens of thirteen species of intertropical Grevillea, in 
various stages of perfection ; of these seven- are described 
from specimens formerly gathered upon the East Coast, and 
in the Gulf of Carpentaria ; the remaining six are, however^ 
perfectly new, and will chiefly augment the last section of 
that genus, having hard (in some instances spherical) woody 
follicles, containing seeds orbicularly surrounded by a mem- 
branous wing, more or less dilated, and a deciduoua styles 
characters that future botanists may deem sufficient to jus- 
tify its separation from Grevillea. The range of this division, 
which has been named by Mr. Brown, Cydoptera, has been 
hitherto limited to the Gulf of Carpentaria, and the tropicat 
shores of the East Coast Of the genus Hakea, hitherto almost 
wholly excluded from the tropical parts of Australia, besides 
H. arborescens, the only species formerly observed within 
that circle, the Herbarium furnishes at least two plants, that 
have been recently discovered in about 22^ south latitude, 
the one being H. oleifolia of King George's Sound, whilst 
the other proves aii entirely new species, belonging to the 
first section of the.genus, having long filiform leaves, and 
ecalcarated capsules. . . ' . * 

Upon the East Coast, in latitude 14^, two shrubs were 
observed, having fill the habits oF'Hakea, of the* South-west- 
Coast, but being without fructifica^tion, thefr identity could 
not be satisfactorily determined. 

Viewing the gen^r?d 4istribution of Sanksioe, it is a singu* 



JtoTAWY.l NATURAL HiarORY. 509 

lar fact in thd geographical history of this genus^ that its 
'species, which have been traced through almost every meri** 
diaa of the South Coast, upon the islands in Bass' Strait, in 
Van Diemen's Land^ and widely scattered throughout the 
whole extent of New South Waled to the North Coastt 
at which extren^e of the •continent^ B« dentata has been 
observed as far west as longitude 130^ East, should bo 
wholly wanting on the- line of North-west Coast Why the 
links of this almost perfect chain should have been broken 
on these shores appears unaccountable, since they are, by 
reason of their general sterility and exposure, extremely fa- 
vourable to the growth of the greater portion of the order. 
Our limited knowledge of the West Coast (properly sa 
called) does not afford us materials to hazard even a partial 
conclusion, relative to the existence of this family on it!f 
shores, excepting from the total absence of any one plant of 
Proteacese at those parts of Roitne^t and Dirk Hartog^s 

■ 

Islands visited during the Bathurst's Voyage; an inference* 
may be drawn of the general paucity of any part of the 
order on the shores of the neighbouring main. Although 
BO species have been found common to shores opposite to 
each other, in the higher latitudes, the identity of Grevillea 
mimosoides, Persoonia falcata, and Hakea arborescens, has 
been established upon the East Coast, and the north- 
western shores, in the parallel of about 15^ South; but 
whilst this geographical diffusion has been remarked in re- 
ierence to those particular species, the range of Grevillea 
gibbosa, a plant discovered at Endeavour. River by Sir Jo- 
seph Banks, is now tolerably well defined by observations 
made during the late voyages, from which it appears to be 
circumscribed to ati area not exceeding one hundred and 
twenty miles on the East Coast. In the course of the pro- 
gress of the land, expedition above referred to, the discovery 



610 AlPPENOnt; (B. 

of aaother plant of thii saturd order by Mr. Fraser, oc- 
carrcd in New Bouth Wales, in a tract of country west of 
the coast line* about the parallel of 31^, whers I am in- 
formed it is a timber*tree of very large dimensions; and 
^oemiogly it eonstitttles a new genas, nearly allied to Knightia 
of Mr. Brown, a native of New Zealand, as I judged from a 
casual view of some specimens. 

L4B14TJ& and VKEBBif ACS£. — ^Tbe mass of these orders 
(which are admitted to be very nearly allied to each other) 
seems in Australia to exist on its eastern coast, within and 
beyond the tropic, and the species in the collection lately 
formed, are referred to ten established genera, of which (as 
belonging to Verbenacem) Vitex and Premna are moat re* 
markable on the North*westem Coast. 

Of Labiata^, a new species of LabiUardiere*s genus Pro* 
stranthera was discovered upon Dirk Hartog's Island, where, 
as also at Rottnest Island, Westringia was observed, of spe* 
cies, however, common to the South Coast 

BoftAoiNB£.^ — Some very important amendments, in re^ 
fereuce to the limits of certain genera of the order have been 
proposed by Mr. Brown in his Prodromus, where the cha- 
racters are remodelled to the exclusion of certain species 
previously referred to them by authors. Of CoMia (to which 
Varronia of Linne, and Cerdana of Ruiz and Pavon, have at 
length been united,) only two species have been found in 
Terra Australis, of which one had been previously disco- 
vered in NjBw Caledonia; and during the late voyages 
C. orientalis has been observed on the North-west Coast, 
where a third species of Tournefortia in complete fructiBcation 
was discovered ; and the Herbarium contains some species of 
that section of Heliotropium, having a simple straight spi* 



Botany.] NATUIUL HISTTORY. Sll 

pated inflorescMQcey whieb were also foiiDd on tboie equi- 
oocUal parts of the condneiit. 

fiiGN0KiACE£.— Almost ninety species of this beautiful 
order are described by authors, the greater part of which 
are at present incorporated among the genuine species of 
Bignonia of Linn6 ; a genus that will bereafter be divided^ 
according to the shape of the calyx, the number of fertile 
stamina, and more especially the form of the fruit (which in 
some species is an orbicular or elliptical capsule, varying in 
others to a long cylindrical 6gure, with seeds partly cun- 
eated, or thickened at one extremity, and in others, a 
truly compressed Siliqua) together with the relative position 
of the dissepiment, in respect to the valves of the fruit. 

The greater portion of Bignoniacese appears to exist in 
the equinoctial parts of America ; some, however, are na- 
tives of India, and a few occur on the western coast of 
Africa, and Island of Madagascar, but in Terra Australis the 
order is reduced to four plants, of which one is a recent 
discovery, and may be referred to Spathodea. In that con- 
tment, the order exists only upon the North and East 
Coasts ; it is not, however, entirely limited to the tropic, for 
Tecoma of Mr. Brown is also found in latitude 34^ South, 
on which parallel it has been traced at least three hundred 
and fifty miles in the interior to the westward of the colony 
of Port Jackson* 

Ascletiadea: and Apocine*.— Nearly the whole of the 
plants in the recently formed herbarium, that belong to these 
natural families, have been described from specimens for- 
merly discovered upon the East and North Coasts, several 
of which appear to give a partial character to the vegetation 
of some parts of its Shores. 



612 APPENDIX. [B. 

Hoya (hardl]^ Asclepias camosa of Linn4) Cynancbiimy 
Gymnema, Gymnanthus, Sarcostemmat and probably Seca* 
mone, as belonging to Asdepiadese, and all the genera of 
Mr. Brown (Lyonsia excepted) referred to the latter order, 
exist on that extensive coast, where Balfouria and Alyxia 
haye each an accession of species. Of Strychnos, which is 
also frequent, and probably produces its flowers during the 
rainy season (as has been remarked of this genus in other 
countries) specimens in that stage of its fructification are 
still a desideratum ; all that is known respecting the plant 
being the form and size of its fruit, which in some species 
varies considerably. 

GooDENOvi£.*-The Herbarium contains very few speci- 
mens of this considerable Australian family, the greater 
mass existing in and to the southward of the parallel 
of Port Jackson; The order is reduced to Goodenia, Scsb- 
vola, Velleia, and the tropical Calogyne on the North- 
west Coast, and the few species of the two first genera 
prove to have been formerly discovered upon the South 
Coast during the voyage of Captain Flinders, of which one 
plant has also a much more extensive range than has been 
given it heretofore. It is Sceevola spinescens, which forms a 
portion of the harsh, rigid vegetables of Dirk Hartog's Island 
on the West Coast, and from that shore probably occupies 
a part of a very considerable extent of barren country in 
the interior, in a direction towards the East Coast, having 
been seen in abundance in the latitude of Port Jackson, so 
near that colony as the meridian of 1 46^ 30' £ast» A new 
Velleia, discovered on the Nortli-west Coast in latitude 16^, 
augments that genus, belonging to the section with a penta* 
phyllous calyx. ' 



L 



*OTANT.] NATURAL HISTORY. 513 

RuBiAC££.«-The existence of several plants of this ex« 
tensive family in the intratropical parts of Terra Australis^ 
especially when aided by some individuals of almost wholly 
exotic tribes, that form a prominent feature in the Flora oC 
other equinoctial countries, tend» in some measure, to di-^ 
minish the peculiar character of the vegetation of Terra 
Australis on those shores, and thus it is a considerable 
assimilation to the Flora of a part of a neighbouring con- 
tinent (hat has been traced. About thirty species are pre* 
served in the collections of these voyages, for the most part 
belonging to genera existing in India, but more abundant in 
the tropical parts of South America. 

Of these» Gardenia, Guettarda, Cephaelis, Coffea, Psycho- 
tria, and Morinds^, are found on the East Coast; whilst, in 
corresponding parallels on the opposite, or north-western 
shores, the order, although not materially reduced, is li* 
mited to the two latter genera^ with Rondeletia, Ixora, and 
Genipa. 

It is worthy of remark, that the range of Psychotria, 
which has not been observed beyond the tropics in other 
countries, extends in New South Wales as far south as the 
latitude of 35^ ; at the western extremity of which it does 
not appear to exist. 

Cafrifolia:, Juss, — ^The situation of Loranthus and Vis- 
vum, in the system, appears to be undetermined by au- 
thors. M. Jussieu associated them with Rhizophora, in 
the second section of this order, from which Mr. Brown 
has separated this latter genus, and with two others found 
in Terra Australis, has constructed a distinct family, named 
Rhizophoreee ; suggesting, at the same time, the analogy 
of Loranthus and Viscum to Santalacese, and particularly to 

Vol. II. 2 L 



514 APPEVDIX." [B. 

Prot«aceffi. The genus Loranthos, of which nearly the 
whole of its described species have been limited to the 
tropics, 18, however,' sparingly scattered on all the Coastar 
of Australia, where about eleven species have been re- 
cently observed, parasitical chiefly upon certain treiis that 
constitute the mass of the forests of that vast continent; 
viz.f Eucalyptus, Casuarina^ Acacia, and Melaleuca. 

A solitary and very remarkable deviation from the usual 
natural economy of Loranthus, is observed in a species (I. 
flortbunda) described and figured by M. Labillardiere, whiclr 
it found on the shores of King George's Sound, where» in no 
way recognising the dependent habits of its congeners, it 
rises from the soil to a tree fifteen feet high, being never re- 
marked relying upon other vegetables for its subsistence. 
Viscum is found i|^ the colony of Port Jackson, to wiiich 
it is not confined, having been also gathered at Endeavour 
River, on the same coast, within the tropic. The soudiem 
range of the two genera seems to be nearly beyond the 
fortieth degree of latitude ; but in the northern hemisphere, 
Loranthus exists in Siberia. 

Umbelliferje. — ^The equinoctial portion of the Herba* 
rium contains only three or four plants of this extensive 
European order, belonging to Hydrocotyle, Azorella of Ca- 
vanilles and Labillardiere, (from which Trachymene of 
Rudge is probably not distinct,) and a sufiruticose plant 
referred to Cussonia, that have been collected upon the 
East Coast Upon the north-western shores, Azorella was 
alone remarked, of which a species is very general upon its 
main and islands, and chiefly remarkable for its gigantic 
herbaceous growth. 

Mtrtace£.— With respect to that portion of MyKacee, 



Bmany.] NATUilAL HIStORY. 615 

knelj discovered upon the north-westera shores of Australia, 
and which are alone worthy of remark here^ it is to be 
observed, that, considering the many points of that coast 
visited during the progress of the relative voyages, the 
number of species observed are comparatively few, for, in-** 
eluding Eucalyptus, it does not exceed sixteen plants* Of 
Eucalyptus itself, only seven species were detected cm those 
shores, and these, for the most part, form small, trees, more 
approaching the average dimensions of all dieir congeners 
in the, colony of Port Jackson. Melaleuca is limited to 
three species, one of which was originally <discovered by 
the celebrated navigator, Dampier, on the West Coast, 
where Beaufortia has been recently seen« .Four species of 
Tristania, their related genus, were gathered in about lati- 
tude •! 6^ South, where also an Eugenia, bearing fruit, waa 
observed ; but of Leptospermum, or Bseckea, genera chiefly 
belonging to the higher latitudes of New Holland, no spe« 
ciee appeared throughout the whole extent of coast ex« 
amined. 

Rhamitsj^ andCELASTnivA were formerly united among 
the Rhamni of Jussieu, but disposed in sections, differing 
from each other in the position of the stamina, with ren 
lation to the petals, and in the character of the fruit; 
which, when viewed with other important differenoes of 
fructification, induced Mr. Brown to modify and define them 
as distinct orders. 

In the Herbarium of the voyages, there are a few planta^ 
belonging to Rhamnus, Ziziphus, Ceanothus, or Pomaderris, 
and Celastrus, but both families prove to be comparatively 
rare in the intratropical parts of Terra Australis, beyond 
which Cryptandra seems only to exist. Upon the north* 
vrestern shores, a species of Ziziphus (common to the East 

.2 L 



516 APPENDIX* IB. 

and North Coasts) forms a tree of large dimensionsy where 
also an undescribed Celastrus has been discovered* Since 
Pomaderrw evidently increases from the verge of the tropic 
southerly towards the parallel of Port Jackspn, where it» 
maximum exists, and as it is frequent on the South Coasts 
it is highly probable the West Coast is not wanting of the 
genuSy particularly as traces of it were found on Dirk Har- 
tog's Island. 

LEouiiXKOSX£.~^There are upwards of one hundred and 
forty species of this extensive natural class in the Herba- 
rium recently formed, which bear a proportion to the ag- 
gregate of the entire collections of about one to nine* 

Of the Australian portion of Mimoses, which (havin^f 
been met vrith upon all the coasts of the continent, and 
equally diffused in the interior) forms a leading charac- 
teristic of its vegetation, upwards of fifty species have been 
collected, in various stages of fructification; nearly the 
whole of which are unpublished plants. Several of those 
discovered on the north-western shores, and islands off the 
West Coast, being also extremely curious in their general 
form and habits ; and the existence of a few appears limited 
to a solitary particular situation, and no one species was 
observed common to those .parts, and the opposite or eastern 
shores of the continent. 

The Papilionaceous division exceeds seventy species, two- 
thirds of which belong to established diadelphous genera, 
found chiefly within the tropic, where some, peculiar to 
Terra Australis, and heretofore limited to the more temperate 
regions, have been discovered. Thus Hovea and Bossisea 
were detected in New South Wales, in latitude 20^ and 22^ 
South, as well as on the North Coast; the latter genus 
being likewise found on the north-western shores, where 



Botany.] NATURAL HIOTORY. 517 

also two species of Kennedia exist; and Templetonia, tt 
genus nearly related to Bossieea, originally discovered on 
the southern shores of Australia, is abundant on an island 
off the West Coast. 

Upon the North-west Coast, particularly in the parallels 
of 14^ and 15^ South, where an exotic feature (if the usual 
characteristic of the Flora of other countries might in this 
case be so termed) is as manifest, and is as strongly blended 
with the pure Australian character (Eucalyptus pnd Acacia) 
in its general vegetation, as on any other parts of those 
shores ; Jacksonia and Gompholobium, genera of Papilio- 
naceee, with distinct stamens, almost limited to the parallel 
of Port Jackson and the South Coast, were observed: 
Daviesia, almost wholly, restricted to the higher Australian 
latitudes, has been remarked on the North Coast. Of Lo~ 
mentaceffi, Bauhinia, Csesalpinia, and the emigrant genus 
Guilandina, are all of intratropical existence in New South 
Wales, as also upon the North-west Coast; but Cassia, 
although it has an equal extensive range in the equinoctial 
parts of New Holland, has also been recently traced as far 
in the interior, on the parallel of Port Jackson, as the meri"* 
dian of 146^ East. 

£uFHORBiAC££. — ^Thc Herbarium contains thirty-three 
plants of this very numerous order, whose maximum seems 
decidedly to exist in India and equinoctial America. Tho 
whole of the Australian species are referrible to established 
Linnean genera, of which Croton and Phyllanthus are most 
remarkable and numerous, existing on all the intratropical 
shores of Terra Australis, but by no means limited to them» 
both genera, together with Euphorbia and Jatropha, being 
found in the parallel of Port Jackson ; and Croton exists 
likewise at the southern extreme of Van Diemen*B Land, 



$18 APPENDIX* [B. 

^hkh 18 probably the limit of the genus on that hemi«! 
sphere. 

A Tragia (scarcely distinct from a species indigenous in 
India) is sparingly scattered on the East and North Coasts ; 
and Acalypha has been remarked on these, as well as the 
north-western shores. 

FiTT08Poas£. — ^Of this small family, whose characters, 
and limits were first defined by Mr. Brown, there are six- 
teen species in the Herbarium of these voyages, referrible 
to Bursarla, Billardiera, Pittosporum, and two unpublished 
genera. 

Billardiera, whose species are wholly volnbilous, and 
which are not found north of the parallel of Port Jackson, 
is frequent on the South-west Coast, and has been recently 
remarked on the West Coast of Van Diemen's Land. Bursa- 
ria on the other hand, appearing limited to New South Wales,- 
has been traced within the tropic to latitude 19^ South on 
those eastern shores, and although the genus Pittosporum is. 
even more extensirely diffused on that coasts it has not 
been met with upon the jiOrth-westem shores, whilst the 
islands o£f the West Coast furnished me with two new. 
species. 

DiosMEA, aldiough very frequent in the higher latitudes 
of Terra Australis, where they are so frequent as to give a 
peculiar character to their vegetable productions, is com-- 
paratively rare within the tropic ; fbr upon the East Coast 
Eriostemon and Phebalium appear to be the only genera, 
the latter having been recently discovered, in about latitude 
20° South. 

With some und.escribed species of Boronia, a new genus 
allied to Eriostemon has been observed on the north-western 



Botany.] NATURAL HISTORY. 61ft 

9hores, in the parallel ot 15^ South, having a remarkable 
pinnatified fimbriated calyx. 

Of the related family Ztgophtllba; (an order proposed 
by Mr, Brown to be separated from the Rutaceae of Jussieu,) 
Tribulus is frequent on the tropical shores of New Holland, 
and a species of Zygophyllum, with linear congngate leaves 
and tetrapteroas fruit, was remarked upon an island off 
Shark's Bay, on the West Coast. 

M£LiAC££.-— The several genera of this order, whose 
maximum is in the equinoctial parts of America, differ from 
each other in the form of the remarkable cylindrical necta- 
riam, the situation or insertion of the antherse upon it, as 
well as the character of its almost wholly capsular fruit. 
This structure of nectarium is most striking in Turnva, of 
which a species was observed upon the East Coast, far 
within the tropic ; where also, as well as on all the other 
equinoctial shores of the continent, Carapa, more remark* 
aUe on account of the valvular character of its capsules, 
and the magnitude and irregular figure of its nuts, is very 
general, and probably not distinct from the plant (C. moluo- 
censis. Lam.) of Rumphius, who has given us a figure in 
his Herbarium Amboinense, vol. lii. tab. 61, 62. . 

Sapivdacbjb.— -Of the very few plants referred to the 
fiamily in the Herbarium, two genera are only worthy of 
remark here, the one an Omitrophe, found on the East 
Coast, in about latitude 35^, as also within the tropic ; and 
the other, which appears to belong to Stadmannia, was dis- 
covered upon the same coast, in latitude 31^ South, the 
type of the genus being the bois de fer of the French 
colonists, a timber tree indigenous at the Island of Mau- 
ritius. 



520 APPENDIX. [B. 

MALVACE£y Juts. Tiliace6e» Juss. Sterculiacese, Vent» 
Buttnericeae, Brown. — ^These several faiDilies, of "which the 
£r8t is by far the most extensive, have been viewed by Mr. 
Brown, as so many allied orders of one natural class, to 
-whicb the general title of Malvacese might be applied. 
About thirty«six species of these orders collectively, tire 
preserved in the present Herbarium, referrible at least to- 
eleven genera, of which nine are most abundant in (and 
form a characteristic feature of) the botany of India, and 
the equinoctial parts of South America. Fourteen species 
of Hibiscus and Sida were observed on the intratropical 
Coasts of Australia, beyond which also, on the opposite 
shores of the continent, each genus has been remarked. 
One species of Bombax with polyandrous flowers, and sub* 
sphserical obtusely pentagonal capsules, was discovered 
upon the East Coast, in about latitude 14^ Sooth, and on 
nearly the western extreme of the same parallel, it appeared 
much more abundant. Of Stercalia which is scarcely to be 
found beyond the tropics in other countries, a species exists 
in New South Wales in the latitude of 34°, on which pa* 
rallel it is more frequent in the western interior, and in that 
direction it has been traced to the distance of three hundred 
miles from the 8ea*coast. The genus is also found on the 
North and North-west Coasts, where the species' assume 
more particularly the habits of their congeners in India. 
Among the plants of this family in the Herbarium is a spe* 
cies of Helicteris (as the genus stands at present) which was^ 
observed on the North-west Coast bearing fruit, wanting 
the contortion that characterizes the genus. 

This plant, together with three other described species, 
having straight capsules^ may hereafter be separated from 
that Linnean genus, and constitute a new one of themselves. 
Grewia, Corchorus, Triumfetta, and Waltberia, have been ob* 



BoTAMT.] NATURAL HISTORY. 521 

served upon the North^wett Coast, ivhere also Abroma» 
hitherto limited to the tropical parts of New South WaleSy 
has been discovered bearing fiowers and young fruit. One 
species of Commersonia was gathered at widely-different 
parts of the north-western shores, and Lasiopetalum, whose 
species are more general at both extremes of the parallel 
of the colony of Port Jackson, has been also seen just 
within the tropic on the East Coast, and at Dirk Hartog's 
Island, off Shark's Bay, on the opposite shore. 

Capparides. — ^At least ten species of Capparis have been 
discovered upon the coasts of Terra Australis, for the most 
part within the tropic, but of these the fructification of two 
are wanting. A few have been detected on the East Coast, 
but they are more frequent and various in their species upon 
the north-western shores of the continent. Within an area 
on this extensive coast, not exceeding four degrees of Ion* 
gitude, on the parallel of 15^ South, a tree of very remark- 
able growth and habit, has been traced, having all the ex- 
ternal form and bulk of Adansonia of the western shores of 
Africa. At the respective period of visiting those parts of 
the North-west Coast, this gouty tree had previously cast its 
foliage of the preceding year, which is of quinary insertion, 
but it bore ripe fruit, which is a larg^ elliptical pedicellated 
unilocalar capsule, (a bacca corticosa) containing many seeds 
enveloped in a dry pithy substance. Its flowers, however, 
have never been discovered, but from the characters of the 
fruit, it was (upon discovery) referred to this natural family. 
M* DvL Petit Thenars has formed a new genus of Capparis 
pauduriformis of Lamarck, a plant of the Island of Mau^ 
ritius, which he has named Calyptranthus. It has one divi- 
sion of the calyx so formed, that by its arcuated concavity 
(before expansion) it conceals the whole flower, and the 



522 APPENDIX. [B. 

pther poitioBS of the caly^c ; and should tUs genut be 
adopted by fature botanists^ a second species has been re- 
cently . discoyered upon Dirk Hartog's Island, although of 
remarkably difierent habit. 

Cleome has been observed only in the equinoctial parts 
of Australia, and like Capparis, several species exist on the 
North-west Coast, being limited to C, viscosa in New South 
Wales. 

Drosera, which Jnssieu associates with these genera is 
generally diffused, being found within the tropic, at En* 
deavour River, and on the North«west Ck>ast; at Port 
Jackson, and at the southern extremes of Van Diemen's 
Land. 

DiLLE]riAG££.-— 'To that Australian portion of the order 
lately enumerated by M. Decandolle, the present Herbarium 
offers, in addition, only two species of the genus Hemi* 
stemma of M. Du Petit Thenars. The one discovered on 
the North-west Coast, and allied to H. angustifolium of 
Hn Brown ; the other proving also new, but approaching in 
character the doubtful species, H. Lechenaultii of Decau* 
doUe, and was discovered upon Rottnest Island, off the 
western coast of the continent, and is the first certain 
species of the genus, that is not limited to a tropical 
existence. 

In addition to what has been advanced in respect to cer* 
tain natural orders that appear in the Herbarium, formed 
under the stated circumstances, a slight mention might be 
made of other detached genera, or families sparingly ob* 
served on diese coasts, that were more particularly inves- 
tigated during the progress of the late voyages ; but as these 
several plants form portions of orders so extremely limited, 



BoTANT.] NATURAI, HISTORY. 523 

and in themseWet presenting nothing remarkable in their 
internal structure^ or external habit, a few remarks on a 
general comparison of the vegetation of the North-west 
Coast, with the other shores of Terra Australis, . will con* 
plude this notice. 

It is very necessary to premise, that the plants observed 
and collected upon the North-west Coast, during the late 
voyages, are not to be considered as even a distant ap« 
proach to an entire Flora of that extensive line of shore; 
since the long-established droughts of the seasons, (as 
already remarked,) in which the greater part of that coast 
was visited, had wholly destroyed plants of annual dura- 
tion, with most of the Graminee, and had indeed generally 
affected the mass of its herbaceous vegetation. The col- 
lections, therefore, can simply be viewed as a gleaning, 
affording such general outlines of characteristic feature, as 
will enable the botanist to trace its affinity to the more 
minutely defined vegetation of the other equinoctial shores of 
the continent, as well as perceive its general, and, in some 
instances, almost total want of relation to the botany of 
other parts, in the more temperate or higher latitudes, 
where certain striking peculiarities of the Australian Flora 
more particularly exist. 

Upon a general comparison of those collections that were 
thus formed on the North-west Coast, with the plants of the 
North and £ast Coasts, aided also by some few observations 
made during the voyages, it appears that (with the exception 
of Oompholobium, Boronia, Kennedia, and one or two un- 
published species not referred to any family) the genera (of 
which several are proper to India) are the same, although 
the species are very distinct upon the several coasts. 

Notwithstanding an identity of genera has been remarked 
npon these opposite shores, there are, nevertheless, certain 



524 APPENDIX. [B. 

Others, frequent upon the East Coast, that appear wholly 
wanting on the north-western shores: of these, the ex- 
istence of some, even in the tropical parts of New South 
Wales, seems governed by the primary formation of the 
coast, its mountainous structure, and consequent perma- 
nency of moisture in a greater or less degree ; namely, 
almost all the genera of Filices, the parasitical Orchideas, 
Piper, Dracontium and Calladium (genera of Aroideae), 
Commelina and Aneilema, Calamus and Seaforthia, Hellenia 
a solitary Australian genus of Scitamineae, some genera of 
Rubiaceee, particularly Psychotria and Coffea, certain genera 
of Asphodeleae, as Cordyline, and a genus allied to it, whose 
fructification is at length obtained, a solitary plant of Me* 
lastoineee, and an individual Nymphea. 

Other genera also, but little influenced by those local 
circumstances of situation on the East Coast, that are ex- 
cluded from the opposite shores, are Leucopogon (the only 
equinoctial genus of Epacridese observed during the late 
voyages), the families Bignoniaceee, Jasminece, the genus 
Erythrina, and of Coniferse, Araucaria of Norfolk Island. 
This absence of several orders of plants on the north- 
western shores, existing in New South Wales, or opposite 
coast, as well as the consideration (at the same time) of 
the evident causes of such a disparity of species on the 
former coast, would suggest the opinion, that such plants 
alone of other parts of the continent are indigenous to 
the North-west Coast, as are capable of sustaining them- 
selves in a soil subjected to seasons of protracted parching 
droughts. This may apply to some species upon that coast, 
but it cannot be reduced to a general conclusion ; for, on the 
one hand, it is singular so few of the plants of the South and 
South-west Coasts, and particularly that none other of their 
genera of Proteaceee, ^than those already mentioned,) found 



BoTAitT.] NATURAL HISTORY. 525 

akogethar in an arid soil, should have been discovered 
throughout any part of its extensive shore ; -whilst, on the 
other hand, at a peculiar structure of a small and limited 
portion of that coast, in the vicinity of York Sound, a suU 
^ciency of shade was observed to be actually produced by 
the unusually broken character of the country, to favour the 
nourishment and growth of certain plants alone to be seen 
beneath the shade of dense forests* These species were 
Myristica insiptda, discovered by Mr. Brown, on one of the 
Prince of Wales's group of islands on the North Coast; 
Cryptocarya triplinervis. Brown ; bearing ripe fruit, Abroma 
fastuosa ; and an undescribed Eugenia* 

Although the several genera of plants lately observed on 
the xiorth«westem shores are also frequent in other equi- 
noctial parts of the continent, there is, among the many 
species which are absolutely proper to that coast, a Cap^ 
paris of such extraordinary habit, as to form a feature in 
the landscape of a limited extent of its shores, in the 
enormous bulk of its stem and general ramification, bearing 
a striking analogy to the Adansonia of the vest coast of 
Africa. 

The results of such observations on the vegetation as 
could only be made in a general way, at parts approaching 
each extreme of the North-west Coast, shew their little 
affinity to each other ; for the northern extremity partakes 
more fully of that feature of the line of coast contiguous to 
it, which (as already remarked) extends along the north* 
western shores, declines materially at, and in the vicinity of 
their southern limits, where the characteristic vegetation of 
the south, and perhaps the west, coasts has more parti- 
cularly been found. Besides Eucalyptus and Acacia, which 
are abundant on every shore, and generally diffused through- 
out those parts of the interior that have been penetrated. 



526 APPENDIX. [B. 

there ii another genus almost equally dispersed; which i«, 
howerer, on the North-west Coast reduced to three species. 
This is Dodoneea, whose maximum is certainly in New South 
Wales, within and beyond the tropic, upon the coast, and 
generally in the interior of the country, extending also to 
the southern extremity of Van Diemen^s Land. 

Our very limited knowledge of the Flora of this yast con* 
ttnent (excepting of a part east of longitude 144^, and 
included between the parallels of 31^ and 35^ in New 
South Wales) is entirely confined to the vegetation of its 
immediate shores, upon every distinct coast of which, land* 
ings, more or less frequent, and under various circum^ 
stances, have been effected ; although of all, very consider- 
able portions remain unexplored, and of the line of West 
Coast, (properly so denominated,) the shores of Shark's 
Bay, and some few parts south of it, have alone been scieo- 
ttfically investigated. The interior within the tropic remams 
Entirely in obscurity ^ the continental defect of a want of 
large streams having a distant source, to aid a penetration 
to the internal parts of the country, together with other 
effectual obstacles, draw at present a veil, and forbid all 
research into its Natural History and character, which will 
not be removed for very considerable periods (perhaps ages) 
yet to come ! 

It was the general remark made during a former ex* 
pedition in the interior of New South Wales, that no ab« 
solutely entire change takes place in the vegetation east 
of the meridian of the new settlement named Bathurst ; but 
that the plants of the coast were more or less frequent 
at a hundred and fifty miles from the sea, although in a 
country estimated at about two thousand feet above its 
level. Having to this circumstance added a remarkable 
and obvious sameness (arising from an extensive dispersion) 



Botany.] NATURAL Hl6lt)RY. 527 

of a vein of Tegetation in a large tract of country, it may be 
inquired, how far these facts might, when applied to other 
parallels, identify a certain portion of the Flora of the in* 
tenor, and that of the sea-coast in the same latitude ; or, 
in other terms, how far the botany of the coast indicates the 
general feature of the yegetation to a certain limit, in the 
interior on the same parallel? Faronrable opportnnities 
were afforded me, to compare the vegetation of opposite 
coasts within the tropic, at the eastern and western ex« 
tremes of a particular parallel; and the results of such 
a comparison identified many species on the two coasts. I 
have anneied a list of those plants that are common to 
tiie North-west and East Coasts in and about the parallel 
of 15^ South, from a contemplation of which, together with 
die above remarks, and a further comparison of the species 
with those of the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, through 
which that degree of latitude passes, might not a general 
idea of some portion of the Flora of the expanse of in- 
termediate interior (far beyond the reach of actual inves- 
tigation) be presumed ? 

A few observations relative to the geographical range of 
certain' genera and species, hitherto considerably eircum- 
scribed, will close this notice. 

The genus Pandanus has ever been viewed by botanists 
as equinoctial; nor was it till recently ascertained satis* 
factorily, that one of its species (P. pedunculatus. Brown) 
exists on the shores of Port Macquarrie in New South 
Wales, in latitude 31^ South; and I have been credibly 
informed, that the same plant is frequent in the vicinity of 
Port Stephens, which is at least a degree to the southward 
of the above parallel. The latitude of 32^ South may be 
considered the utmost extreme of ranges from the equator 
of the genqs in Terra Australis, on the opposite shore of 



528 APPENDIX. fB. 

which, as also in all other countries, it has not been re^^ 
marked beyond the tropics. 

The palms of Terra Australis, which (as previously ob* 
served) are remarkably limited on the north-western shores^ 
have a very considerable diffusion on the North and East 
Coasts, and have even a more general dispersion on the 
latter shores, than has been allowed them formerly. Sea- 
forthia is frequent in dense forests on the East Coast, 
almost to latitude 35^ South, where it exhibits all the tropi- 
cal habits assumed on the northern shores, although the 
difference of climate, and consequent temperature, are abun- 
dantly obvious. On the other hand, a palm of very robust 
growth, with large flabelliform fronds, and spinous foot- 
stalks, was remarked at the head of Liverpool River^ in 
latitude .12^ South, on the North Coast; and although 
without fructification, no doubt existed of its being the 
Corypha australis, hitherto limited to the shores and vicinity 
of Port Jackson* 

Araucaria excelsa. — ^The Norfolk Island pine, which,, 
without doubt, must have been particularly noticed by the 
celebrated circumnavigator Captain Cook, in 1770, on the 
discovery of New South Wales, although the circumstance 
of the very general existence of a pine upon the islands and 
main of that coast, north of the Percy Isles, does not appear 
to be mentioned in the accounts of that particular voyage, 
has a far more extensive range upon tliat shore than has 
been hitherto understood. During the Mermaid's voyageSf 
Araucaria was observed in the vicinity of Mount Warning, ia 
New South Wales, which lies in the parallel of Norfolk 
Island, (29^ South) ; thence northerly it was very sparingly 
seen towards the tropic, within which, however, as far as 
latitude 14^, it is very abundanti forming upon several 



BoTAWY.] NATUHAL irfSTORY. 529 

islands the only timber. This is probably the nearest ap- 
proach of the species to the equinoctial line ; and although 
it occupies an area of nine hundred miles, it is very pro- 
bably limited in Terra Australis to its immediate shores; 
andy as appears to be the case with Pandanus, exists only 
within the influence of the sea air. 

Calladium macrorhizon, WiUd,^ formerly observed by 
Sir Joseph Banks, at Endeavour River, on the East Coast, 
has been recently detected in moist woods, in the country 
off which the Five Islands are situate, extending on that 
shore to latitude 35^ South ; and Schelhammera multiflora, 
Br., a delicate pla,nt of Melanthacese, discovered likewise 
at Endeavour River, abounds in shady forests, in latitude 
31^, upon the same extensive coast. 

The following plants, formerly considered as indigenous 
only in Van Diemen's Land, have been recently ascertained 
to exist also in New South Wales, in or about the parallel of 
the colony of Port Jackson. 

Croton viscosum, LabULf originally discovered on the 
South-west Coast, was seen in the interior, as far to the 
westward of the colony as longitude 146^ East. 

Croton quadripartitum, Labill., was observed in longi- 
tude 148^ 

Goodia lotifolia, StUisb.y was remarked sparingly in the 
interior, in the meridian of 147^ 30' East; and DaViesia 
latifolia of Mr. Brown is very frequent in societies upon 
plains at Bathurst, in longitude 149^ East, where also Eryn- 
gium vesiculosum, of Labillardiere, was observed. 

Aster argophyllus and obovatus, LahilL These two spe- 
cies were described by Mons. Labillardiere, from speci- 
mens gathered in the southern extremesi of* the above 
island, and have been lately seen tolerably frequent in a 
remarkable tract of country, in latitude 34^, on the limit 

Vol. IL - S M 



630 APPENDIX. [B. 

of the colony^ where the former assumes a robust, arbo* 
rescent habit. Aster phlogopappus, of the same eminent 
author, was recently remarked upon the more elerated 
parts of the Blue Mountain Range, on the margin of a 
remarkable cataract. 



A U8T OF PUHTB OOlOrON TO THB SA8T AMD NOBTR-WaST CGAStS 

OF TERRA AUBTRALIS, IN AND ABOUT THB PARALLEL OF 

FIFTEEN DEGREES SOUTH, WHERE THE BREADTH 

OF CONTINSNT EXCEl£D8 1800 MILES. 

Gieichenia Hennanniy Br* 
Eriocaulon fistuldsum, JBn 
Philydmm lanuginosumi Gmrtn. 
Flagellaria indica, L. 
Dioscorea bulbifera^ JL 
* 1 Pandanus pedunculatus, Br. 
Cycas angulata, Br. 
Santalum oblongatum, Bn 
Exocarpus latifoliai Br. 
Persoonia falcatai firt 
OreyiUea mimosoides, Br. 
Hakea arborescens, Br. 
Bachnera ramosissima, Br. 
Adenosma coenilea, Br. 
Orthostemon erectum, Br* 
Tabemsemontaoa orientaliSi Br. 
€arissa ovata, Br. 
Strycbnos lucida, Br* 
Alyxia obtnsifolia, Br. 
Ipomoea longiflora, Br* 

' denticulata, Br. 
Ipomiea maritima, Br* 



BdTANT.] NATURAL HtSTOHY. 031 

Enlralna rilloim, R. et Pab. 
GnsoDte cariuta« Sr, 
Cordia orientalis, Br. 

* Clerodendrum ioenne, Sr. 

* Avicennia tomeatoitt, £." 
Chionanthus Bzillaria, Sr. ' 
Otea paaiculata, Br. 
Maba laurioat Br, 
Sersalitia obovata, Br, 
MimuBops parrifolta, Br. 
Terminalia, ip. allied to Cfetappa, Lam. 
Cleome tIrcoib, Li 

Capparis sepiaria, L. 
Hibiscui tiliaceui, L. 
Abroma fastuoia, Br, 
Bombaz australia. 
Jaclcsonia Uiesioides. 
Baabiniee ap, 
Cxsalptaie ip. 
Casiia occidentalia, L. 
Guiiaodina Bonduc, L. 
Morinda ciCrifolia, L. 

* Carapa moIuccensiB, Lam. 
Zizyphus melagtomoides. 

* Bniguiera gjmnotbiui, Lam. 
Casuarioa equisetifolia, Lain. 

Should tbe botany of the sboies <^ the Guff of Carpen- 
taria, in the vicuiity of those parts, through which the above 
parallels pass, generally correHpoud (un comparisba) vith 
the above list, tt is more than probable tliat these several 
species occupy portions of the intermediate interior bounded 
by the meridtans of 125° and 145** £ast; those plaoU ex- 



532 APPENDIX. fa 

ceptedf having an asterisk prefixed to them, which as fonning 
mangroves, or from other causes exist only on the sea- 
shore. 



^ UST OF PLANTS OBSERVED DURING THE LATE VOYAGES OK THE 

SHORES OF TERRA AUSTRALIS, THAT ARE Al;50 COMMON 

TO INDIA OR SOUTH AMERICA. 

Ac&osTicHUM alcicorne, Sw. 
Polypodium acrostichoides, Sw. 
Nephrodium exaltatum, Br. 

unitum, Br. 
Vittaria elongata, Sw. 
Aspleninm nidus, L. 
DavaUia flaccida, Br. 
Gleichenia Hermanni, Br. 
Flagellaria indica, L. 
Dioscorea bulbifera, L. 
Caliadium ? macrorhizon, Willd. 
Aristolochia indica, L. 
^ Daphne indica, L. 

Salicomia indica, Willd. 
Deermgia celosioides, Br. 
Plumbago zeylanica, L. 
Dischidia nummularifolia, Br. 
Acanthus illcifolius, L^ 

ebracteatus, L. 
Ipomea Turpethum, Br. 
denticulata, Br. 
maritima, Br. 
Evolvulus villosus, R. et Pav. 
Trichodesma zeylanica, Br. 



BoTAHY.J NATURAL HISTOBiY. 

4 

Tournefortia argentea, Z. 
Cordia orientalis, Br. 
Plectranthus scutellarioides, Ar. 
Clerodendrum inerme, Br. 
Vitex ovata, Z. 

trifolia, Z. 
Avicennia tomentosa, Z. 
Mimusops kauki, L. 
JEgiceras fragrans, C. JToentg. 
ScsBvola Koenigii, VM, 
Cleome viscosay Z. 
Capparis sepiaria, £•? 
Calophyllum Inophylliim^ JL 
Morinda citrifolia, X. 
Carapa moluccensis, Lam. 
Sophora tomentosa, L. 
Cassia occidentalism Z* 
Guilandina Bonduc, Z. 
Abrus precatoriuBy Z. 
? Acacia scandenSt WUUL ? 
Hibiscus tiliaceus, Z. 
Suriana maritimay Jacgu. 
Pemphis acida^ ForsL 
Rhizophora mangle, L. ? 
Bniguiera gymnorhiza, Lam* 
Sonneratia acida, Z. 
Abroma fastuosa, Br* 
Casnarina equisetifolia; Farsi* 



S34 APPENDIX; [B. 



Character and Descrif^m of KINGIA^ a, Neu>, Genus of 
Plants found on the Soi4k'^i>est Coast of New Holland : 
with Observations on the structure <f its Unimfregnaied 
Ovtdum; and on the Female Flower of Cycadece and 
Conifera. 



Bt ROBERT BROWN» BiQ., ^.R.S.a.L. 4 B. V.I^, 



(Read before the Linnean Society ofjipniont Nov» 1 & 15^ 1825.) 

Ik the Botanical . Appendix to the Voyage to Terra Au-^ 
straliSf I have mentioned a plant of very remarkable ap* 
pearance, observed in the year 1801, near the shores of King 
George the Third's Sound, in Mr. WestalPs view of which, 
published in Captain Flinders' Narrative, it is introduced. 

The plant in question was then foujid with only the imper- 
fect remains of fructification : I judged of its affinities, there* 
fore, merely from its habit^^ a^d 9S in this respect it entirely 
agrees with Xanthorrhoea, included the short notice given, 
of it in my remarks on Asphodelese, to which that genus 
was referred *. Mr. Cunningham, the botanist attached to 
Captain King's voyages, who exa|^)ined the plant in the 
same place of growth, in February, 1818, and in December, 
1821, was not more fortunate than myself. Captain King, 
however, in his last visit to King George's Sound, in No- 
vember, 1822, observed it with ripe seeds: and at length 
Mr. William Baxter, whose attention I had particularly di- 
rected to this plant, found it, on the shores of the same 
port in 1823, both in flower and fruit To this zealous col- 
lector, and to his liberal employer^ Mr^ Henchman, I am 

* Flinpers* Foy, vol, ix. p. ST6. 






Botany.] NATURAL HISTORY. 535 

indebted for complete specimens of its fructification, which 
enable me to establish it as a genus distinct from any yet 
described. 

To this new genus I haye given the name of my friend 
Captain King, who, during his important surveys of the 
Coasts of New Hollandt formed valuable coUeetions in se^ 
vend departments of Natural History, and on all occasions 
gave every assistance in his power to Mr. Cunningham, the 
indeftitigable botanist who accompanied him. The mune u 
also intended as a mark of respect to the memory of the 
late Captain Philip Gidley King, who, as Governor of New 
South Wales, materially forwarded the objects of Captain 
Flinders' voyage; and to whose friendship Mr. Ferdinand 
Bauer and myself were indebted for important assistance in 
our pursuits while we remained in that colony. 

KINOIA. 
Obd. Nat* Juneem prope Dasypogim, Calectasism et Xeroteok 

Char. Obit. Pertanf Alum aexpartitamj legulaie, glumsceum, per* 
sistens. MUmina mx, fere hypogyna: AiUkerit basi liBxis. 
Ovarttffii triloculare, loealis monospemdB; etrtt/tf adseenden- 
tibus. Stylus 1. SHgma tridentatum. Pericarpium exsno 
cum, indehisceuB, monospermum, periatithio scarioso cinetnm. 

Plants facie Xanthorrh(B» elatioris. Caudez arborescens eica* 
tricibus basibuwe /(Riorum esasperatusf Folia eaudicem 
terminantia confertiaima longuiima, figwra et ditposiUone 
Xanthorrbcss. Pedunculi numerosifolm breviares, bracteU 
vaginantibus imbricatis tecti, floriferi terminaies erecti, 
ffUKT, eaudice parum] ehngato foliuque naveUis productis^ 
laterales, et divarieiUi vel defiexU termnati csLpitulo demo 
ghboM Jloribus tribraeteatis, 

KiJXBiA Autiralh. Tab. C» 

Daso. OmuifiM arfooreicens erectus simpUdssimus cylindracens, 
6«-18i^edes altus, cnusitia femiNris. Feffo eaudieem terminantia 



536 APPENDIX. [B. 

Dumerosissima patula, apicibus arcuato-recurvis, lorea, solida, an- 
cipitia apice teretiusculo, novella undiqae tecta pilis adpressis 
strictis acutis lae?ibus> aDgfulia lateralibu8 et ventral! retronum 
Bcabris. Pedunctili numeroBi teretes 8 — IS-polUcares crasside 
digit!, vaginis integrig brevibus imbricatis h!nc in foliolum subu- 
latum prodactis tect!. Capitulum globosum, floridum magn!tu<fine 
pruni minoris, fnictiferam pomam parvum sequans. Flore* un- 
diqae densd imbricati, tribracteati, sessiles. Bractea exterior lan- 
ceolata brevd acuminata pUmuscula erecta, extus viilosa intus 
glabra, post lapsum fructuB persiatens: dwiB kUeraies angttst«>- 
naviculares, acatissimoe, carina lateribusque villosia, longitudine 
fere exter!oris» simul cam perianthio fractifero, aeparatim tamen, 
dilabentibaa. Perianthium sexpartitum regulare aabeequale glu- 
maceum : foliola lanceolata acutiaaima disco nervoso nervia !m- 
mersia aimpliciasimia, antica et poatica plana, lateralia compUcata 
lateribus inseqaalibua, omnia baai aubangpistata, extus longitudi- 
naliter sed extra mediam prsecipue v!Uo8a, intus glaberrima, 
aeativatione imbricata. Stamina aex subsequalia, t&stivatione stricta 
filamentia senaim elongantibus : Filamenta fere hypogyna ipsis 
basibus foliolorum periantbi! quibus opposita leviter adhsrentia, 
filiformia glabra teretia: Anthera stantea, aute dehiscentiam lir 
nearea obtuse filamento paulo latiores, defloratas subulatas vix 
crassitie filament!, loculia parallelo-contiguia connectivo dorsal! an- 
gusto adnatia, ax! ventral! longitudlnaliter dehiscentibua, lobulis 
baaeos brevibus acutis subadnatis: Po(/en simplex brev^ ovale 
leve. Pistillum: Ovarium sessile disco nullo squamuUsve cinc- 
tum, lanceolatum trigono-anceps villosum, triloculare* loculis mo- 
nospermia. OviUa erecta fundo angul! interioria locul! paulo supra 
baain suam inserta, obovata lenticulari-compresaa, aptera : Testa 
in ipsa baa! acutiusculd foramine minuto perforata: Membrana 
interna reapecta tests inversa, hujusce nempe apici lata basi 
inserta, ovata apice angustato aperto foramen testae obturante: 
Nucleus cavitate membrane conformis, ejusdem basi insertus, 
csterum liber, pulposus solidus, apipe acutiuaculo kevi aperturam 
membrane interne attingente. Stylus trigonus strictaa, infra 
villosus, dimidio superiore glabro, altitudine staminum, iisdem paulo 
preoocior^ exsertus nempe dun iUa mlhuc inclusa. Stigmata in^ 



BoTANT.] NATURAL HISTORY. 537 

breTisBima acuta denticuliformia. . Pericarpium exsttccum, inde« 
hiscensy villGSum, basi styli aristatam, perianthio scarioso et filar 
mentis emarcidis cinctum, abortione monospermum. Setnen tur- 
gidam obovatum retiuum, integ^meDto (test^) simplici membra- 
naceo aqueo-pallido, hinc (intiis) fere a basi acutiuscala, raphe 
fusca verticem retusuin attingente ibique in chalazam parvani 
coDcoforem ampliata. Albumen semini confdrme dens^ carnosum 
album. Embryo monocotyledoneus, aqneo-pallidus subgldbosus, 
extremitate inferiore (radiciilari) acuta, in ipsa basi seminis situs, 
semi-immenus, nee albumine dmuino iaclusus. 

Tab.G. fig*. 1. KiNGiA AusTRALis pedunculttfl capitulo florido 
terminatus; fig*. 2. capitulum fructiferam ; 8» sectio trans- 
versalis pedunculi: 4h folium: h» mag^nitudine naturali, se- 
quentes omnes plus minus auctse sunt ; 5, flos ; 6, stamen ; 
7, anthera antice et, 8» eadem postice visa; 9, pistillum; 
10, ovarii sectio transversalis ; 11, ejusdem portio longitu- 
dinaliter secta exhibens ovulum adscendens cavitatem loculi 
replens ; 12; ovulum ita longitudinaliter sectum ut membrana 
interna solummodo ej usque insertio in apice cavitatis tests 
visa sit; 18, ovuli sectio longitudinalis profundius ducta ex- 
hibens membranam intemam et nucleum ex ejusdem basi 
ortum; 14^ bractee capituli fructiferi; 15,' pericarpium pc* 
riantbio filamentisque persistentibus cinctum ; 16, pericarpium 
perianthio avulso filame^orum basibns relictis ; 17, semen. 

Obs. I. — It remains to be ascertained, whether in this 
genus a resin is secreted by the bases of the lower leaves, 
as in Xantborrhcea; and whether, which is probable, it agrees 
also in the internal structure of its stem with that genus. 
In Xanthorrhoea the direction of fibres or vessels of' the 
caudex seems at first sight to resemble in some degree 
the dicotyledonous arrangement, but in reality much more 
nearly approaches to that of Dracaena Draco, allowance 
being made for the greater number, and extreme nar- 




638 APPENDIX. [B. 

rowness of leaves, to which all the radiating Teasels be- 
long *. 

Obs. II. — ^I have placed Kingia in the natural order 
JancesB along with Dasypogon, Galectasia and Xerotes, 
genera peculiar to New Holland, and of which the two 
fanner bi^?e hitherto been observed only, along with itt on 
the shores of King Qeorge's Sound. 

The strikmg resemblaiioe of Kingia, in caudez and leaves, 
to XanthorrhcBa, cannot fail to suggest its affinity to that 
genus also. Although this affinity is not confirmed by a 
minute comparison of the parts of fructification, a sufficient 
agreement is still manifest to strengthen the doubts formerly 
expressed of the importance of those characters, by which 
I attempted to define certain families of the great class 
Liliaceee. 

In addition, however, to the difference in texture of- the 
outer coat of the seed, and in those other pointB, on which I 
then chiefly depended in distinguishing Junceae 4rom Aapho- 
delesB, a more important character in Junceas exists in the po- 
sition of the embryo, whose radicle points always to the base 
of the seed, the external umbilicus being placed in the axis 
of the inner or ventral surfiice, either immediately above 
the base as in Kingia, or towards the middle, as in Xerotes. 

• My knowledge of this remarkable structure of XanthorriuBa is 
eliiefiy derived from specimens ai the caudex of one of the larger 
species of the gena% brought from Port JadESon, and deposited in 
tiie coUectioB at tiie Jardin du Roi of Paris by M. 6audichaiid» 
the very intelligent botanist who was attached to Captain De 
Freycinets voyage. 



BOTAMT.] NATURAL HlffTORY. £39 

Obb. IIL-i-Oo the SinidUM of the Uvimfrbgitatsii 
Oyulpm in Plumogmmom Plants. 

The description which I have giyen of the Ovu]um of 
KiDgia, though essentially different from the accounts hi- 
therto published of that organ before fecundation, in reality 
agrees with its ordinary structure in Phaenogamous plants, 

I shall endeavour to establish these two points ; namely, 
the agreement of this description if ith the usual structure 
of the Ovvlum, and its essential difference from the accounts 
of other observers, as briefiy as possible at present; in- 
tending hereafter to treat the subject at greater l^gth, and 
^so with other yi^ws. 

{ have formerly more than once * adverted to the struc- 
ture of the Ovuluu!) chiefly as to t)ie indicatiou^ it affords, 
even before fecundation* of the place aud diipection of the 
future Embryo. These remarks, however, which were cer* 
tainly yery brief, see^l entirely to h^ve escaped the notice of 
those authors who have since iirritten oi^ the same subject* 

In the Botanical Appendix to the $u:count of Captain 
Flinders' Voyage, published in 1814, the following de- 
scription of the Ovulum of Cephalotui foUipilam is given : 
** Ovulum erectum, intra teatam membrauaceam continens 
speculum pendulum, magnitudine cavitatis testae/' and in 
leference to this descriptioja, I have in the same place 
remarked that, '^ from the structure of the QvuluiUi even in 
the unimpregnated state, I entertain no doubt that the radicle 
of the Embryo points to the umbilicus f." 

My attention had been first directed to this subject in 
1809, in consequence of the opiniou I had then formed of 

• Flindbrs* Foy. ii. p. 601, and Linn. Soc. Tramac. xii. p. 136. 
t Flindbrs* Fvy, loc. cit. 




540 ' APPENDIX. [B, 

the function of the Cbalaza in seeds * ; and sometime before 
the publication of the observation now quoted, I had ascer- 
tained that in Phaenogamous plants the unimpregnated Ovu« 
lum very generally consisted of two concentric membranes, 
or coats, enclosing a Nucleus of a pulpy cellular, texture, 
I had observed also, that the inner coat had no connexion 
either with the outer or with the nucleus, except at. its 
origin; and that with relation to the outer coat it was 
generally inverted, while it always agreed in direction with 
the nucleus. And, lastly, that at the apex of the nucleus 

the radicle of the future Embryo would constantly be found. 
On these groui^ds my opinion respecting the Embryo of 

Cephalotus was formed. In describing the Ovulum in this 
g^nus, I employed, indeed, the less correct term '* saccu- 
lus," which, however, sufficiently expressed the appearance 
of the included body in the specimens examined, and served 
to denote my uncertainty in this case as to the presence of 
the inner membrane. 

I was at that time also aware of the existence, in several 
plants, of a foramen in the coats of the Ovulum, always 
distinct from, and in some cases diametrically opposite to, 
the external umbilicus, and which I had in no instance found 
cohering either directly with the parietes of the Ovarium^ 
or with any process derived from them. But, as I was then 
unable to detect this foramen in many of the plants which I 
had examined, I did not attach sufficient importance to it ; 
and in judging of the direction of the Embryo, entirely de- 
pended on ascertaining the apex of the nucleus, either 
directly by dissection, or indirectly from the vascular cord 
of the outer membrane : the termination of this cord afford- 
ing a sure indication of the origin of the inner ^eii()braney 

* Linn. Soc, Transact, x. p. 35, 



JSOTANT.J NATUKALi HISTUKY. 0**X 

and coDsequenUy of the base of the nucleus, the position of 
whose apex is therefore readily determined. 

In this state of my knowledge the subject was taken up in 
I818» by my lamented friend the late . Mr. Thomas Smithy 
who,, eminently qualified, for an inyestigation where minute 
accuracy and great experience in microscopical observation 
were necessary, succeeded in ascertaining the very general 
existence of the foramen in the membranes of the Ovulum. 
But as the foramina ia these membranes invariably corre- 
spond both with each other and with the apex of the nucleus, 
a test of the direction of the future Embryo was conse- 
quently found nearly as universal, and more .obvious than 
that which I had previously employed. 

To determine in what degree this account of the vege« 
table Ovulum differs from those hitherto given, and in some 
measure, that its correctness may be judged of, I shall pro- 
ceed to state the various observations that have. been ac- 
tually made, and the opinions that have been formed on the 
subject, as briefly as I am able, taking them in chronological 
order. 

' In 1672, Grew * describes in the outer coat of the seeds 
of many Leguminous plants a small foramen, placed oppo- 
site to the radicle of the Embryo, whidi, he adds, is *Vnot a 
hole casually made, or by the breaking off of the stalk," but 
formed for purposes afterwards stated to be.the aeration of the 
Embryo, and facilitating the passage of its radicle in germi- 
nation. It appears that he did not consider this foramen in 
the testa as always present, the functions whidi he ascribes 
to it being performed in cases where it is not found, either, 
according to him, by the hilum itself, or in hard fruits, by 
an aperture in the stone or shell. 

* Anatomy of Feget* begun p. 3. Anai» of Plants, p. 2. 





542 APPENDIX. [B. 

In another part of bit work * he describeft and figares, in 
the early state of the Oirulam, two coats, of which the outer 
is the testa; the other, his '^ middle membrane/' is evidently 
what I hare termed uttdeasi whose origin in the Oyuliim of 
the Apricot he has distinctly represented and described. 

Malpigfai, in 1675t9 P^^^ the same accoont erf the eaily 
Itaie of the Ovulum ; his ** secilndinse exteniee'' being the 
testa^ and his ehortoti the nucleus. He has not, howeTert 
distinguished, though he appears to hare seen^ the foramen 
of Grew, from the fenestra and feneatella, and these, to 
which he assigns the same fuftctions, are merely his terms 
for the hiluin. 

In 1694, Camerarias, itt his admirable essay on the 
sexes of plants Xi proposes^ as queries merely^ rarions modes 
in which either the entire grains of pollen, or their partieles 
after bursting, may be supposed to reach and act upon the 
unimpregnated Orula, which he had himself carefully ob* 
seized. With his usual candour^ however, he acknowledges 
his obligation on this subject to MalJ[>ighi, to whose more 
detailed account of them he refers. 

Me. SaAmel Morland^ la 1703^ in evtendiiig Leeuwen- 
hoek's hypothesis of generation to plants, assumes the ex- 
istence of an aperture in the Ovulum, through which it is 
impreghated. It appears, indeed, that hd had not actually 
obsehred this apertiire before fecundation, bat inferred ita 
existence generally and at that period^ from having, as 
he sqrs, ^* discovered 'm the seeds of beans^ peas» and 
Fhaseoli, just under one end of what we call the eye, a 

* Anai. ofPlanis,^. filO. tab. 80. 
f Anaibme Pldrit.p, 75. 6t 90. 

tRudoiphi Jacobi Cameratii de sesfu phntarum epiMm, 
p. 8. 46. et geq. 
$ PMhsoph. Tramad. tol. xxiM. n, 99r. p. I4iri. 



BoTANTj NATURAL HIVTORY. 043 

manifest perforation^ which leads directly to the torainal 
plant/' and by which he supposes the Edibryo to ha?e at* 
tered. This perforation is efidently the foramen discDYered 
in the seeds of Legumitious plants by Chrew^ of whose obser* 
fations respecting it he takes no noticCi though he quotes 
him in another part of his subject. 

In 1704, Etienne Fran9oi8 Geoffirdy*, and m 171 1, hil 
brother Claude Joseph Geoftoyt, in support of the same 
hypothesis, state the general existence of an aperture in &a 
nnim(>regnated tegetable 0?ulum. It is not^ howeyer^ pro- 
baUe that these authors had really seen this aperture in the 
early state of the Ovulum in any casci but rathet^ that they 
had merely adranced from the obsenration of Orewi and the 
ootyecture founded on it by Morland^ whose hypothesis they 
adopt without acknowledgment, to the unqualified aisertion 
of its existence, in all cases. For it is to be remark^d^ that 
they take na notice of what had previously beeti obseryed 
or asserted on the more important parts of their iubjecty 
while seyeral passages are eyidently copied^ and the whole 
account of the original state and deyelopement of the Oyu« 
lam is literally translated from Camerarius's Essay* ^or 
does the younger Geoffroy mention the earlier publication 
of his brother, froin which his own memoir is in great part 
manifestly derived. 

In 1718^ Vaillanti, who rejects the vermicular hypothesis 
of generation, supposes the influence of the Pollen to con- 
sist in an aura, conveyed by the tracbcm of the style to the 
evula, which it enters^ if I rightly understand him, by the 

* Qu€eHio Mediea an HominU primordia Vermkf in auctoris 
Tractatu de Materia Mediea, torn. i. p. 123. 
t Mem. de fAcad, des Sc. de Paris, 1711, p. Sid. 
t Discours sur la Structure des Fkurs, p. SD* 





544 i APPENDIX. fB. 

funiculus umbilicalis : at the same time he seems to admit 
the ezisteoce of the aperture in the coat. 
> In 1745, Needham*, and in 1770, Gleichentt adopt the 
hypothesis of Morlaad, somewhat modified, however, as they 
consider the particles in the grains of Pollen, not the grains 
themselyes, to be the embryos, and that they enter the 
ovtlla by' the umbilical cord. 

Adanson, in- 1763$, states the Embryo to exist before 
fecundation, and that it receives its first excitement from 
a vapour or aura proceeding from the Pollen, conveyed to it 
through the trachees of the style, and entering the Ovulnm 
by the umbilical cord. 

Spallanzani §, who appears to have carefully examined the 
unimpregnated Ovula of a considerable variety of plants, 
found it in general to be a homogeneous, ipongy, or gela- 
tinous body ; but in two Cucurbitaceae to consist of a nucleus 
surrounded by three coats. Of these coats he rightly sup- 
poses the outermost to be merely the epidermis of the middle 
membrane or testa. Of the relative direction of the testa and 
inner coat in the two plants in question he takes no notice, 
nor does he in any case mention an aperture in the Ovu-> 
lum. 

' Geertner, who, in the preface to his celebrated- work, dis- 
plays great erudition in every branch of his subject, can 
hardly, however, be considered an original observer in this 
part. He describes the unimpregnated Ovulum as a pulpy 
homogeneous globule, whose epidermis, then scarcely dis- 
tinguishable, separates in a more advanced stage, and be- 
comes the testa of the seed, the inner membrane of which is 

* New Microscopical Discoveries, p. 60, 
t Observ. Microscop, p. 45. et 61. $ cxviii. 

t Fam» des Plant, torn. 1. p. 121 • , 

I* 

$ Fisica Jnim, e Feget tom. iii. p. 309— 39S. 



BoTAHTj NATURAL HIGTORY. 545 

entirely the product of fecandatton *. He asserts also that 
the Embryo constantly appears at that point of the ovulum 
where the ultimate branches of the umbilical vessels per- 
forate the inner membrane ; and therefore mistakes the apex 
for the base of the nucleus. 

In 1806 Mons.Turpint published a memoir on the organ, 
by which the fecundating fluid is introduced into the yege« 
table ovulum. The substance of this memoir is, that in all 
Phsnogamous plants fecundation takes place through a cord 
or fesciculus of vessels entering the outer coat of the ovulum, 
at a point distinct from, but at the period of impregnation 
closely approximated to the umbilicus, and to the cicatrix of 
this cord, which itself is soon obliterated, he gives the name 
of Micropyle : that the ovulum bas two coats, each having 
its proper umbilicus, or, as he terms it, omphalode ; that these 
coats in general correspond in direction ; that more rarely 
the inner membrane is, with relation to the outer, inverted ; 
and that towards the origin of the inner membrane the 
radicle of the embryo uniformly points. 

It is singular that a botanist, so ingenious and experienced 
as M. Turpin, should, on this subject, instead of appealing 
in every case to the unimpregnated ovulum, have apparently 
contented himself with an examination of the npa seed. 
Hence, however, he has formed an erroneous opinion of 
the nature and origin, and in some plaiits of the situation, of 
the micropyle itself, and hence also he has in all cases mis- 
taken the apex for the base of the nucleus. 

A minute examination of the early state of the ovulum 
does not seem to have entered into the plan of the late 
celebrated M. Richard, when in 1808 he published his 

* GaerU de Fruct et Sem, i. p. 57. 59. «f 61. 

t Annal, du Mw. d^Hut Nat. vii. p. 199* 

Vol. II. 2 N 



546 APPEN0IX. [a 

valuable* and originri Analyse du Frtdi, The ovulum has, 
according to him, but one covering, which in the ripe seed 
he calls episperm. He considers the centre of the hilum 
as the base, and the chalaza, where it exists, as the natural 
apex of the seed. 

M. Mirbel, in 1815, though admitting the existence of the 
foramen or micropyle of the testa *, describes the ovulam as 
receiving by the hilum both nourishing and fecundating 
vessels t, and as consisting of a uniform parenchyma, i« 
which the embryo appears at first a minute point, g^'aduallj 
converting more or less of the surrounding tissue into its 
'own substance ; the coats- and albumen of the seed being 
formed of that portion which remains I. 

In the same year, M. Auguste de Saint Hilaire^ shews 
that the. micropyle is not always approximated to the urn* 
bilious ; that in some plants it is situated at the opposite ex- 
tremity of the ovulum, and that in all cases it corresponds 
with the radicle of the embryo. This excellent botanist, at 
the same time, adopts M. Turpin's opinion, that the micro« 
pyle is the cicatrix of a vascular cord, and even gives in- 
stances of its connexion with the parietes of the ovarium ; 
mistaking, as I believe, contact, which in some plants un- 
questionably takes place, and in one family, namely. Plum- 
baginese, in a very remarkable manner, but only after a 
certain period, for original cohesion, or organic connexion, 
which I have not met with in any case. 

In 1815 also appeared the masterly dissertation of Pro- 
fessor Ludolf Christian Treviranus, on the developement of 



* Blem. de PhyM. Fig. et de Bei. tom. t. p. 49. 

t Id, torn. i. p. 314. 

J Id, loc. cit. 

$ Mem, du Mus, dUid^ Nat, ii. p. $7€^, et sef. 



bmawt.] natural HisrroRY. 543 

the vegetable Embryo *y ia which he deseribes the ofulma 
before fecmdatioii as havieg two coete; bet ef these, hid' 
inner coat is evidently the middle membnine of Gffew, the. 
diorion of Halpighi^ or what I have tesmed niiokns* 

!■ I8d2, Monsb Duivochet, ttoae^saiBfeedy a* it would, 
seem, with the dissertation of Professor Treviranus, pub* 
Ikhed his observatioos on the sane subject f. In what 
regards the strnctave of the ovnlam, he essentis^ly Bfpeev 
with that aathor, and has equally overlooked the ionev 
membrane. , . 

It is remarkable that neither of theae observers sikooldi 
have noticed the foramen in the testa* And as they do not 
even mention the welUknown essays of MM* Turpiii and 
Angoste de St» Hilaire on the nucropyle^ it may be presumed- 
that they were not disposed to adopt the statements of these 
authors respecting it 

Professor Link, in his Pkilo$oplua BaiasUcc, published 
in 1824» adopts the account given by Treviranus, of the 
ooats of the ovulum before imfvegnation t; and of M. Turpin^ 
as to the situation of the micropyle, and itti being the cicatrix 
of a vascular cord. Yet he seems not to admit the functioa< 
ascribed to it, and asserts that it is in many casea wanting^. 

The account which I have given of the structure of the 
vegetable ovulum, differs essentially from all those now 
quoted, and I am not acquainted with any other obser* 
Tations of importance respecting it. 

Of the authors referred to, it may be remarked, that those 
-who have most particularly attended to the ovulum ex^ 

* Entwtck, des Embryo im Pflanzen-By, 

t Mem. du Mus. d'Hixt. Nat tom. viii. p. S4rl, et seq» 

t EUm. Phihs. Bot. ^. S86. 

$Mp.d40. 

2N 9 



t 



54S APPENDIX. [B. 

ternally, have not always examined it at a sufficiently early 
period, and have confined themselves to its surface: that 
those who have most minutely examined its internal struc- 
ture, have trusted too much to sections merely, and have 
neglected its appearance externally: and that those who 
have not at all examined it in the early stage, have given 
the most correct account of its surface. This account waa 
founded on a very limited observation of ripe seeds, gene- 
ralized and extended to the unimpregnated ovulum, in con«^ 
nexion with an hypothesis then very commonly received: 
but this hypothesis being soon after abandoned, their state- 
ment respecting the ovulum was rejected along with it. 

In the ovulam of Kingia, the inner membrane, with re*** 
lation to the external umbilicus, is inverted; and this, as 
I have already observed, though in direct opposition to 
M. Turpin's account, is the usual structure of the organ. 
There are, however, several families in each of the two 
primary divisions of phaenogamous plants, in which the- 
inner membrane, and consequently the nucleus, agrees in 
direction with th^ testa. In such cases the exteroal um-^ 
bilicus alone aflfords a certain indication of die position of 
the future embryo. 

It is an obvious consequence of what has been already 
stated, that the radicle of the embryo can never poitit di- 
rectly to tlie external umbilicus or hilum, though this is said 
lo be generally the case by the most celebrated carpologiats. 

Another observation may be made, less obviously a con- 
sequence of the structure described, but equally at variance 
with many of the published accounts and figures of seeds, 
namely, that the radicle is never absolutely enclosed in the 
albumen ; but, in the recent state, is either immediately in 
contact with the inner membrane of the seed, or this con- 
tact is established by means of a process generally very 




BoTAWT.] NATUEAL HISTORY. 549 

short, but sometimes of great length, and which .indeed 
in all cases may be regarded as an elongation of its own 
substance. From this rate I haye found one apparent der- 
Yiation, but in a case altogether so peculiari that it can 
hardly be considered as setting it aside. 

It is necessary to observe, that I am acquainted with ex- 
ceptions to the stracture of the OYulum as I have here 
described it. In Gompositse its coats seem to be imper- 
forated, and hardly separable, either from each other or 
from the nucleus. In this family, therefore, the direction of 
the embryo can only be judged of firom the yesseb of the 
testa ^. And m Lemna I have found an apparent inversion 
of the embryo with rdation to the apex of the nucleus. In 
this genus, however, such other peculiarities of structure 
and economy exist, that, paradoxical as the assertion may 
seem, I consider the exception rath» as confirming than ' 
lessening the importance of the character. 

It may perhaps be unnecessary to remark, that the raphe, 
or vascular cord of the outer coat, almost universally belongs 
to that side of the ovulum which is next the placenta. But it 
is at least deserving of notice, that the very few apparent ex- 
ceptions to this rule evidentiy tend to confirm lU The most 
remarkable of these exceptions occur in those species of 
Enonymus, which, contrary to the usual stracture of. the 
genus and family they beloi^^ to, have pendulous ovula; 
and, as I have long since noticed, in the perfect ovula only 
of Abeliat. In these, and in the other cases in which the 
raphe is on the outer side, or that most remote from the 
placenta, the ovula are in reality resupmate ; an economy 
apparentiy essential to their developement 

The distinct origins and difierent directions of the noo ' 

* Linn* Soe* Transact xii. p. 136. t Abbl*8 CAiVia, p. 377j 



5S0 APPENDIX. CB> 

ndiin^ 'veaeels ud dhanncl tfaroagb whJdi fecundatioa took 
place in tbe>0Tidam, m^vtill be aeen in naatj ofthoK ripe 
«eedi tint lan 'whiged, and either preaeiit their ini^;ini Id 
ikt pl&oentA, Hi in Protaaoem, or have the plane of the wing 
at right angles to it, afl in aeversl Liliaces. These o^bub 
-are visible stss >in «oine of thcoe feeds that have their teata 
ptodnced flt beth >«ndB beyond the inner cnembrane, aa N^ 
fcndaes; a ■Uaolare which proves the outer coat of seobi- 
form seeds, as ihey ve called, to be Rally tests, and not 
anillus, as it ibas often been termed. 

The importance of 'digtingnishing between the membranea 
of the unimpfegnated 'onilum and those of the ripe seed, 
must be safficiently evident from what hss been already 
•stated. But this distinction bets beep necessarily neglected 
by tMO classes «f observers. The first consistiDg of those, 
tDODng whom are -sevenii of the most eminent carpolo^ats, 
who have regarded >ibe coats of the seed as products of 
iecmdation. The second of those autiiors who, profeeeing 
to give an SLOOonnt of the ovulum itself, have made theii 
cdMBTvations chiefly, or entirely, on (he ripe seed, the coats 
of which -tbey mast coiueqnsntly have supposed to be fomnd 
bdbre 'impregnation. 

Tbe consideration of the ariBta, which is of rare oe- 
cnrrenoe, is never complete, and whose developement takes 
plaee chiefly after ■feonndation, might here, perhaps, be en- 
^rely omitted. It is, however, worthy of remai^c, that in 
■Uie «Br(y sti^ of the ovnlum, tiiie envelope is in general 
fiardly visible even in those cases where, as in Hibbettia 
vohsbilis, it attains the gretcKst size in tbe ripeieed ; nor 
does it io any case, with wbioh I am acquainted, cover the 
foramen of the testa until after feonndation. 

llie lesla, or outer coat of the seed, is very generally 
Fanned ^ the outer membrane of the ovalum ; and in most 



Sot ANT.] NATURAL HISTORY. 551 

ctmes wfaeve the imclenii is iaverted, whicii is tbe more uftutl 
fltructure, its orig;iii may be tatisfactorrly determined; either 
by tbe failiim. being more or less lateral, i^ile the foramen 
is ttf miftal ; or mme obvioasly, and witb gresAer certainty 
.where the raphe is T^iMey ithis vascular cord uaifenO'ly 
Jbelonpng «o the oaler meoibraiie of die ondum. The 
ehalazay properly so called, though merely the termination 
of the raphe, affords a less certain oharaeteTy for in many 
plants it is hariMy visible on the inner aorfaoe of the testa, 
but is intimately united with the areola of insertion cff the 
inner memtome or of the nadeus, to one or other of which 
it then seems entirely to belong* In those cases where the 
testa agrees in direction widi the nndeos, I oun not 4i(v 
qnainled widi any character hy which it can be absdntely 
.diatittgaished from the inner membrane in the ripe seed ; 
.but as a iew plants are already (knomn, in which the outer 
membrane is originally incompletey its entire absence, even 
loefoseisonndaiion, is conceivable; and some possible cases 
4if auch a stractnre will be mentioned hereafter. 

There are severdi cases known, some of which I have Ibr- 
«ier]y noticed *, of 4he complete obliteration of Ae testa in 
tke ripe teed ; and on the odier hand it appears to consti^ 
tnte the greater part of the substance of die boib-lUce seeds 
of many Liliacese, where it ao donbt performs also the funt^ 
tion of albnmen, from which, however, it is xeadily dis- 
-tingiiished by its vascularity 1 But the most remarkable 
deviation ftom the usnal Btractare and eeonomy of tbe outer 
jnea^irane of the ovnhim, iuith in its eaxiiest «tage and in 
the ripe fruit, that I have yet met with, occurs in Banksia 
4md Dryandra, In these two generai I have aseertained that 
^e inner membmne of the ovolmn, before fecundation^ is 

4^ lamn, Soc. Transact, ul|»« 149, t Ibid. 



552 APPENDIX. [B. 

entirely exposed, the outer membrane being even then open 
its whole length ; and that the outer membraneE of the two 
collateral ovula, whicK. are originally distinct, cohere in a 
more adfaiiced stage by their corresponding surTaoes, and 
together conslitate the anomalous dissepiment of (he cap- 
sule ; the inoer membrane of the ovnlum consequently form- 
ing the outer coat of the seed. 

The inner VKmbrane of the ovnlum, however, in general 
appears to be of greater importance as connected with 
fecundation, than as affording protection to the nucleus at a 
more advanced period. For in many cases, before impreg- 
nation) its perforated apex piojecti beyond the aperture of 
the testa, and in some plants puts on the ajqiearance of an 
obtuse, or even dilated stigma; while in the ripe seed it is 
often either entirely obliterated, or exists only as a tbin 
film, which might readily be mistaken for the epidermis of a 
third membrane then frequently idwervable. 

This third eoat is formed by the proper membrane or 
cuticle of the Nucleus, from whose substance in the unim^ 
pregnated ovuium it is never, 1 believe, separable, and at 
that period is very rarely visible. In the ripe seed it is 
distinguishable from the inner membrane only by its apex, 
which is never perforated, is. generally acute and more 
deeply coloured, or even sphacelated. 

The membrane of the nucleus usually constitutes the 
innermost coat of the seed. But in a few plants an ad- 
ditional coat, apparently originating in the inner membrane 
of Grew, the vesicnla colhquamenti or amnios of Halpig^ 
also exists. 

In general the Amnios, after fecundation, gradually en- 
larges, till at length it displaces or absorbs the whole sub- 
stance of the nucleus, containing in the ripe seed both the 
embryo and albumen, wheie the latter continuef to exist. 



BoTANT.] NATURAL HISTORY. 

Id such easeSy however, its proper membrane 
obliterated, and its place supplied either hj 
nucleasy by the inner membrane of the ovolui 
both these are evanescent, by the testa itself. 

In other cases the albumen is formed by a 
granular matter in the cells of the nucleus. I 
these cases the membrane of the amnios seemi I 
•istent, forming even in the ripe seed a propei : 
embryo, the original attachment of whose ra 
apex of this coat may also continue. This, at \ 
to me die most probable explanation of the stru ; 
NymplHBaces, namely, Nuphar, Nymphsea, £ i 
dropeltis, and Cabomba, notwithstanding th< i 
markable germination, as observed and figured i 
and Nuphar by Tittmann \ 

In support of this explanation, which diffe i 
those yet given, I may here advert to an obsei ' 
lished many years ago, though it seems to hi i 
every author who has since written on the sul 
ly, that before the maturity of the seed in I 
ceee, the sacculus contains along with the embi * 
or semi-fluid) substance, which I then called A i 
plying at that time this name to every bodj 
between the albumen and embryo f. The opic 
some confirmation also from the existence of a i 
fine filament, hitherto overlooked, which, origii i 
the centre of the lower surface of the sacculus, 1 1 
through the hollow axis of the Albumen, probab 
this coat ^f the Embryo in an early stage with 
the nucleus. 

* Keimung der Pflanxen^ p. 19. et 97. tab. & et 4. 
t Prodr. Fhr. iVbtr. UM* i, p. tOG. 




5M AIWBNDIX. [B. 

Tbe AaoM explanation of fttnioture aj^lies to die Boeds of 
Piperaoett and Saurunis; and other instatces occor of the 
fteraisteace either of tht, membmie or of the aiibstaBoe of 
the amnios in ^ nfe seed. 

It may be concladed frqn^ the whole aocoant iriiich I 
have .given of the etniotioe of the ovuhmif that die mme 
UDpodant cbaqges coBaequent to ffeai« or even 4o epwians 
fidcimdationi mnat lake plaoe witbia the iracleiis : and that 
the iUhmmen, properly eo called, may be formed either by a 
. dffiositaon or 9ecietiQn of grannUur matter in the utnonlii of 
tbe Amnioa, or in itkoae .ef 'the nadens itsyelf, ^ lastly, that 
tiro substance^ havii^g these distinct origins, and very dif- 
Soreoi textures, may .oo^exifttiB the ripe seed, as is probably 
Ibe ^iase in SckamineifeL 

On the subject of the ovuluoi, as ^ooiilaiiied in an ovft- 
rioiii, I shall at present make but one other remark, which 
forms a necessary iatrodactic» to (he observations that 
follow* 

On the Structure of the female Flower in Ctcadbjb 

and CoNiFBRji. 

That the apex of the nucleus is the point of the ovnlam 
where impregnation takes place, is at least highly probable, 
both from tbe constancy in the appearance of the embryo at 
that point, and from the very general inversion of the nu- 
cleus; for by this inversion its apex is brought nearly^ or 
absolutely, into contact with that part of the parietes of the 
ovarium, by which the influence of the pollen may be sup- 
posed to be communicated. In several of those families of 
plants, however, in which the nucleus is not inverted, and 
the placentae are polyspermous, as Cistinese *, it is difficult 

* This BtmotUK-of HMfidHoi, huHcaltod by that df Hie seed, as 
characterizing and defining the limits of Ci8lmece» <nanciy, Cistus, 



SoTAinr.] NATURAL imrORY. S^ 

to eompidiend in what maimer tins 'ndtoenct can roaeh 
it! apex exXmniljy except on tbe mippositioii, iiot hastily 
to be admitted, of an impregMtN^ aura ifitting the cavity 
. of the oyarium ; or by the coEnplele s^aration 'of the 'feoan- 
daliDg tabes from the placeute, wkioh, hov0per> in sadi 
'eases I hure ne¥er been able to detect. 

It would entirely remove the doubts that nuif exiat re- 
apecting the point ^of impregnation, if cases could be pro- 
doced where the ovarium was either altogeftier wanting, or 
-so imperfectly formed, that the owlam itself became ^ 
rectly exposed to the action of the pollen, or itsfoviHa^ its 
apex, as well as the orifice of its immediate covering, being 
modified and developed to adapt Aefa to this economy. 

But such, I believe, is the real explanation of the atsiio- 
tore of Oycadese, of Coniferae, of EpheCka, and e^wn <of 
Gnetum, of which Thoa of Aublet is a species. 

To this view the most formidable objeotion would 'be 
Tomoved, were it admitted, in coofonnity with the preceding 
-observations, that the apjBx of the nucleus, or supposed 
point of impregnation, has no organic connexion with the 
parietes of the ovarium. In support of it, also, as far as r^ 
gards the direct action of the pdllen on the ovulum, nu- 
merous instances of analogous economy in theanimal Iftin^ 
dom nmy be adduced. 

The similarity of the female fiower in Oycadeae and Coni- 
ftrse to the ovulum of other pfasBuogamous plants^ as I ^bavc 
described it, is indeed sufficiently obvious to render tbe 
opinion bere^advanced not altogether improbable. But tbe 

Helianthemum, Hadsonia and Lechea), I communicated to Dr. 
Hookeft by whom it is noticed in his Flora Scotica, (p. 284,) pub- 
lished in 1821 ; where, however, an observation is added respecting 
Gaertnei's description onCistua and Hellanthemum, for which I am 
• not accountable* 




556 APPENDIX. [B. 

proof of its correctness must chiefly rest on a resemblance, 
in every essential point, being established, between the inner 
body in the supposed female flower in these tribes, and the 
nucleus of the OTulum in ordinary structures; not only in 
the early stage, but also in the whole series of changes 
consequent to fecundation. Now as far as I have yet ex- 
amined, there is nearly a complete agreement in all these 
respects. I am not entiirely satisfied, however, with the 
observations I have hitherto been able to- make on a subject 
naturally difficult, and to which I have not till lately at- 
tended with my present view. 

The facts most likely to be produced as arguments against 
this view of the structure of Coniferee, are the unequal and 
apparently secreting surface of the apex of the supposed 
nucleus in most cases; its occasional projection beyond 
the orifice of the outer coat ; its cohesion with that coat 
by a considerable portion of its surface, and the not unfre- 
quent division of the orifice of the coat. Yet most of theae 
peculiarities of structure might perhaps be adduced in sup- 
port of the opinion advanced, being apparent adaptations to 
the supposed economy. 

There is one fact that will hardly be brought forward as 
an objection, and which yet seems to me to present a diffi- 
culty, to this opinion ; namely, the greater simplicity in Cyca- 
dese, and in the principal part of Goniferse, of the supposed 
ovulum which consists of a nucleus and one coat only, com- 
pared with the organ as generally existing when enclosed in 
an ovarium. The want of uniformity in this respect may 
even be stated as another difficulty, for in some genera of 
Coniferee the ovulum appears to be complete. 

In Ephedra, indeed, where the nucleus is provided with 
two envelopes, the outer may, perhaps, be supposed rather 
analogous to t|fe cfil^x, or involucrum of the male flower. 



BbTANT.J NATURAL HISTORY. 557 

than as belonging to the ovalum; but in Gaetom, where 
three envelopes exist, two of these may, with great pro- 
bability, be regarded as coats of the nucleus ; while in Po« 
docarpus and Dacrydium, the outer cupula, as I formerly 
termed it *, may also, perhaps, be riewed as the testa of the 
ovulnm. To this view, as far as relates to Dacrydium, the 
longitudinal fissure of the outer coiat in the early stage, and 
its state in the ripe fruit, in which it forms only a partial 
covering, may be objected t. But these objections are, in a 
great measure, removed by the analogous structure already 
described in Banksia and Dryandra. 

The plurality of embryos sometimes occurring in Go- 
nifers, and which, in Gycadese, seems even to be the na- 
tural structure, may also, perhaps, be supposed to form 
an objection to the present opinion, though to me it appears 
rather an argument in its favour. 

Upon the whole, the objections to which the view here 
taken of the structure of these two families is still liable, 
seem to me, as ht as I am aware of them, much less im- 
portant than those that may be brought against the other 
opinions that have been advanced, and still divide botanists 
on this subject 

According to the earliest of these opinions, the female 
flower of Cycadeee and Coniferae is a monospermous pistil- 
lum, having no proper floral envelope. 

To this structure, however, Pinus itself was long con-* 
sidered by many botanists as presenting an exception. 

Linneeus has expressed himself so obscurely in the natural 
character which he has given of this genus, that I find it 
difficult to determine what his opinion of its structure really 

* Fmndbrs*8 Foy, vol. ii. p. 573. 
t Id, loc. cit. 





558 APPENpnu , EB. 

waft. I am iii€Kiied> kowever, to believe it t& have been 
nach nearer the truth than itf generally supposed; Jad^f^ 
of it from a coi^parieon of his essential with his artificial 
generic eharactefi and front an obserralioB recorded in hia 
Praketimtesj pablished by CKseke *. 

Bat tbe first clear aeeount that I have met with, of 
the real structure of Pinua^ aa fi» as regarda Ae directioB, 
or base and apex of the female flowers, is givoi, in 17S7,by 
TreWyWha describes them in the foUowing manner : ^^ Sisgiida 
senuna yel petiaa gersaiaa stigBiiati tanquam organo feminino 
gaudentt," and his figure of the female flower of the Larch, 
in which (he sttgobata project beyond the base of the scale, 
remoTes all doubt respecting his meaning. 

In 1789, Mr da Jussieu, in the character of his genas 
Abies t, gives a simSar account of struetare, though some- 
what less clearly as well as less decidedly expressed. In: 
the observations that fellow, he suggests, aa not impio- 
baUe, a very difierent view; founded on the isupposed ana* 
logy with Araucaria, whose structure ' was then misunder- 
stood; namely, that the inner scale of the female amentuoa 
is a bilocular ovarium, of which the outer scale is the style, 
l^ut this, according to Sir James Smith §, was also linnmus's 
opinion; and it is the view adopted in Mr. Lamberfs splen- 
did monograph of the genua published iu 1803* 

In the same year in which Mr. Lambert's work a^eared,. 
Schkuhrll describes^ and very distinctly figures, the female 
flower of Pinus, exactly as it was understood by Trew, whose 
offtinion was probably unknown to hkn. 

♦ Protect, in Ord, Nat p. 589. 

t Nov. Act Acad, Nat Curias, iii. p. 453. tab. 13L ^. 28. 

J Gen. P/. p. 414. 

$ Rbb8*b Cyclop, art. Ptnus* 

I Botan, Handb. iii. p. 876. tab. SOS. 



B^MTANY.] NATURAL BVTORY. 99^ 



la 1907, a MetDoir on thii 8«b)«ctr by Mr. SAsbmji 
pHblifllied *, la which an aecoonft of strvctare » ^ireB^ hi 
no knportaot partknlar difetent from that of Treir aad 
Schknhr, with whose obaervatkMM ha appean ta bare been 
unacquainted. 

M. MivbeU m ld09t, held ^ same opiaion^ both with 
raapoai to Rniift and t» the wholer nataral tdmily. Bod ift< 
1812, IB coiyvnotioBi wkb M. Schowbcrtt^ he j^opoaid & 
Tory diianuMI yiew of Iha stcactaie of Gyoades aad Com- 
fanr, alatingy dmt in their female ftowan there is not only a 
OMiite eohcriag' pefianthiom preseat, bat an cadennd addi* 
titaml emrdope, to which he hai gvren the name of eapalaii 

In IdU 1 adopted this yiew, as iav, at least, as legarda 
the manner of impregnation, and slated tome lacts in snp» 
port of it $• Bat oa ce-coimderiDg the sobfect, ia con- 
Dsxion with what i had ascertained isspeetiag die vegetaUa^ 
osmium, I soen after altogether abandoned this opiiMi, 
iskhDat, however, ventasing explieitly t» state that mam 
advanced, and which had then suggested itself ||» 

It is well known that the late M. Richard 'had prepared a 
▼ery Taloable memoir on diese t^ families idf phmts ; and 
he appears, from some observatioas lately pvbtished by his 
soot M. Aohills Richard f , lo hafa formed as opimoB re* 
spectiag their stnielute somewhat diflerent horn that rf M« 
Mirbel, whose cvpvia is, acoordiDg to trim, the periaathiam, 
more or less coheriag with the included pialillom. He 
probably led to this tiew, on aseertrnniHg, which 1 had 



* Linn, Soc. Transaci. Till. p. SOS. 
t Ann, du Mus. (THisL Nat. tom. xv. p. 473. 
t Now, Buttettn des Sc, tom. iii. pp.73, 85, et 121. 
i Flindbrs's rby. ii. 572. 

I TucKBT*8 Congo, p« 454. et Linn, JSae, Transact, rd. x^i. 
p. 218. 
9 Diet Class, d'Hist, Nat, tom. iv. p. 395. et tom. v. p. 216. 



560 APPENDIX. fB. 

also done, tb&t the commoa account of the stracture of 
Ephedra was incorrect*, its supposed style being in reality 
the elongated tubular apex of a membranous envelope, and 
the included body being evidently analogous to that in other 
genera of Coniferae. 

To the earliest of the opinions here quoted, that which 
considers the female flower of Ck^nifer® and Cycadeee as 
a naked pistillum, there are two principal objections. The 
first of these arises from the perforation of the pistillum, and 
the exposure of that point of the ovulum where the embryo is 
formed to the direct action of the pollen ; the second from the 
too great simplicity of structure of the supposed ovulnm, 
which, I have shewn, accords better with that of the nudeos 
as existing in ordinary cases. 

To the opinions of MM, Richard and Mirbel, the first 
objection does not apply, but the second acquires such 
additional weight, as to render those opinions much less 
probable, it seems to me, than that which I have endea- 
TOured to support. 

In supposing the correctness of this opinion to be ad- 
mitted, a question connected with it, and of some im- 
portance, would still remain, namely, whether in Cycadese 
and Coniferse the ovula are produced on an ovarium of 
reduced functions and altered appearance, or on a rachis or 
receptacle. In other words, in employing the language of 
an hypothesis, whichi with some alterations, I have else- 
where attempted to explain and defend, respecting the for* 
mation of the sexual organs in Pheenogamous plants f, 
whether the ovula in these two families originate in a 
modified leaf, or proceed directly from the stem. 

* Dtct CtoM, d^EfisL Nat. tom. vi. p. 208. 
t Linn, Soc. Transact voL xiii« p* Sll. 



Botany.] NATURAL HISTTORY. 561 

Were I to adopt tbe former supposition, or that best 
agreeing with the hypothesis in question, I should cer- 
tainly apply it, in the first place, to Cycas, in which the 
female spadiv bears so striking a resemblance to a partially 
altered frond or leaf, producing marginal ovula in one part, 
and in another being divided into segments, in some cases 
nearly resembling those of the ordinary frond. 

But the analogy of the female spadix of Cycas to that of 
Zamiais sufficiently obvious; and from the spadix of Za- 
mia to the fruit-bearing squama of Conifers, strictly so 
called, namely, of Agathis or Dammara, Cunninghamia, 
Pinus, and even Araucaria, the transition is not difficult. 
This view is applicable, though less manifestly, also to 
Cupressinae; and might even be extended to Podocarpus 
and Dacrydium. But the structure of these two genera 
admits likewise of another explanation, to which I have 
already adverted. 

If, however, the ovula in CycadecB and Conifera be 
really produced on the surfece of an ovarium, it might, 
perhaps, though not necessarily, be expected that their male 
flowers should differ from those of all other phsenogamons 
plants, and in this difference exhibit some analogy to the 
structure of the female flower. But in Cycadee, at least, 
and especially in Zamia, the resemblance between the male 
and female spadices is so g^eat, that if the female be ana- 
logous to an ovarium, the partial male spadix must be 
considered as a single anthera, producing on its surface 
either naked grains of pollen, or pollen subdivided into 
masses, each furnished with its proper membrane. 

Botl} these views may at present, perhaps, appear equally 

paradoxical; yet the former was entertained by Linnssus, 

who expresses himself on the subject in the following terms, 

** Pulvis floridus in Cycade minime pro Antheris agnoscen- 

VoL. If. « O 




dnt ait ted pro nado pollute, quod uniMqaiiqiie qui unqnam 
pollen Botheraraai in plantiB examiaavit fatebiUu*." Iliat 
this opioioD, BO confideoUy held by LiniiKUB, wai never 
adopted by any other botaniit, seemi in part to have ariaea 
from hi* having extended it to doraiferous Fenu. limited 
to CycadeK, however, it doei not appear to me to very im- 
probable, as to deserve to be rejected without ezaminati<n. 
it raceives, at least, lome support from the separation, in 
several cases, especially in the American Zamim, of the 
grains mto two distinct, and sometimes nearly marginal, 
masses, repreaenting, as it may be supposed, the lobes of an 
anthers ; and also from their approiiftiation in definite nam- 
ben, generally in fours, analogous to the quaternary union of 
the grains of pollen, not unAreqaent in the anthem of several 
other families of plants. The great nze of the suppoeed 
grains of pollen, with the thickening and regular bursting of 
their membrane, may be said to be circnnutancea obvioaaly 
connected wilh their production and persistence on the 
snrfkce of an anthera, distant tnm the female fiower; and 
vith this economy, a corresponding enlargement of the 
contained particles or fovilla might also be expected. On 
examining these particles, however, I find them not only 
equal in sise to the grains of pollen of many anthene, but, 
being elliptical and marked on one side with a longitudinal 
fhrrow, they have that form which is one of the most oom- 
moD in the simple pollen of phsnogamons plants. To sup- 
pose, therefore, merely on the grounds already stated, that 
^se particles are analogous to the fovilla, and the containing 
o^ans to the grains of pollen in antherm of the usual 
structure, would be entirely gratuitous. It is, at the same 
time, deserving of remark, that were this view adopted on 

• Uim. de tAeoH. dt<t Seten. dt Parit, 1775, p. 518. 



Botany.] NATURAL HISTORY. 5M 

morfe satiftfectory grounds, a correspondiog d^velopemiHt 
night then- be said to exi>t in the essential parts of th# 
male and female organs. The increased deTelopsment in th^ 
oYulnm would not consist so much in the unusual form and 
thickening of the coat, a part of secondary importance, uid 
whose nature is disputed, as in the state of the nucleus of 
the seed, respecting which there is no difference of opnion ; 
and where the plurality of embryos, or at least the eii-r 
istenfse and regular arrangement of the cel)s in whigh they 
are formed, is the uniform structure in the family. 

The second view suggested, in which the anthera i^ 
Cycadeee is considered as producing on its sur&ce an iij^f 
definite number of ppUen masses, each enplosed in its 
proper membrane, would derive its only support from a 
few remote analogies : as from those anthers, whose loculi 
are sub-divided into a definite, or mpr^ rarely an indefinite, 
namber of cells, and especially from the structure of the 
stamina of Viscum album. 

I may remark, that the opinion of M. Richard *, who 
considers these grains, or masses, as unilocular anthers, 
each of which constitutes a male flower, seems to be aU 
tended with nearly equal difficulties. 

The analogy between the male and female organs in 
Conifene, the existence of an open ovarium being assumed, 
is at first sight more apparent than in Cycadeae. In Conifers, 
however, the pollen is certainly not naked, but is enclosed in 
a membrane similar to the lobe of an ordinary anthera. 
And in those genera in whi^h each squama of the amentum 
{Mpodttces two marginal lobes only, as Finns, ^odocarpUs, 
DcMarydium, Salisbvria, and Phyllocladus, it neariy resembles 
the more general form of the anthene in other Phsenogamous 

• Diet. Ckus. if Hist. Nat. torn. v. p. 216. 

3 9 



564 



(B. 



plants. But the difficulty occurs in those genen which 
have an increased number' of lobes on each squama, as 
Agathis and Araucaria, where their number is considerable 
and apparently indefinite, and more particularly still in Can- 
ninghamia, or Belis *, in vhich the lobes, though only three 
in nnmber, agree in thU respect, as well as in insertion and 
direction, with the ovnla. The supposition, that in such 
cases all the lobes of each squama are cells of one and the 
same anthera, receives but little support either from the 
origin and arrangement of the lobea themaeWes, or from 
the structure of other pbsenogomous plants : the only cases 
of apparent, though doubtful, analogy that I can at present 
recollect occurring in Aphyteia, and perhaps in some Cn- 
curbitacete. 

That part of my subject, therefore, which relates to the 
analogy. between the male and female flowers in Cycade» 
and Conifers, I consider the least satisfactory, both in 
regard to the immediate question of the existence of an 
anomalons ovarium in these families, and to the hypothesis 
repeatedly referred to, of the origin of the sexual organs of 
all phsnogamous plants. 

In concluding this digression, I have to express my 

* In communicating' specimen! of thii plant to the late H. 
Ricfaard, for hii intended monograph of ConiferK, I added tome 
remarks on its stnicturCi agreeiag with tiioce here made. I at 
tin same time requested thst, if he objected to Mr. Salisbury's 
Belii as liable to be confounded with Bellis, the ^enus might be 
nsmed Cuoninghamis, to coDunemorate tbt merits of Mr. Jmmtt 
Cunningham, an excellent observer in his time, by whom this plant 
was discovered ; and in honour of Mr, AUan Cunningham, the 
very deserving botanist who accompanied Hr. Oxiey in his first 
expedition into the mterior of New South Wales, and Captain 
King in all his voyages of surrey of the Coasta of New Holland. 



BOTANT.] 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



565 



regret thftt it should have so far exceeded the limits proper 
for its introduction into the present work. In giving an 
accounti however^ of the genus of plants to which it is 
annexed, I had to describe a structure, of whose nature 
and importance it was necessary I should shew myself 
aware; and circumstances have occurred while I was en- 
gaged in preparing this account, which determined me to 
enter much more fully into the subject than I had originally 
intended. 




6W> APPENDIX. [C. 



c. 



n Account of some Oeological SpecimenSj collected by Captain 
P, P. KinQf in his Survey of the Coasts qf AustraUa^ and 
by Robert Brown^ Esq.f on the Shores of the Gulf of Car- 
pentarittf during the Voyage of Captain Flinders, 



By WILUAM henry PITTON, M.D., P.ILS., V.P.G.S. 



[Read before the Oeoiogkal Society of London, Mh November, 1885.] 

The foUowiDg enumeration of specimens from the coasts 
of Australia, commences, with the survey of Captam King, 
on the eastern shore, about the latitude of twenty-two 
degrees, proceeding northward and westward : and as the 
shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, previously surveyed by 
Captam Flinders, were passed over by Captain King, Mr. 
Brown, who accompanied the former, has been so good as to 
allow the specimens collected by himself in that part of 
New Holland, to supply the chasm which would otherwise 
have existed in the series. Part of the west and north- 
Western coast, examined by Captain King, having been pre- 
viously visited by the French voyagers, under Captain Bau* 
din, I was desirous of obtaining such information as could be 
derived from the specimens collected during that expedition, 
and now remaining at Paris ; although I was aware that 
the premature death of the principal mineralogist, and other 
unfavourable circumstances, had probably diminished their 
value*: — But the collection from New Holland, at the 

* M. Depuch, the mineralogist, died during the progress of the 
voyage, in 1808; and, unfortunately, none of his manuscripts 



Gboloot.] natural HISTORY. 567 

school of Mines, with a list of which I have been fiiTOUied 
through the kindness of Mr. Brochant de Villiers, relatei 
principally to Van Diemen's Land ; and that of the Jardin 
du Roiy which Mr. Constant Prevost has obliged me with 
an account of, does not afford the information I had hoped 
for. I hare availed myself of the notices relatbg to Phy-» 
sical Geography and Geology, which are dispersed through 
the published accounts of Captain Flinders' *, and Baudin's 
Voyages t ; and these, with the collections above alluded to, 
form, I believe, the only sources of information at present 
existing in Europe, respecting the geological structure and 
productions of the north and western coasts of Australia. 

In order to avoid the interruption which would be oc- 
casioned by detail, I shall prefix to the list 6f specimens 
in Captain King^s and Mr. Brown's collections, a general 
sketch of the coast from whence they come, deduced, prin- 
cipally, from the large charts ly and from the narratives of 

were preserved. M. P^n, the zoologist, after pubUshing, in 
1807, the first volume of the account of the expedition, died in 
181(^ before the appeanwce of the second vohime. — ^Voyage, &c. I« 
p* 417, 418 ; and II, p. 168. 

* « A Voyage to Terra Australis, &c., in the years 1801, 1808; 
and 1808^ by Matthew Flinders, Commander of the Investigator.* 
Two vols, quarto, with an atlas, folio ; London, 1814. 

t ' Voyage de Ddcouverte aux Terres Australes,* &c. — Tome I., 
redig^ par M. F. P^ron, naturaliste de TExpedition ; — Paris, 1807. 
Tome IL, redig^ par M. P6ron, et M. L. Freycinet, 1816. — ^A 
third volume of this work, under the title of " Navigation et O^ 
graphic,** was published by Capt. Freycinet, in 1815. It contains 
a brief and clear aoooant of the proceedings of the expedition ; and 
affords some particulars connected witii the physical geography of 
the places described, which are not to be found in the cvther vdumss. 

X These charts have been published by the Admiralty for ^ane- 
ral sale. 



568 ' APPENDIX. [C. 

Captains Flinders and King, — ^with a summary of the geo* 
logical infonnation derived from the specimens. But I 
have thought it necessary to subjoin a more detailed list 
of the specimens themselves ; on account of the great dis- 
tance from each other of many of the places where they 
were found, and of the general interest attached to the pro- 
ductions of a country so very remote, of which the greater 
part is not likely to be often visited by geologists, llie 
situation of. such of the places mentioned, as are not to be 
found in the reduced chart annexed to the present publica- 
tion, will be sufficiently indicated by the names of the ad- 
jacent places. 

QENBRAL SKETCH OF THE COAST. 

The north-eastern coast of New South Wales, from the lati- 
tude of about 28^, has a direction from south-east to north- 
west ; and ranges of mountains are visible from the sea, with 
little interruption, as far north as Cape Weymouth, between 
the latitude of 12^ and 13^. From within Cape Palmerston, 
west of the Northumberland Islands, near the point where 
Captain King began his surveys, a high and rocky range, of 
very irregular outline, and apparently composed of primitive 
rocks, is continued for more than one hundred and fifty 
miles, without any break ; and after a remarkable opening, 
about the latitude of 21^, is again resumed. Several of the 
summits, visible from the sea, in the front of this range, are 
of considerable elevation :— Mount Dryander, on the pro- 
montory which terminates in Cape Gloucester, bemg more 
than four thousand five hundred feet high. Mount Eliot, 
with a peaked summit, a little to the south of Cape Cleveland, 
is visible at twenty-five leagues' distance ; and Mount Hinch* 
inbrook, immediately upon the shore, south of Rockingham 
Bay, is more than two thousand feet high. From the south 



Gboloct.] natural HISTORY. 569 

of Cape Grafton to Cape Tribulation, precipitous hills, bor- 
dered by low land, form the coast; but the latter Cape 
itself consists of a lofty group, with several peaks, the 
highest of which is visible from the sea at twenty leagues* 
The heights from thence towards the north decline gra- 
dually, as the mountainous ranges approach the shore, which 
they join at Cape Weymouth, about latitude 12^; and from 
that point northward, to Cape York, the land in general 
is comparatively low, nor do any detached points of consi- 
derable elevation appear there. . But about midway between 
Cape Grenville and Cape York, on the mainland south-west 
of Cairncross Island, a flat summit called Pudding-Pan Hill 
is conspicuous ; and its shape, which differs from that of 
the hills on the east coast in general, remarkably resembles 
that of the mountains of the north and west coasts, to which 
names expressing their form have been applied *. 

The line of the coast abov6 described retires at a point 
which corresponds with the decline of its level ; and imme- 
diately on the north of Cape Melville is thrown back to 
the west ; so that the high land about that Cape stands out 
like a shoulder, more than forty miles beyond the coast- 
line between Princess Charlotte's Bay and the north-eastern 
point of Australia. 

The land near Cape York is not more than four or five 
hundred feet high, and the islands off that point are nearly 
of the same elevation. 

llie bottom of several of the bays, on the eastern coast, 
not having been explored, it is still probable that rivers, 
or considerable mountain streams, may exist there. 

* Jan€t Table-Land, soath-east of Princess Charlotte^s Bay, 
(about lat. 14^ 30'), — and Mount Adoiphus, in one of the islands 
(about lat. 10^ W) off Cape York, have also flat summits. — 
King MSS. 



aiKI APPENDIX. [C, 

Along this -eutem line of shore, ^anite hai b«ai foond 
throDghout a space of nearly fire haodred miles; — at C^te 
ClevelaDd;— Cape Grafton;— Endeavour River; — Usard 
Island ;^-&nd at Clack's Island, on the north-treat of the 
rock; mass which forma Gape Melville. And rocka of the 
trap formation have been obtained in three detached points 
among ^e islands off the shore; — in the Percy Isles, about 
latitude 21° 40' ; — Sunday Island, north of Cape GrenvUle, 
about latitude 12° ; and in Qood's Island, on the north-weat 
of Cape York, latitude 10" 34'. 

The Gnlf of Carpentaria having been folly ezanuned by 
Captain Flinders, was not visited by Captain King; bat 
the following account has been deduced from the voyage 
and charts of the former, combined with the specimens 
collected by Mr. Brown, who has also fevonred me with an 
extract Irom the notes taken by himself on that part of the 
coasL 

The land, on the east and south of the Gulf of Carpentariai 
is so low, that for a space of nearly six hundred milet^— 
from Endeavour Strait to a range of hills on the mainland, 
west of Wellealey Islands, at the bottom of the gnU^ — m> 
part of the coast is higher than a ship's mast-head *. Sodh 
of the land in Wellesley islands is higher than the main; 
but the largest island is, probably, not more than one hun- 
dred and fifty feet in beigfatt; and low-wooded bills occur 
on the mainland, Irom thence to Sir Edward Pellew's group. 
—The rock observed on the shore at Coen River, die only 
point on the eastern side of the Gulf where Captain Flinders 
landed, was calcareous sandstone of recent concretional 
formation. 

In Swear's Island, one of Wellesley's Isles, a hill of 
• nindrn- Charts, Phle XIV. 
t PJinderN Vol. 11^ p. 158. 



Gbolooy.] natural HICTORY. 571 

about fifty or sixty feet in height was covered with a sandy 
calcareous stone, having the appearance of ' concretions 
rising irregularly about a foot above the general surface, with* 
out any distinct ramifications/ The specimens from this place 
have evidently the structure of stalactites, which seem to 
have been formed in sand ; and the reddish carbonate of 
lime, by which the sand has been agglutinated, is of the 
same character with that of the west coast, where a similar 
concreted limestone occurs in great abundance. 

The western shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria is somewhat 
higher, and from Limmen's Bight to the latitude of Groote 
Eylandt, is lined by a range of low hills. On the north of 
the latter place, the coast becomes irregular and broken ; 
the base of the country apparently consisting of primitive 
rocks, and the upper part of the hills of a reddish sand- 
stone ;-— some of the specimens of which are identical with 
that which occurs at Goulbum and Sims Islands on the 
north coast, and is very widely distributed on the north* 
west The shore at the bottom of Melville Bay is stated by 
Captain Flinders to consist of low cliffs of pipe«clay, for a 
space of about eight miles in extent from east to west; 
and similar cliffi of pipe-day are described as occurring at 
Ooulburn Islands, (see the plate, voL i, p, 66,) and at Leth* 
bridge Bay, on the north of Melville Island ; both of which 
places are considerably to the west of the Gulf of Garpen* 
taria. 

Morgan's Island, a small islet in Blue-Mud Bay, on the 
north-west of Oroote Eylandt, is composed of dink-stone ; 
and other rocks of the trap-formation occur in several places 
on this coast 

The north of Blue-Mud Bay has furnished also spedmens 
of ancient sandstone; with columnar rocks, probably of 
clink-stone. Round Hill, near Point Grindall, a promontory 



on the north of Horgan'i Island, is composed, at the base, of 
granite; and Mount Caledon, on the west side of Caledon Baj, 
Mcms likewise to consist of that rock, as does also Melville 
Island. This part of the coast has afforded the femiginotu 
oxide of manganese : and brown hematite is found hereabouts 
in considerable quantity, on the shore at the base of the 
cliffs; forming Ibe cement of a breccia, which contains frag- 
ments of sand-Htone, and in which the femiginons matter ap- 
pears to be of very recent production ; — resembliog, peihapa, 
the hematite observed at Edinburgh by Professor Jameson, 
aiound cast-iron pipes which had lain for some time in 
■and*. 

The general range of the coast, it will be observed, from 
limmen's Bight to Cape Amhem, is from south-west lo 
north-east; and three conspicuous ranges of islands on the 
north-westeru entrance of the Gulf of Carpentaria, the ap- 
pearance of which is so remarkable as to have attracted the 
attention of Captain Flinders t, have the same general di- 
rection : a fact which ii probably not unconnected with the 
general structure of the country. The prevailing rock in all 
these islands appears to be sand-stone. 

The line of the main coast from Point Dale to the bottom 
of Casdereagh Bay, where Captain King's survey was re- 
sumed, has alio a direction from south-west to north-east, 
parallel to that of the ranges of islands just mentioned. 
The low land near the north coast in Caatlereagh Bay, and 
from thence to Qoulburn Islands, is intersected by one 
of the few rivers yet discovered in this part of Australia, 
— a tortuous and shallow stream, named Liverpool River, 
which has been traced inland to about forty miles from the 

• Edinb. Phil. Jour., July, IHSS, p. 193. 

■* Flinders, Vd. II., p. 158.— Sm hereafter, p. iW. 



GBOfcOOY.] NATURAL HISTTORY. 573 

coasty through a country not more than three feet in general 
elevation above high«water mark ; the banks being low and 
muddy, and thickly wooded: And this description is ap- 
plicable also to the Alligator Rivers on the south-east of Van 
Diemen's Gulf, and to the surrounding country. The out* 
line of the Wellington Hills, however, on the mainland 
between the Liverpool and Alligator Rivers, is jagged and 
irregular ; this range being thus remarkably contrasted with 
the flat summits which appear to be very numerous on the 
north-western coast 

The specimens from Qoulbum Islands consist of reddish 
sand-stone, not to be distinguished from that which occurs 
beneath the coal formation in England. On the west of these 
islands the coast is more broken, and the outline is irre- 
gular : but the elevation is inconsiderable ; the general height 
in Cobourg Peninsula not being above one hundred and fifty 
feet above the sea, and that of the hills not more than from 
three to four hundred feet. 

On this part of the coast, several hills are remarkable for 
the flatness of their tops ; and the general outline of many of 
the islands, as seen on the horizon, is very striking and pe- 
culiar. Thus Mount Bedwell and Mount Roe, on the south of 
Cobourg Peninsula ; Luxmoore Head, at the west end of Mel* 
ville Island ; the Barthelemy Hills, south of Cape Ford; Mount 
Goodwin, south of Port Keats ; Mount Cockbum, and several 
of the hills adjacent to Cambridge Gulf,-»the. names given 
to which during the progress of the survey sufficiently indi- 
cate their form, as Hotue^roofedy Basiionj Flat'top, and 
Square' top HUh; — Mount Casuarina, about forty miles 
north-west of Cambridge Gulf; a hill near Cape Voltaire; — 
Steep-Head, PortWarrender; — and several of the islands off 
that port, York Sound, and Prince Regent's River ;— Cape 
Cnvier, about latitude 24^; — and, still further south, the 
whole of Moresby's flat-topped Range,-*are all distinguished 



by their linear and nearlj horizontal outlines; and except 
to a few instances, a< Mount Gockbura, Steep-Head, Hoanta 
TraJUgar and Waterloo, (which look more like hilli of fleets- 
trap,) they haTc very much the aspect of the aununits in the 
coal formation *. 

The subjoined sketch of some of the islands off Admiralty 
Gulf, (looking southward from the north-east end of CaMini 
Island, about lat 13^ 60', E. long. 12£° 5&,) has some re- 
semblance to one of the views in P^n's Atlas (pi. vi., 
fig. 7):- 




also exb^ts remarkably the peculiar form represented in 
•eteral of Captain King's drawings. 



The red colour of the cliffs on the north-west and west 
coasts, is also an appearance which is frequently noticed on 

* Captain King, howcTer, has wfonned me, thmt in sane of 
the«e cam, the ihape of the hill h really that of a roo£ or ksy- 
ricb ; the traovene section being angulsr. and the horiioDta] lop 



Gbolooy.] natural HISTTORY. 575 

the sketches taken by Captain King and hia officers. This 
is eonspicuous in the neighbourhood of Cape Croker ;-— «t 
Darch Island and Palm Bay; at Point Annesley and Point 
Coombe in Mountnonis Bay;— in the land about Cape Van 
Diemen, and on the northovest of Bathurst Island. The 
cliffs on Roe's River (Prince Frederic's Harbour), as might 
have been expected from the specimens, are described as 
of a reddish colour ; Cape L^veque is (rf the same hue ; and 
the northern limit of Shark's Bay, Cape Cuvitf of the French, 
lat. 24^ 13', which is like an enormous bastion, may be dis- 
tinguished at a considerable distance by its full red colour *• 

It is on the bank of the channel which separates Bathurst 
and Melville Islands, near the north-eastern extremity of 
New Holland, that a new colony has recently been esta- 
blished : (see Captain King's Narrative, vol. ii„ p. 233.) A 
permanent station under the superintendence of a British 
officer, in a country so very little known, and in a situation 
so remote from any other English settlement, affords an op- 
portunity of collecting objects of natural history, and of illus- 
trating various points of great interest to physical geography 
and meteorology, which it is to be hoped will not be ne- 
glected. And as a very instructive collection, for the ge- 
neral purposes of geology, can readily be obtained in such 
situations, by attending to a few precautions, I have thought 
that some brief directions on this subject would not be out of 
place in the present publication ; and have subjoined them 
to the list of specimens at the dose of this paper t. 

In the vicinity of Cambridge Gulf, Captain King states, 
the character of the country is entirely changed ;--*«nd irre* 



« Freycinet, p. 195. 

t See hereafter, pagre 623. 



gular ranges of detached rocky bills compoeed of saDd-stone, 
ristng abruptly from exteniive plains of low le*el land, so- 
penede tbe low and woody coast, tbat occupies almost nnia- 
lemiptedly tbe space between tbis inlet and Cape Wessell, a 
distance of more than six hundred miles. Cambridge Golf, 
which is nothing more than a swampy arm of the sea, ex- 
tends to about eighty miles inland, in a soutbem directioa : 
and all the specimens from its vicinity precisely resemble tbe 
older sand-stones of the confines of England and Wales *, 
The View, (vol. i. plate, p. 301,) represents in tbe distance 
Mount Coclcbum, at the bead of Cambridge Oulf; the flat 
rocky top of which was supposed to consist of sand-stone, 
but has also the aspect of the trap-formation. The strata 
in Lacrosse Island, at the entrance of the Gulf, rise toward 
tbe north-weBl,' — at an angle of about 30° with tbe horizon : 
their direction consequently being from north-east to south- 
west. 

From hence to Cape Londonderry, towards tbe sondi, is 
an uniform coast of moderate elevation ; and from that point 
to Cape Uv6que, although the outline may be in a general 
view considered as ranging from north-east to south-wesift 
the coast is remarkably indented, and the adjoining sea 
irregularly studded with very nomerous islands. The spe- 
cimens from this tract consist almost entirely of sand-stone, 
resembling that of Cambridge Oulf, Goulbum Island, and 

• I use the term ' Old Red Ssnd Stone,' in tbe acceptation of 
Messrs. Bockland and Conybesre, " Obterrationi on tbe South 
Western Coal District of England." Geol. Trans., Secwid Seriei, 
Vol. I. — Captain King's specimeni froni Lacrosse Island are not 
to be dUtingnished from tbe slal; strata of that formation, in the 
banks of the Avon, about two miles below Clifton. 

t The large chart (Sheet V.) best shews tbe geneni range of 
the shore, from Ibe islands 61lmg up the inlets. 



G»©i.oor.] NATURAL HISTORY. 577 

the Gulf of Carpentaria ; with which the trap-fonnation ap- 
pears to be associated. 

York Sound, one of the principal inlets on this part of the 
coast, is bounded by precipitous rocks, from one to two hun- 
dred feet in height ; and some conical rocky peaks, which 
not improbably consist of quartz-rock, were noticed oh the 
eastern side of the entrance. An unpublished sketch, by 
Captain King, shews that the banks of Hunter's River, one 
of the branches of York Sound, at seven or eight miles from 
its opening, are composed of sand-stone, in beds of great 
regularity ; and this place is also remarkable for a copious 
spring of freshwater, one of the rarest phenomena of these 
thirsty and inhospitable shores *. 

The most considerable inlet, however, which has yet been 
discovered in this quarter of Australia, is Prince-Regent's 
River, about thirty miles to the south-west of York Sound, — 
the course of which is almost rectilinear for about fifty miles 
in a south-eastern direction ; a fact which will probably be 
found to be connected with the geological structure of the 
country. The general character of the banks, which are lofltj 
and abrupt, is precisely the same with that of the rivers 
falling into York Sound ; and the level of the country does 
not appear to be higher in the interior than near the coast 
The banks are from two to four hundred feet in height, and 
consist of close-grained siliceous sand-stone, of a reddish 
huet; and the view, (Plate, vol. ii. p. 46.) shews that the 
beds are nearly horizontal, and very regularly disposed ; the 
cascade there represented being about one hundred and 
sixty feet in height, and the beds from six to twelve feet 
in thickness. Two conspicuous hills, which Captain King 

• Narrative, i. p. 406. 

t Narrative i. pp. 484-487, and II. p. 46. 

Vol. ii. « P 



has named MonuU Trefai^ and Waterloo, on the Dorth- 
eaat of Prince -Regent's River, not fiir from its entrance, 
are remaikabU for cap-like summiU, much resembliag those 
vtiich characterize the trap formation. 






The coast on the south of this remarkable river, to Cape 
L^T^que, has not yet been thoroughly examined ; but it ap- 
pears from Captain King's Chart (No. V.) to be intersected 
by several inlets of considerable size, to trace which to theii 
termination is still a point of great interest in the physical 
geography of New Holland. The space thus left to be 
explored, from the Champagny liles to Cape L^v£qne, 
corresponds to more than one hundred miles in a direct 
linei within which extent nothing but islands and detached 
portions of land bare yet been observed. One large inlet 
' especially, on the south-east of Cape Uveque, appears to 
afford considerable promise of a river; and the rise of the 
tide within die Buccaneer's Archipelago, where there is 
aoother unexplored opening, is no less than thirty-seven 
feeL 

The outline of the coast about Cape Uvgque itself is low, 
waving, and rounded; and the hue for which the cliffs are re- 
markable in so many parts of the coast to the north, is alio 
observable here, the colour of the rocks at Point CouJoiDb 
being of a deep red:— but on the south of the high ground 



Gbolooy.] natural HlSTfORY. 

near that Point, the ru^^ed stony cliffs are i 
long tract) which to the French voyagers ' 
examined by Captain King,) appeared to : 
and sandy land, fronted by extensive shoi i 
therto been seen* however, only at a dista i 
space of more than three hundred miles, fr< i 
fheaume nearly to Cape Lambert, still rema ; 
rately surveyed. 

Depuch Island, east of Dampier's Archipc i 
titude 20^ 30', is described by the French 
consisting in a great measure of columnar ro< I 
supposed to be volcanic; and they found ret i 
that the adjoining continent was of the sai i 
it is not improbable, however, that this tei i 
to columns belonging to the trap formation, si ; 
mountain has been any where observed on th ! 
Holland: — ^nor do the drawings of Depuch 
on board Captain King's vessel, give reason 1 1 
it is at present eruptive. Captain King's s : 
Mains Island, in Dampier's Archipelago, (sixl ; 
west) consist of green-stone and amygdaloid. 

The coast is again broken and rugged ab ; 
Archipelago, latitude 20® 30'; and on the t; 
Preston, in latitude 21®, is an opening of aboi! 
in width, l^etween rocky hills, which has \ 
plored. From thence to the bottom of ExmoutI 
than one hundred and fifty miles, the coast is li 
and does not exhibit any prominences. The 
Cxmouth Qulf itself is formed by a promontorj 
terminating in the North-west Cape ; and from 

♦ P4ron, v«iL i. p. ISO, 




580 APPENDIX. (C. 

south-west, at far as Cape CaYier, the general height of the 
coast is from four to five hundred feet ; nor are any moun* 
tains visible over the coast range. 

Several portions of the shore between Shark's Bay and 
Cape Naturaliste have been described in the account of 
Commodore Baudin's Expedition ; but some parts still remain 
to be surveyed. From the specimens collected by Captain 
King and the French descriptions, it appears that the islands 
on the west of Shark's Bay abound in a concretional calcareous 
rock of very recent formation, similar to what is found on the 
shore in several other parts of New Holland, especially in the 
neighbourhood of King George's Sound ; — and which is abuiv- 
dant also on the coast of the West Indian Islands, and of 
the Mediterranean. Captain King's specimens of this pro- 
duction are from Dirk Hartog's and Rottnest Islands ; and 
M. P^ron states that the upper parts of Bernier and Dorre 
Islands are composed of a rock of the same nature. This 
part of the coast is coVered in various places with ex- 
tensive dunes of sand ; but the nature of the base, on which 
both these and the calcareous formation repose, has not 
been ascertained. 

The general direction of the rocky shore, from North-west 
Cape to Dirk Hartog*s Island, is from the east of north to 
the west of south. On the south of the latter place the land 
turns towards the east. High, rocky and reddish cliffs have 
been seen indistinctly about latitude 27° ; and a coast of 
the same aspect has been surveyed, from Red Pomt, about 
latitude 28°, for more than eighty miles to the south-west. 
The hills called Moresby's flat-topped Range, of which Mount 
Fairfax, latitude 28° 46', is the highest point, occupy a space 
of more than fifty miles from north to south. 

Rottnest Island and its vicinity, latitude 32°, contains in 



( 




Gkoloot.] natural HISTORY. ^1 

abandance the calcareous concretions already mentioned; 
which seem there to consist in a great measure of the re- 
mains of recent shells, in considerable variety. The islands 
of this part of the shore have been described by MM. 
P6ron and Freycinet * ; and the coast to the south, down to 
Cape Leeuwin, the south-western extremity of New Holland, 
having been sufficiently examined by the French voyagers, 
was not surveyed by Captain King. 

Swan River, (Riviere des Cygnes,) upon this part of the 
coast, latitude 31^ 25' to 329, was examined by the French 
expedition, to the distance of about twenty leagues from its 
mouth ; and found still to contain salt water. The rock in 
its neighbourhood consisted altogether of sandy and calcare* 
ous incrustations, in horizontal beds, enclosing, it is stated, 
shells, and the roots and even trunks of trees. Between 
this river and Cape Peron, a ** great bay ** was left unex- 
plored t* 

The prominent mass of land, which stands out from the 
main, between Cape Naturaliste and Cape Leeuwin, and runs 
nearly on the meridian for more than fifty miles, seems to 
have a base of granite, which, at Cape Naturaliste, is said to 
be stratified |. The same rock also occurs, among Captain 
King's specimens, from Bald-head in King George's Sound ; 
but nearly on the summit of that hill, which is about five hun- 
dred feet high, were found the ramified calcareous concre- 
tions, erroneously considered as corals by Vancouver and 
others § ; but which appear, from Captain King's specimens, 

- * Peron, vol. ii. p. 168, 4re. 

t P^ron, vol. i. p. 179. Freycinet, p. 5. 170. 

{ P^on, vol. i. p. 69. 

i Vancouver, i. 49. D^Entrecasteaux, ii. 175. Freycinet, 105. 
Flinders, i« 63. — See the detailed descriptions, hereafter, p. 691*8 ; 
and Capuin Kin;^*! Narrative, vol. i. p. 12. 



to be notlnng more than a rariety of tl 
■o abnodant throughout these Bhoret. 



: recent limeatone 



The south coast, and the loutheni portiom of the east 
coast of AustnUa, which were lurveyed by Captain Fliadera, 
are described in the account of his Toyage, and do not come 
within the object of the present paper. 



QEOLOQICAL RBMARKS. 



L Thz rocks, of which specimens occur in the collections 
of Captain King and Mr. Brown, are the following: — 



VariovM Slaly Rotkt, 
Mien-Slate 
Taie-Slata 
SlalfClat/ 
HonMtndtRcck.' 

Qramular Quarft 

BpadtM . 



. Cape Cleveland ; C.GnftoD; Eu- 
deavoar River;LitsnlI.;Itomd 
Hill, near C. Grindall; MobbI 
CaledoD ; Uland nau C. An- 
hem; HeWiUe Baj ; Bald-bnd, 
Kiog Qeoc^'a Sonnd. 

. Halliaon'i I. 

Endearoui River. 
. liigli*'>I.,ClackI^PNcr L 
. Pobawoo'i IiIbimI ; Half-vaj Bay, 
, P. Regent'i Rivrr. 
EndeavooT River j MmUg;Q- 

SoaDd, North-neat CoeaL 
C. ClintoD > ; Port VarreDder ; Ca- 

roening Bay. 
Rodd*! Bar ; Iilandi of the uoitb 
and north-weat coejti; Quu- 
btidse Golf; Yoik Soondi P. 
Re^elt'i RWer. 
MelviUe Bay; Geulbiinil.i Lttif 
bridge Bay. 



Gbologt.] natural HISTORY. 583 

Rocks of the Trap Formation. 

Serpenime Port Macquarie; Percy blet. 

BienUe Rodd'sBay. 

Porphgry .... C. Cleveland. 

PorphynOe Cungiowierate . C. Clintoo, Percy I., Good's I. 

Compact FeUpar Percy I., Repulse Bay, Sunday I. 

Oreefk-itone .... Vansittart Bay^ Bat I., Careenixi^ 

Bay, Malus I. 
ClinktUme .... Morgan's I., Pobassoo^s I. 

Amygdaloid, wUhCaieedony . Port Warrender ; Half-way Bay; 

Bat I.; Malus I. 
fVaeko? .... Bat Island. 



Recent ealeareoui Breccia Swear's I., N. coast. — Dirk liar- 

tog's and Rottnest I., 4re^W. 
coaat. — ^King Geoige's Sound, S. 
coast. 

The only infonnatioii that has been published respecting 
the geology of New Holland, besides what is contained in 
the Voyages of Captain Flinders ^and Commodore Bandin, 
is a slight notice by Professor Buckland of some specimens 
collected daring Mr. Oxley's Expedition to the River Mac- 
qnarie^y in 1818; and a brief outline of a paper by the 
Rev. Archdeacon Scott, entitled " A Sketch of the Geology 
of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land," which hai 
been read before the Geological Society f. On these antho* 

* Oeol. Trans, vol. v. p. 460. 

t Ami, of Phil. June, 1884 I am informed that Mr. Von Buch 
also has published a paper on the rocks of New Holland ; but 
have not been so fortunate as to meet with it. 

Since this paper has been at the press, a Report presented to 
the Academy of Sciences at Paris, on the Voyage of Discovery of 
M» Duperrey, performed during the years 1882 to 182S, has been 
published ; from whenee I have subjoined an extract, in order to 



rities, the followiog may be added to the preceding list of 
rocks: — 

UmtUimr, — retembling iothe elu- Interior of New Hollud, nnu the 
racier ofiuorganic temaiDBlhe eaitcoulf Van Diemen'i Land. 
■Doaowin limeitODe of England. (Bncklaiid; FrevoMMSS ; Scott). 
Tht Caal-fi>rmaliim . . I^it cout of New HolUnd ; Van 

DiemeD'g Lwh). (Buckland — 
Scotl.) 
IndicalioDj of tht nmi rti-Satid- Van Diemen'i lAad. (Scolt.) 
lUmt (Red-Hwl), ■Sbrded b; 
tbe occarrence at Salt 



Van DiemeD'i Land. (Scott.) 



II. The specimcDi of Captain King's and Mr. Brown's col- 
leclions, without any exception, agree with thoM of the sanie 

complete tbe ctttli^ue of the rock* of Aiumlia, accordinf to tbe 
present atate of our informsdon. 

" Les 4cbuitiiloni rtcueiUis tant dans let contriet voiiines du 
Port Jackson, que dans les Monta^es-Bleues, auginentent beau- 
coup nus connoissances snr ces parties de U Nouvelle HoUande. Les 
£cbanlillona, au nombre de soixante-dix, nous offrent, 1". Lea 
granite*, les tyinittt-q-uartxifire*, et les pegmatitei (fntiites 
^pluques) qui constituent le second plan des Mootngnes-Bleoes. 
8^. Let grit ferrugineiue, et renfermant d'abondantes pultetles 
de fer eiigitte, qui courrent noo teuleroent une vaste ^ndne de 
paj s prit des cAtes, mais encore le premier plan des Montagues- 
Bleues ; et S°. Le lignite ttralifonte qu'on explfflte au MoDt- 
Torck, & 1000 pieds au-dessus du niveau de la mer, et dont la 
presence ajoule aui matifs qui portent i penser que les gritferrm- 
gineur de cet control appartiennent su sjsttoe des terrains 
tertiaires. 

ViDft-sept tehantilloDS ramas*^ i la terre de Van Diemen, 
dans les eoTironi du port Dalrymple, et pr^s du Cap Barren, io- 
diquent, )°. DeK terrains de pegmatite, et de terpentine. V. De* 



Geology.] NATURAL HISTORY. 585 

denomiDattODS from other parts of the world ; and the re- 
semblance is, in 'some instances, very remarkable: — ^The 
sand-stones of the west and north-west of New Holland 
are so like those of the west of England, and of Wales, that 
the specimens from the two countries can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from each other ; the arenaceous cement in the 
calcareous breccia of the west coast is precisely the same 
with that of Sicily; and the jasper, calcedony, and green 
quartz approaching to heliotrope, from the entrance of Prince 
Regent's River, resemble those of the Tyrol, both in their 
characters and association. — ^The Epidote of Port Warrender 
and Careening Bay, affords an additional proof of the general 
distribution of that mineral ; which, though perhaps it may 
not constitute large masses, seems to be of more frequent oc- 
currence as a component of rocks than has hitherto been 
supposed *. The mineral itself, both crystallized and com- 
pact, the latter in the form of veins traversing sienitic 
rocks, occurs, in Mr. Greenough*s cabinet alone, — from Mal- 
vern, North Wales, Ireland, France, and Upper Saxony. 
Mr. Koenig has found it extensively in the sienitic tract of 
Jersey t ; lyhere blocks of a pudding-stone, bearing some 
resemblance to the green breccia of Egypt, were found to 
be composed of compact epidote, including very large peb- 

terrains intermediaires coquilliers, formes du grauwaeke'Schuttndef 
at de pierre caieaire, 3". Des terrains tres-r^cens, composes 
dargUe iiMonneuse et ferrugineuie, avec geodes defer hydrate, 
ct du bois faeiiie, k differens ^ts. On distingue en outre des 
belles topazes blanches ou hleudtres, parmi les galets quartzetuf, 
qui ont ^t^ recueillis au Cap Barren.** — Bulletin des Sciences Na» 
iurelles, Oct. 1825, p. 18!). 

* See Cleaveland*8 Mineralogy* 1816, p. 297-300. 

t Plee*s Account of Jersey, 4to. Southampton, 1817. p. 281 — 
276. 



586 APPENDIX. [C. 

bles of a porphyritic rock, which itself contains a consider- 
able proportion of this substance. — And Mr. Greenough has 
recently received, among specimens sent home by Mr. J. 
Burton, junior, a mass of compact epidote, with quarts and 
felspar, from Dokhan, in the desert between the Red Sea and 
the Nile. When New Holland is added to these localities, 
it will appear that few minerals are more widely diffased. 

III. The unpublished sketches, by Captain King and Mr. 
Roe, of the hills in sight during the progress of the sunrey 
of the Coasts of Australia, accord in a very striking manner 
with the geological character of the shore. Those from the 
east coast, where the rocks are primitive, « representing 
strongly marked and irregular outlines of lofty mountains, 
and frequently, in the nearer ground, masses of strata highly 
inclined. The outlines on the contrary, on the north, 
north-west, and western shores, are most commonly uni- 
form, rectilinear, — ^the summits flat, and diversified only by 
occasional detached and conical peaks, none of which are 
very lofty. 

IV. No information has yet been obtained, from any of the 
collections, respecting the diluvial deposits of Australia: 
a class of phenomena which is of the highest interest, in an 
island of such vast extent, so very remote in situation, and 
of which the existing animals are so different from those of 
other parts of the globe. It is remarkable, also, that no 
lime-stone is among the specimens from the northern and 
western shores, except that of the recent breccia; and al- 
though negative conclusions are hazardous, it would seem 
probable, from this circumstance, that lime-stone cannot 
be very abundant or conspicuous at the places visited.-' 
No eruptive mountains, nor any traces of recent volcaDic 
eruption 9 have yet been observed in any part of Australia. 




CMLoal.] ^ATURAL HISTORY. OOI 

V. The recent calcareonB breccia, of which a detailed de- 
icription will be fnniid in the subjoined litt of Bpectmens, 
(p. 618-622.), ii one of the most remarkable prodnctions of 
New Holland: It was found, daring the expedition of Com- 
modore Bandin, to exist throughout a ipace of no leia than 
twentT-fire degree! of latitude, and an eqnal extent of longi* 
tade, on the sondiem, west, and north-west coasts * ; and from 
Hr. Brown's specimens it appears to occur also on the shores 
of the Oulf of Carpentaria. The fiitl account which M. P^ron 
has given of this fbimation, sofficiently shows its resem- 
blance to the very recent lime-stone, full of marine shells, 
which d>oands on the shores of the Mediterranean, the 
West India Islands, and in several other parts of the world : 
And it is a point of the greatest interest in geology, to de- 
termine, whether any distinct line can really be drawn, be- 
tween those concretions, nnquestionably of modern forma- 
tion, which occur immediately upon the shore ; and other 
calcareous accumulations, very nearly resembling them, if 
not 'identical, both in the fossils they contun, and in the 
characters of the cementing substances, that are found in 
several countries, at considerable heights above the sea. 

Dr. Buckland has described a breccia of modem for- 
mation, which occwrs upon the shore at Madagascar, ajid 
consist! of a firmly-compacted cream-colonred stone, com- 
posed of granular fragments of shells, a^lntinaled by a 
calcareous cementf. The stone of On ad alonpe, - containing 
the human skeletons, is likewise of the same natnre; and its 
very recent production cannot be doubted, since it contains 
fragments of stone ases, and of pottery 1. — ^The cemented 

• Vo;af e ii. p. IDS. I«9— SIS, be. 
t Geo). Trans, vol. v. p. 479. 

n Trans. lii. p. SS—ST. 



588 APPENDIX. (C. 

■belli of Bermuda, described by Captain Vetch *, which pau 
gradualt; into a compact lime-stoae, differ only in cotoni 
from the Guadalonpe stooe; and a^ree with it, and vith 
Ihe calcareoui breccia of Dirk Hartog'a Island, in the 
gradual melting down of the cement into the included 
portions, which is one of the most remarkable features of 
that rockt, A calcareous compound, apparently of tbe 
same kind, has been recently mentioned, as of daily pro- 
duction in Anastaeia Island, on the coast of East Florida } ; 
lind will probably be found to be of rery general oc- 
currence in that quarter of the globe. And Captain Beau- 
fort's account of the process by which the gravelly beach 
is cemented into stone, at Selinti, and several other places on 
the coast of Karomania, on the north-east of the Medi- 
terranean^, accords with M. P^ron's description of the pro- 
gress from the loose and moveable sands of the dunes to 
solid masses of rDck|{. In the island of Rhodes, also, there 
nre hills of pudding-stone, of the same character, consider- 
ably elevated above the sea. And Captain W. H. Smyth, 

• Oeol. Trans. 8d, Series, vol. i. p. 172. 

t Kanig. Phil. Tmns. 1814. p. 107, be. 

t Bulletin dea Sctenc«a Nat. Han, I8S5. 

$ BenuFort's "Description ofthe South Coast of AsiaHinor,"^. 
Second edition. London, ISIS: pp. ISO— 1S4, be. In tbe neigh- 
bonriioud of Adalia, the deposition of cakareoas matter from tlie 
water, is so copious, that an old water-course had actiially * crept 
upwards to a bright of nearly three feet ' ; and the repiditf of the 
deposition was such, that some specimens were collected on the 
grass, where the stony crust was already formed, although the ver- 
dure of the leaf was ai jet but imperfectlj withered <p. 114): a 
fact, which renders less extraordinary M. P6ron's statement, that 
the excrements of kangaroos had been found concreted by calca- 
reous matter. — P^ron, vd. ii. p. IIS. 

I Voyage ii. 110. 



Gboloot.] natural HlflTTORY. 589 

the author of Travels in Sicily, and of the Surrey of the 
Mediterranean recently published by the Admiraltyt in- 
forms me, that he has seen these concretions in Calabria, 
and on the coasts of the Adriatic ; — but still more remark* 
ably in the narrow strip of vecent land, (called the Placca,) 
which connects Leucadia, one of the Ionian Islands, with thei 
continent, and so much resembles a work of art, that it has 
been considered as a Roman fabric. The stone composing 
this isthmus is so compact^ that the best mill-stones in the 
Ionian Islands are made ^from it ; but it is in fact nothing 
more than gravel and sand cemented by calcareous matter, 
the accretion of which is supposed to be rapidly advancing 
at the present day. 

The nearest approach to the concreted sand-rock of Aus- 
tralia, that i have seen, is in the specimens presented by 
Dr. Daubeny to the Bristol Institutipn, to accompany his 
excellent paper on the geology of Sicily * ; which prove that 
the arenaceous breccia of New Holland is very like that 
which occupies a great part of the coast, almost entirely 
around that island. Some of Dr. Daubeny's specimens from 
Monte Calogero, above Sciacca, consist of a breccia, con- 
taining angular fragments of splintery limestone, united by 
a cemcDt, composed of minute gprains of quartzose-sand dis- 
seminated in a calcareous paste, resembling precisely that of 
the breccia of Dirk Hartog's Island : and a compound of 
this kind, replete with shells, not far, if at all, diflTerent 
from existing species, fills up the hollows in most of the 
older rocks of Sicily; and is described as occurring, in 
several places, at very considerable heights above the sea. 
Thus, near Palermo, it constitutes hills some hundred feet in 
height; — near Oirgenti, all the most elevated spots are 

• Edinb. Phil. Jour. 1886. pp. 116; 117, 118» and 854-5. 




590 APPENDIX. [C. 

crowMd with a looie Hratuin of the aame kindi and the 
beighu Dw Gutro GioTamii, snid to be 2680 feet abore 
the tea, an probabiy composed (^ it But although the 
caacredoDS of the interior in Sicily much resemble those of 
the ihoTe, it is atill doubtiiit whether the forater be not of 
mnre ancient formatiMi ; and if they contain nnmmalitn, 
dkey would probabl; be referred to the epoch of the beds 
within the Paris basin. 

The looser breccia of M<tete Pelegrino, in Sicily, is 
very like the less compacted fragments of sheQs from 
Bermuda, described by Captain Vetch, and already referred 
lo*: — and the loclc in both these cases, nearly approachei 
to some of the coarser oolites of England. 

The resemblance pointed out by M. Prevostti of the 
specimens of recent breccia from New Holland, in the 
nnseum at the Jardin du Roi, to those of Sl Hospice near 
Nice, is con6rnied hy the detail g^ven by Mr. Allan in 
his sketch of the geology of that neighboarbood I ; in which 
the perfect preservstion of the shells, and their near ap- 
proach to those of the adjoiomg sea at the present day. 
are particularly mentioned; and it is inferred that the dale 
ef the deposit which affords them, is anterior to that of the 
coMglomerate i^taining the bones of extinct quadruped*, 
likewise found in Aat country. H. Brongniart also, who tx- 
unined the place himself, menti6ns the recent accnmalation 
' which occurs at St. Hospice, about sixty feet above die 
present level of the sea,' as containing marine shells Id 
a scarcely fossile state, (' k peine fosgiles ;') and he describes 

* These specimens are in the Miueum of the Geolo^caJ Sodetj. 
t Prevost MSS. See hereafter, p. 6«1. 

J Trans, of the R. Soc. of Edinb. to!, rib, 1918. p. 4i7, fee.— 
See also the prerioai pnhUeations of M. Risso. Joumal den Hines. 



GiOLouY.] NATURAL HlgTORY. 591 

the mass in which they occur, as belonging to *' a formation 
8tiU more recent than the upper marine beds of the environs 
of Paris*," 

The geological period indicated by these facts, being pro- 
bably more recent than the tertiary beds containing nummu- 
litesy and generally than the Paris and London strata* accords 
with the date which has hitherto been assigned to the * crag' 
beds of SuflTolk, Essex, and Norfolk f: but later observations 
render doubtful the opinion generally received respecting the 
age of these remarkable deposits, and a full and satisfactory 
account of them is still a desideratum in the geology of Eng- 
land.— -When, also, our imperfect acquaintance with the tra- 
vertine of Italy, and other very modem lime-stones con- 
taining fresh-water shells, is considered {,-— the continual de- 
position of which, at the present time, cannot be questionedf 
(though probably the greater part of the masses which consist 
of them may belong to an aora preceding the actual ooodition 

* Brongniart, in Cuvier^s ** Ossemens Fossiles," 2d Edit vol. ii. 
p. 407. 

t Conybeare and Phillips* " Outlines/* Sfc. p. 11. — Geol. TVans. i. 
p. S87, S^c. — Taylor in Geol. Trans. 2d series, Vol. ii. p. 971. 
Mr. Taylor states the important fact that * the remains of un- 
known animals are boned together with the shells* in the crag 
•f Suffolk; but does not mention the nature of these remaias* 
— Since these pages have been at the press, Mr. Warbarteo, by 
whom the coast of Essex and Norfolk has been examined with 
great accuracy, has informed me, that the fossil bones of the crag, 
are the same with those of the diluvial gravel, — ^including the re- 
mains of the elephant, rhinoceros, stag, &c. 

X Some valuable observations on the fonnation of recent lime- 
stone, in beds of shelly marl at the bottom of lakes in Scotland, 
have be«B read before the Geological Society by Mr. LyeU, and will 
appear in the vnluBse of the Traassctiona aow in the press.—- See 
AaiuOs 9f Philo«>phy> 1826. p. 310. 



WW APPENDtX. [C, 

of die earth's sarAkce),— it would seem tfaat the whole subject 
of these newer calcareotis formations requires elucidation: 
and, if the inferences connected with them do not throw coo* 
sidei^ble doubt upon some opinions at present generallj 
received, they show, at least, that a great deal more is to be 
learned respecting the operations and products of the most 
recent geological epochs, than is commonly supposed. 

Since it appears that the accretion of calcareous matter 
is cooiinuall; going on at the present time, and has proba* 
bly taken place at all times, the stone thus formed, inde- 
pendent of the organized bodies which it envelopes, will 
afford no criterion of its date, — nor g^ve any very certain doe 
to the revolutions which have subsequently acted up<»i it 
But as marine shells are found in the cemented masses, st 
heights above the sea, to which no ordinary natural ope- 
rations could have conveyed them, the elevation of these 
shells to their actual place, (if not that of the rock is 
which they are agglutinated,) must be referred to some 
other agency : — while the perfect preservation of the shells, 
their great quantity, and the abundance of the same spe- 
cies in the same places, make it more probable that tbey 
lay originally in the situations where we now find tbem, 
than that they have been transported from any considerable 
distances, or elevated by any very turbulent operaU(»t. Cap- 
lain da Freydnet, indeed, mentions that patellee, worn by at- 
trition, and other recent shells, have been found on the west 
coast of New Holland, on the top of a wall of rocks so 
hundred feet above the sea, — evidently brought up by the 
surge during violent storms * ; but such shells are found in 

* Freycinet, p. 1S7. — The presence of shells in such sitaatiani 
may oft«n be ascribed to the Inrds, which feed on their inhaUtaats. 
At Hsdeim. where recent shells are foDnd near the coast at a con- 



gbolWy.) natural history. 593 

the breccia of Sicily, and io several other places, at heights 
too great, and their preservatioo is too perfect, to admit of 
this mode of conveyance ; and to account for their existence 
in such situations, recourse must be had to more powerful 
means of transport. 

The occurrence of corals, and marine shells of recent 
appearance, at considerable heights above the sea, on the 
coasts of New Holland, Timor, and several other islands 
of the south, was justly considered by M. Peron as de* 
monstrating the former *' abode of the sea" above the land ; 
and very naturally suggested an inquiry, as to the nature of 
the revolutions to which this change of situation is to be 
ascribed *. From similar appearances at Pulo Nias, one of 
the islands off the western coast of Sumatra, Dr. Jack also 
was led to infer, that the '' surface of that island must at one 
time have been the bed of the ocean;" and after stating, 
*' that by whatever means it obtained its present elevation, 
the transition must have been effected with little violence or 
disturbance to the marine productions at the surface t," be 
concludes, that the phenomena are in favour of an ** heaving 
up of the landy by a force from beneath" The probable na* 
ture of this force is indicated most distincdy, if not demon- 
strated, by the phenomena which attended the memorable 
earthquake of Chili, in November, 1820t, which was felt 

siderable height above the sea, the Gulls have been seen carrying 
up the living patellse, just taken from t^e rocks. 

* P6ron, Voyage, &ci vol. ii. pp. 165-188. 

t Oeol. Trans., Second Series, vol. i. p. 40S, '404. 

2 The statements here referred to, are those of Mrs. Graham, in 
a letter to Mr. Warbarton, which has been published in the Geolo- 
gical TnmsactionB, (Second Series, vol. i. p. 41J8, &c.) ; and the 
Account is sapported and illustrated by a valuable paper in the Jour- 
nal of the Royal Institution for April, 18S4, (vol. xvii. p. 38, &c.) 

Vol. II. 2 Q 



594 APPENDIX. tC. 

throughout a apace of fifteeo hundred miles from north to 
■outh. For it is st&ted upon the clearest evidence, that after 
fonnid^le ahocka of earthquake, repeated with little ioter- 
ruplion during the whole night ot the 19th of Norember, 
(and the shocks were continued afterwards, at intervals, for 
acveral moHths,) " it appeared, on the morning of the 30th, 
Ihai tkemikole line of eoatlijrmn north ioMtmth, to a distance 
o/ about ont hundred rnUei, had bee» raised above ittfirmn- 
level." — " The alteration of level at Valparaiso was about 
three feet; and some rocVs were thus newly exposed, cm 
which the fishermen collected the scallop-shell fish, which 
was not known to exist Uiere before the earthquake. At 
Qnialero the elevation was about four feet. — " When I 
went," the narrator adds, " to exaauoe the coast, although 
it was high-water, I found the ancient bed (rf the sea laid 
bare, and dry, with beds of oysters, muscles, and other 
shells adhering to the rocks on which they grew,— the fish 
being all dead, and exhaling most oSensive effluvia.— 
And I found ^ood reason to believe that the coast had 
been raised by earthquakes at former periods in a similar 
manner; several ancient lines of beach, coosistiag of duMgle 
mixed with thellt, extending, in a parallel direcdon to the 
shore, to the height of fifty feet above the sea." — Snch 
an accnmnliuion of geological evidence, from difierent quar- 
ters and distinct classes of phenomena, concurs to de- 
monstrate the existence of most powerful expansive forces 
withia the earth,— and to testify their agency in producing 

The writer of this Utter article asserta, that " the whole coon- 
try, from the foot of the Andes to far got at Ma, was raised by 
the earthquske ; the greatest rise being at the tUatance of about 
two nules from the shure. The rise upon the coast was fram two 
to Awr feet ;— at the distance of a mile, inlsnd, it must han been 
from live to six, or seven feet." pp. 40, 46. 



Gboloot.] natural HISTORY. 595 

the actuAl condition of its surface,— that the phenomena 
just now described are nothing mwe than what was to be 
expected ftem preTions induction. These &ctSf however, 
not only place beyond dispute the exist^oee of such forcies, 
-^but show that, even in detail, thtir* effects ai^eord most 
satisfectorily with the predictions of iheofy* It is. not, 
therefore, at all unBeasonable |o opnqeive, tb$tt in other 
situations, phenomena of the same character hiive iH^en 
prodaced by the same canse,m4houg^ we may not at 
present be enabled to trace its oonnemn with the cxt 
isting appearances so distinctly ; and though the facts, 
when Aey occurred, HMiy have been unnotiQ9dyT*-or may 
have taken phioe ait periods beyond the reach of histo- 
rical record, or even beyond the p^sibility of bmf^m tes- 
timony. 

M. P6rpn has attribute the ^;reat s^b^pdance of the 
noodem breccia of New Holland to the large proportion 
of icalpa^reous matter, principally in the form of comminuted 
shells^ whiph is diffused through the siliceous sand of the 
shores in that country * ; and as the temperature, espe- 
cialiy of the summer , js very high on tjhat part of the coast 
where thi9 TO^k h»B been princip^l^ found, t^ie increased 
scdution of carbonate of lime by the percolating water^ may 
possibly render its formation more abundant there, than in 
inore temperate climates, ^ut the true theory of these con- 
CEetionsy under any mo^ifiQatipn of temperature, iji attended 
with considerable difficulty i-r-apd it is certain that the 
process is far from being copied to the warmer lati- 
tudes. Dr. Paris has given an accp^ut of a modem for- 
mation of sand-stone on the northern coast of Cornwall t ; 

• Piron, Veyage, &c. ii. p. 116. 
-t Trans* of the Geol. See. of Cornwall, vol. i. p. 1, lee. 

2 Q 8 



396 APPENDIX. [C 

frhere a Urge lurrace ii corered with a calcsrMiis sand, 
that becomes agglutinated into a stone, which be con- 
•iders as analogous to the rocks of Guadaloupe; and of 
which the. specimens that I bave seen, resemble those pre- 
sented by Captain Beaufort to the Oeologicat Society, from 
the shore at Rhodes. — Dr. Parii ascribes this concretion, 
not to the agency of the sea, nor lo an excess of carbonic 
acid, but to the solution of carbonate of lime itself in 
water, and Bubsequent percolation through calcareous sand; 
the great hardness of the stone arising from the very 
sparing solubility of this carbonate, and the conseqoentl; 
very gradual formation of the deposit, — Dr. Mac Culloch 
describes calcareous concretions, fouod in banks of sand 
in Perthshire, which " present a great variety of stalactitic 
forms, generally more or less complicated, and often ex- 
ceedingly intricate and strange*," and which appear to 
be analogous to those of King George's Sound and Sweer's 
Island : — And he mentions, as nut unfrequently occurring in 
sand, in different parts of England, (ihe sand abore the 
fossite bones of Norfolk is given as an example,) long 
cylinders or tubes, composed of sand agglutinated by car- 
bonate of lime, or ' calcareous stalactites entangling sand,' 
which, like the concretions of Madeira, and those taken for 
corals at Bald-Head, " have been ranked improperly, with 
organic remains." 

The stone which forms the fragments in the breccia of 
New Holland, is very nearly the same with that of the 
cement by which they are united ; — the difference consisting 
only in the greater proporUon of sand which the fragments 
contain: — and it would 'seem, that after the consolidation of 

■ " On an arenaceo-calcareous substance," Ice, — Quarter!; Joujv 
ml, (Royal Institution), Oct. 18SS, vol. xvi. p. 79-98. 



GBOLOsr.] NATUHAL HlfifTORY. 597 

the former, and while the depoiition of similar calcareous mat* 
ter was still Id progress, the portions first consolidated must 
have been shattered by considerable violence. But, where 
no such fragments exist, the unequal diffusion of components 
at first uniformly mixed,— -and even the formation of nodules 
differing in proportions from the paste which surrounds 
them, may perhaps admit of explanation, by some process 
analogous to what takes place in the preparation of the com- 
pound of which the ordinary earthenware is manufactured ; — 
where, though the ingredients are divided by mechanical 
attrition only, a sort of chemical action produces, under cer- 
tain circumstances, a new arrangement of the parts*. And 
this explanation may, probably, be extended to those no- 
dular concretions, generally considered as contemporaneous 
with the paste in which they are enveloped, the distinction 
of which, from conglomerates of mechanical origin, forms, in 
many cases, a difi&culty in geology. What the degree may 
be, of subdivision required to dispose the particles to act thus 
upon each other, or of fluidity to adroit of their action, 
remains still to be determined. 

* The clay and pulverized flints are combined for the use of thp 
potter, by being first separately diffused in water to the consistence 
of thick cream, and when mixed in due proportion are reduced to a 
proper consistence by evaporation. Daring this process, if the 
evaporation be not rapid and immediate, or if the ingredients are 
left to act on each other, even for twenty-four hours, the flinty par- 
ticles unite into sandy grains, and the mass becomes unfit for the 
purposes of the manufacturer. I am indebted for this interesting 
fact, which, I believe, is well known in some of the potteries, to my 
friend Mr. Arthur Aikin. And Mr. Herschel informs me, that a 
■imihir ^change takes place in recently precipitated carbonate of 
copper ; which, if left long moist, concretes into hard gritty grains, 
of a green colour, much more difficultly soluble in ammonia than 
the original precipitate. 



598 APPENDIX. [C. 

VI. As the snper6ci«l extent of Au«trali& is more than 
three-fourths of that of Europe, and the interior may be 
r^aided as unknown *, any tkeoretk inferences, from tba 
■light gecdogical information hitherto obtained leapecting this 
great island, ai« very likely to be deceitful ; bat among the 
few bets already a«certained re^Mcting the northern portiiw 
of it, there are some which appear to affiird a glimpee of 
general structure. 

Captain Flinders, in descritui^ lite position of the chaioa 
of islands on the north-west coast of Carpentaria, Wes- 
■ell's, the English Company's, and Bromby's Islands, re- 
marks, that he had " frequently obserred a great similari^ 
both in the ground plana, and tbe elerationa of bills, and of 
Ulaoda, in the vicinity of each other, but did not recollect 
another instance of sudi a likeness in the arrHngement of 
clusters of islandat-" The s^^araitcefl which called for this 
obserratitMi, from a voyager of so mnoh sagacity and experi- 

* The .following are the prapertioas assigns^ bj Cq>tun de 
Freydnet to the principsl divigknu of the globe.-— foyo^ auM 
Terret Aiutrata, p. 107, 



AuR 2,800,000 

America . 8,100,000 

Africa . 1,560^000 IS 

Europe . £01,875 . 4 

Australia . 884^875 . ' 8 

The flust remote points ^om the coast of New Booth Wilea, 
to iriiich the late ezpc^tiraii hsve peneUvted, (and the interim 
has never jet been eumiDcd in uj othsr quarter,) are not above 
800 miks, in a direct line, from the tea ; the svera|;e width of 
the islud itaai east to west being more ^aa SOOO miles, and from 
north to south more than 1000 milea. 

t Flinders,' v. ii. p. M6 ; and Charts, PUUea 14 and lfi.-«ing'e 
CharU, Plate 4. 



Gbology.] 



NATURAI^ U19TORY. 



599 



ence in physical geo^phy, must probably have been very 
remarkable ; and, combined with information derivable from 
the charts, and from the specimens for which we are in« 
debted to Captain King and Mr. Brown, they would seem 
to point out the arrangement of the strata on the northern 
coasts of New Holland* 

Of the three ranges which attracted Captain Flinders's no- 
tice, (see the subjoined Map,) the first on the south-east, 
(3, 4, 5, 6, 7,) is that which includes the Red Cliffs, Malli- 
son's Island, a part of the coast of Arnhem's Land, from 
Cape Newbold to Cape Wilberforce, and Bromby's Isles ; 
and its length, from the main land (3) on the south-west of 
Mallison's Island, to Bromby's Isles, (7) is more than fifty 
miles, in a direction nearly from south-west to north-east. 
The English Company's Islands, (2, 2, 2, 2,) at a distance 
of about four miles, are of equal extent ; and the general 
trending of them all. Captain Flinders states (p. 233), is 
nearly N.E. by E., ' parallel with the line of the main coast, 
and with Bromby's Islands.' — ^Wessell's Islands, (1, 1,1, 1,) 
the third or most northern chain, at fourteen miles from 
the second range, ^stretch out to mor^ than eighty miles 
from the main land, likewise in the same direction. 




600 



APPENDIX. 



[C. 




EriffJish Miles. 



I H III 

/# 



S0 



A Castleieagh Bay 

B Point Dale 

C Arahem Bay 

D Melville Bay 

E Cape Arnhem 

F CaledonBay 



1, 1 &c.— WesseU's IslandB 

S, 8 &c.— The English Coropany'f Iflandi 

3 RedOiffs 

4 Mallison's Island 

5 Cape Newbald 

6 Cape Wilberforce 

7 Bromby's Islands 



It is also stated by Captain Flinders, that three of the Eng- 
lish Company's islands which were examined, slope down 



602 APPENDIX. [C. 

by niunerous irregularities, especially on the north-west 
coasts are yet safficiently distinct to indicate a probable oon- 
nezion with the geological structure of the country ; since the 
coincidence of similar ranges of coast with the direction of 
the strata, is a fact of rery frequent occurrence in other parts 
of the globe *. And it is observable that considerable uni- 
formity exists in the specimens^ irom the different places in 
this quarter of New Holland which have been hitherto exa- 
mined ; sandstone, like that of the older formations of Eu- 
rope occurring generally on the north and north-west coasts, 
and appearing to be extensively diffused on the north-west 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria, where it reposes upon primitive 
rocks t. 

in 1815, was of extraordinary violence. See R. Inst Journal, 
vol. 1. (1816), p. 348, &c. 

At Lacrosse Island, in the mouth of Cambridge Gulf, oo 
the north-west coast of New Holland, the beds rise to the N. W. : 
their direction consequently is from S.W. to N.E. ; and the rise 
towards the high land of Timor. The intervening sea is very 
shallow. 

* A remarkable case of this kind, which has not, I believe, been 
noticed, occurs in the Mediterranean ; and is conspicuous in the 
new chart of that sea, by Captain VT. H. Smyth. The eastern 
ooMt of Corsica and Sat^nia, for a tpnoe of more than two hun- 
dred feographioal miles being nearly rectilinear, in a direetiAu frun 
north to south ; atnd. Captain Smyth has infomed me, oonsistiag 
almost entirely of granite, or, at least, of primitive rocks* 1^ 
coast of Norway affords another instance of tiie same descriptian ; 
and the details of tiie ranges in the interior of England fumisk 
several examples of the same kind, on a smaller scale. 

t The coast lines neariy at right angles to those above-mentioned 
— from the S.E. of the Gulf of Carpentaria to Limmen*s Bight, — 
from Cape Amhem to Cape Croker, — and from Cape Domett to 
Cape Londonderry, — ^ha^e also a certain degree of linearity ; but 
much less remarkable, than those which run from S.W. to N.E. 



GioLoaT.] NATURAL HtSTORY. tH)3 

llie born-like projection or tbe laad, on (he eut of the 
Ou]f of Carpentaria, is a very prominent feature in tks 
general map of AuBtraliftt and may poaiibly have lome 
connexion with tbe strncture jont pointed out. Tbe weitera 
shore of this bora, from the bottom of tbe gntf to Endeavour 
StraiU, bein^ very low ; while the land on the eait coast rises 
in proceeding towards tbe south, and afW paasing Cape 
Weymouth, lat. 12° 30', is in general mountaioons and abrupt; 
and Certain King's specimenB from the north-east coast, 
shetr that granite is found in so many places along this line, 
as to make it probable that primitiTe rocks may form the 
general basis of the country in that quarter ; since a lofty 
chain of mountains is oontinned on the sooth of Cape Tri- 
bnlation, not far from the shore, throughout a space of more 
than five hundred miles. It would carry this hypothesb 
too far, to infer that these primitive ranges are connected 
witb the mountains on the west of the English settlements 
near Port Jackson, S[C., where Mr. Scott has described the 
coal-measures as occupying the coast from Port Stevens, 
about lat. 33° to Cape Howe, lat 37°, and as succeeded, on 
tbe eastern ascent of the Bine Mountains, by sand-stone, and 
this agun by primitive strata* :— But it may be noticed, that 
Wilson's Promontory, thi most soutbeni point of New South 
Walea, and tbe principal islands in Bass's Straits, contain 
granite ; and that primitive rocks occur extensively in Van 
Diem en's Laud. 

The uniformity of the lytast lines is remarkable also in 
some other quarters of Australia ; and their direction, as well 
as that of tbe principal openings, has a general tendency to 
a c«urae from the west of south to the east of north. This, 
for example, is the general range of the south-east coa si, 

• AhrkIi of PliiliNHpliy, June, 1884. 



blH APPENDIX. [C. 

from Cape Howe, about lat. 37°, to Cape ByroD, lat. 29°, m 
even to Sandy Cape, lat 25° ; and of the western coastr from 
the .loutb of the islands which enclose Shark's Bay, lat 26^, 
to North-veEt Cape, about lat. 22°. — From Cape Hamelio, 
lat 34° 12', to Cape NattiTaliste, lat. 33° 26', the coast rum 
nearly on the meridian. The two great fisBures of the Muth 
coast, Spencer's, and St. Vincent's Gulfs, as well as the 
great nortfaem cbasm of the Gulf of Carpentaria, have « 
correepooding direction ; and Captain Flinders (Chart 4,) 
represents a high ridge of rocky and barren mountains, on 
the east of Spencer's Gulf, as continued, nearly from north to 
south, through a space of more than one hundred geogra- 
phical miles, between .latitude 32° T and 34°. — Mount 
Brown, one of the summits of this ridge, about lat 32° 30', 
being visible at the distance of twenty leagues. 

The tendency of all this evidenc«^ is somewhat in favour 
of a general parallelism in the range of the strata, — and per- 
haps of the existence of primary ranges of mountains on the 
east of Australia in general, from the coast about Cupe Wey- 
mouth* to the shore between Spencer's Gulf and Cape Hove. 
But it must not be forgotten, that the distance between these 
shores is more than a thousand miles in a direct line ; — about 
as far as from the west coast of Ireland to the Adriatic, or 

* The possible correspondence of the ^eat Australian BigU. 
the coast of which in ^neral is of no great elevation, with the 
deeply-indsnted Gulf of Carpentaria, — tending, as it were, to i 
division «f this great island into two, accordi with this hypothesis 
of mountsin ranges : but the distance between these recesses, off 
the land at the nearest points, is not less than a thousand Enflitli 
miles.— The granite, on the south coast, at Investigator's Islsodi, 
7-and westward, at Middle Island, Cape Le Grand, King Qeor|^'i 
Sound, and Cape Nsturaliste, is very wide of the line abore- 
mentioned, and nothing is yet knojrn of it« relations. 



Gjcoloqy.] natural histtory. 605 

double the distance between the Baltic and the Mediterra- 
nean. — If, however, future researches should conGrm the 
indications above mentioned, a new 'case will be supplied in 
support of the principle long since advanced by Mr. 
Michell *, which appears (whatever theory be formed to ex- 
plain it,) to be established by geological observation in so 
many other parts of the world, — that the outcrop of the in- 
clined beds, throughout the stratified portion of the globe, 
is every where parallel to the longer ridges of mountains, — 
towards which, also, the elevation of the strata Is directed. 
But in the present state of our information respecting Au- 
stralia, all such general views are so very little more than 
mere conjecture, that the desire to furnish ground for new 
inquiry, is, perhaps, the best excuse that can be offered for 
having proposed them. 

• 
* On the Cause of Earthquakes. — Pliilosophical Transactions, 

1760. voL 11 p. 566—585, 586. 



DBTAILED LIST 



DBTAILED LIST OF SPECIMENS. 

The speciment mcDtioned in the foUowiDg; list have be«i 
compared with BOme of those of England and other coontiies, 
priocipally in ihe cabinets of the Geological Society, and of 
Mr. Greenough ; and with a collection from part of the ctHi- 
fiaes of the primitive tracU of England and North Wales, 
formed by Mr. Arthur Aikio, and now in his own posses- 
sion. Captdn King's collection has been presented to the 
Geolt^ical Society ; and duplicates of Mr. Brown's speci- 
mens are deposited iu the British Museum. 

Rodd's Bat, od the East Coast, discovered by Captain 
King, about sixty miles south of Cape Capricorn *.— Aed- 
dith aoTtd-sUme, of moderately -fine grain, resembling that 
which in England occurs in the coal formation, and beneath 
it (mill-stone grit.) A itemtic con^found, consisting of a 
large proportion of reddish felspar, with specks of a green 
substance, probably mica ;— resembling a lock from Sluqi 
in Cumberland. 

Capb Clintok, between Rodd's Bay and the Percy Islands. 
— PorphvritK conglomerate, with a base of decomposed fti- 
spar, enclosing grains of quartz and common felspar, and 
some fragments of what appears to be compact epidote: 

■ In Captsin King's coltectioa are slio apecimens found on tlw 
beach at Port Maequarie, and in Ibe bed of the Hatting* Rtter, 
oi common serpeatiiie, and of botrymdal magnesite, from rdna b 
serpentine. The magnesite sgreei nearly with that of Baudisiero, 
in Piedmont, (See CleaTelaod*! Hinerslogj, lit edition, p. 346.) 



GBOLonT.J NATURAL HMTOHY. WJ7 

very nearly resembling ipecimeDS from the trap rocka* of 
the Wrekin and Breeden Hilla ia Shropshire. Reddish and 
yellowiih (andy clay, coloured by oxide of iron, and used 
ai pigmenta by the natires. 

PiKGT Iblandb, about one hundred and forty miles north 
of Cape Capricorn. — Compact feltpar of a fleah-red hue, 
enclosing a few small cryitals of reddish felspar and of 
quartz. — ^This specimen is marked " general character of the 
rocks at Percy Island," and very much resembles the com- 
pact felspar of the Pentland Hills near Edinburgh, and of 
Saxony. Coarse porphyritic conglomerate, of a reddish hue. 
Serpentine. A trap-like compound, with somewhat the as- 
pect of Berpentioe, but yielding with difficulty to the knife. 
— This specimen has, at first sight, the appearance of a con- 
glomerate, made up of portions of different hues, purplish) 
brown, and green; but the coloured parts are not other- 
wise distinguishable in the fracture : — It rery strongly re- 
aemblea a rock which occurs in the trap-fonnation, near 
Lyd-Holei at Pont-y-Pool, in Shropthiie- Slaty clay, with 
particles of mica, like that which frequently occurs imme* 
diately beneath beds of coaL 

* Bf the tersu Trap, and Trap- f t i - mmt ion, which I am aware 
an eitremel; vague, I intend merely to sigoif)' a class of rooks, 
including scTeral merabera, which differ from each other consider- 
ably in mineralogical cbancter, but agree in some of their prin- 
cipal geo]og\eil relations ; and the origin of which very numerous 
phenomena concur in referring to some modifiealion of Toleanic 
agency. The term Greeit'itoae also is of very loose application, 
and includes rocks that exhibit a wide range of characters ; — 
the predominant colour being some shade of green, the Btrnctnre 
more or lesi cryitalHiie, and the cluef ingredients supposed to 
be hornblende and felipar,— but the components, if they conld be 
accurately determined, probably more munenus and varied, than 
systematie lists imply. 



608 APPENDIX. [C- 

Rkpulsb Island, in Repulse Bay, about one hundred and 

twenty miles north-west of the Percy Islands. — Indisinct 

specimens, apparently consisting of decomposed compact 

JeUpar, A compound of quartz, mica, and felspar, ha^in^ 

the appearance of re-composed gpranite. 

Cape Cleveland, about one hundred and twenty mtlea 
north of Repulse Island. — ^Yellowish-grey granite^ with 
brown mica ; " from the summit of the hill.'' Reddish gra'^ 
nite, of very fine grain ; with the aspect of sand-stone. Dark 
grey porphyritic karnstonet approaching to compact felspar, 
with imbedded crystals of felspar. 

Cape Grafton, about one hundred and eighty miles west 
of north from Gape Cleveland.' — Close grained grey and 
yellowish-grey granite, with brown mica. A reddish granitic 
stone, composed of quartz, felspar, and tourmaline. 

Endeavour River, about one hundred miles west of 
north from Cape Grafton. — Grey granite of several varieties ; 
from a peaked hill under Mount Cook and its vicinity. Gra- 
nular qitartz^rock of several varieties : and indistinct speci- 
mens of a rock approaching to tcdc^slate. 

Lizard Island, about fifty miles east of north from En- 
deavour River. — ^Grey granite, consisting of brown and 
white mica, quartz, and a large proportion of felspar some* 
what decomposed. 

Clagk Island, near Cape Flinders, on the north-west of 
Cape Melville, about ninety miles north-west of Lizard 
Island. — Smoke-grey micaceous datyclay, much like cer- 
tain beds of the old red sand-stone, where it graduates into 
grey wacke. This specimen was taken from an horizontal 
bed about ten feet in thickness, reposing upon a mass of 
pudding-stone, which included large pebbles of quarts and 




Gboloqy.] natural HISTORY. 609 

jasper; and above it was a mass of sand- stone, more than 
sixty feet thick. — (Narrative, vol. ii. p. 26.) 

Sunday Island, near Cape Grenville, about one hundred 
and seventy miles west of north from Cape Melville.— Ct>ifi- 
pactfeUpary of a flesh-red colour; very nearly resembling 
that of the Percy. Islands, above-mentioned. 

Good's Island, one of the Prince of Wales's group, about 
latitude 10°, thirty-four miles north-west of Cape York. — 
The specimens, in Mr. Brown's collection from this place, 
consist of coarse-slaty porphyritic conglomerate^ with a base 
of greenish-grey compact felspar, containing crystals of red- 
dish felspar and quartz. This rock has some resemblance to 
that of Clack Island above-mentioned. 

Sweer's Island, south of Wellesley's group, at the bottom 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria. — A sialacHHc concretion of 
quartzose sand, and fine gravel, cemented by reddish carbo- 
nate of lime ; apparently of the same nature with the stem- 
like concretions of King George'4i Sound : (See hereafter, 
p. 621.) In this specimen the tubular cavity of the sta- 
lactite is still open. 

The shore, in various parts of this island, was found to 
consist of red ferruginous matter, {Bog^iron^ore?) sometimes 
unmixed, but not unfrequently mingled with a sandy cal- 
careous stone ; and in some places rounded portions of the 
ferruginous matter were enveloped in a calcareous cement. 

Bbntinok Island, near Sweer's Island. — A granular com- 
pound, like sand-stone recomposed from the debris of 
granite. Brown hematite^ enclosing quartzose sand. 

PiaoNiA Island, on the east of Mornington's Island, is 
composed of calcareous breccia and pudding'ttone^ which 
VojL. II. 9 R 



I 



610 APPENDIX. [C. 

coDsist of a sandy calcareoas cement^ indiidiiig water-worn 
portions of reddish fermginous matter, witii fragments ot 
shells. 

North Island, one of Sir Edward Pellew's group. — 
Coarse siliceous sand, concreted by ferruginous matter; 
which, in some places, is in the state of brown hematite. 
Calcareous incrustations^ includ